Publications by authors named "Lena Edwall"

8 Publications

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Topical oxytocin reverses vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized pilot study.

Menopause Int 2011 Dec 25;17(4):120-5. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction: Oxytocin is a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus and it is best known for its role in labour and lactation. This double-blind, randomized study was performed at Huddinge Hospital of Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm in order to test the effectiveness of topical oxytocin gel in women with postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.

Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women (at least two years after menopause) with symptoms of vaginal atrophy such as vaginal dryness, pain, itching, discomfort and bleeding during intercourse were enrolled in the study when visual inspection of the vagina had confirmed that their mucosa was atrophic. The participants were randomized to intravaginal treatment with either oxytocin or placebo gel for seven days. Before and after treatment, a gynaecological examination and a visual and colposcopic inspection of the vagina were performed, biopsies from the vaginal mucosa were taken and blood samples were collected for analysis of circulating levels of estradiol and oxytocin.

Results: Prior to treatment, visual and colposcopic inspection showed that all of the 20 participants had an atrophic vaginal mucosa. After treatment with the oxytocin gel, the examination showed that the vaginal epithelium of seven of the 10 participants in the oxytocin group had become healthier and normalized. No change in these parameters was observed among the 10 participants in the placebo group. This difference between the oxytocin and placebo groups was significant (P= 0.003). Seven participants in the active group and four in the placebo group reported relief of symptoms of vaginal atrophy after seven days of applying the gel. The effect of oxytocin to normalize the morphological appearance of the vaginal mucosa was almost significant when compared with the placebo group (P= 0.07). There was no significant difference between the circulating levels of estradiol and oxytocin in both the oxytocin and placebo groups before and after treatment. None of the participants reported any side-effects.

Conclusion: Topical treatment with oxytocin appears to improve vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. A limitation of this pilot study is that it was based on a small study population hence the results should be regarded with caution. Larger studies are in progress to establish the possibility of using oxytocin as a clinical treatment for vaginal atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/mi.2011.011030DOI Listing
December 2011

Different estrogen sensitivity of urogenital tissue from women with and without stress urinary incontinence.

Neurourol Urodyn 2009 ;28(6):516-20

Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Huddinge, Sweden.

Aims: Oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT) based on estradiol-17beta (E2), E2 esters or conjugated equine estrogens gives rise to huge amounts of circulating estrone (E1) as a result of the first liver pass. E1 is an estrogen (ER) receptor agonist but has also been reported to act as a partial E2 antagonist in vitro. Our aim was to investigate the influence of circulating estrogens on estrogen sensitivity of urogenital tissue collagen turnover in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and in urologically healthy women, with and without HRT, in view of possible effects of E1 as a partial E2 antagonist.

Methods: Markers of collagen turnover, the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and the amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen III (PIIINP) were assayed in urogenital tissue homogenates and E1 and E2 were analyzed in serum from 54 patients with SUI and 29 urologically healthy women.

Results: In the total control group only a significant positive correlation was found between E2 and T-PICP. Lowering the upper serum E1 limit resulted in significant positive correlations also between E2 and T-PIIINP and finally also between E2 and T-ICTP. This pattern was found also in subgroups of post- and premenopausal controls. No association between serum E2 and collagen turnover markers and no effects of lowering the upper serum E1 limit was found in the total and postmenopausal SUI patients, while the correlation pattern in premenopausal SUI patients showed some resemblance to that in the controls.

Conclusion: At physiological E1 levels E2 increases collagen turnover in urogenital tissue in urologically healthy women but not in women with SUI in general; however, there was a certain effect of E2 in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal SUI patients. Urogenital tissue in SUI patients and in urologically healthy women may differ in estrogen sensitivty and in SUI patients this difference may be related to menopause. Circulating E1, which is present in huge amounts during oral HRT, may act as an estrogen receptor agonist as well as a partial E2 antagonist also in humans in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.20710DOI Listing
November 2009

Endocrine status and markers of collagen synthesis and degradation in serum and urogenital tissue from women with and without stress urinary incontinence.

Neurourol Urodyn 2007 ;26(3):410-5

Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: To investigate possible differences in androgen/estrogen status between patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and healthy women's and to study possible associations between circulating estrogens and androgens on the one hand and collagen synthesis and metabolism in urogenital tissue on the other.

Methods: Markers of collagen turnover, the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and the amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen III (PIIINP), were assayed in urogenital tissue homogenates and estradiol-17beta (E2), total testosterone (T), and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were assayed in peripheral serum from 58 patients with SUI and 30 urologically healthy women. Apparent concentrations of free testosterone (fT) were calculated from T, SHBG, and a fixed albumin value.

Results: Significant positive correlations were found between E2 and PICP in controls and between E2 and ICTP in SUI patients without exogenous hormones. Significant negative and sometimes strong correlations were found between serum T and fT on the one hand and all three collagen turnover markers on the other. These correlations were strengthened when parity and/or body mass index (BMI) were reduced. No correlations between T and fT and collagen turnover markers were found in the controls. There were no significant differences between any of the groups in serum E2, T, or fT.

Conclusion: Estrogens may increase collagen turnover in urogenital tissue, however, the clinical significance of this is still unclear. Androgens may affect urogenital tissue negatively by slowing down collagen turnover, probably by inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) synthesis and/or activity. Urogenital tissue in SUI patients and in urologically healthy women may differ in androgen sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.20335DOI Listing
June 2007

Markers of collagen synthesis and degradation in urogenital tissue from women with and without stress urinary incontinence.

Neurourol Urodyn 2005 ;24(4):319-24

Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science and the Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Huddinge, Sweden.

Aims: Multiparity and obesity are risk factors for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but collagen synthesis and metabolism in the urogenital tissue itself may also affect its function and control of micturition. Whether changes in synthesis or degradation of collagen are part of the etiology of SUI is not known and published studies show diverging results. The aims of the present study was to investigate collagen turnover in urogenital tissue in women with SUI (n=71) and in urologically healthy women (n=31).

Methods: Markers of collagen synthesis and breakdown, the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and the amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen III (PIIINP) were assayed in urogenital tissue homogenates and peripheral serum.

Results: In the total clinical material SUI patients were significantly older, had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and significantly lower serum PICP and tissue ICTP levels than the controls. When healthy controls were compared with SUI patients matched for age, BMI, parity, and hormonal/menopausal status (31 women in each group), the SUI patients had significantly lower serum concentrations of PICP and significantly lower tissue concentrations of PIIINP and ICTP than the controls. Within the total material of SUI patients, post-menopausal women with weak and strong HRT and pre-menopausal women had significantly lower S-ICTP concentrations than untreated post-menopausal patients. Significant negative correlations to parity were found for T-PIIINP and T-PICP and to BMI for T-ICTP.

Conclusions: The low tissue collagen marker levels in women with SUI suggest a reduced collagen turnover, which may negatively affect tissue strength and elasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.20142DOI Listing
August 2005

Treatment of stress urinary incontinence using a copolymer system: impact on quality of life.

BJU Int 2004 Nov;94(7):1040-3

Department of Urology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: To investigate the effect on quality of life (QoL) of a novel system for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

Patients And Methods: In an open, prospective, multicentre study, 42 women not previously treated by invasive therapy and with urodynamically verified SUI received 4 x 1.0 mL or 4 x 0.7 mL of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer copolymer injected transurethrally into the urethra via the Implacer device (Zuidex system, Q-Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden). QoL was assessed using the King's Health Questionnaire. The patients' perception of treatment benefit and the number of incontinence episodes/24 h were also investigated.

Results: There were significant improvements over baseline in seven of 10 domains of the King's Health Questionnaire at 3 months, and these improvements were sustained at 1 year. For the change from baseline to 1 year, eight of 10 domains showed a significant positive correlation with the number of incontinence episodes/24 h. In terms of treatment benefit, most of the women perceived an improvement at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Of the 18 women requiring re-treatment, most perceived an improvement at 3, 6 and 12 months.

Conclusion: Treatment with the Zuidex system produced significant improvements over a year in both subjective QoL and objective incontinence measures, with a significant positive correlation between them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2004.05101.xDOI Listing
November 2004

Efficacy and safety of a novel system (NASHA/Dx copolymer using the Implacer device) for treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

Urology 2004 Aug;64(2):276-81

Department of Urology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy and safety of non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer (NASHA/Dx) copolymer for transurethral injection using a new guiding instrument (the Implacer) for stress urinary incontinence.

Methods: In an open, prospective, multicenter study, 42 invasive therapy-naive female patients with stress urinary incontinence were given 4 x 1.0 mL or 4 x 0.7 mL of NASHA/Dx copolymer using the Implacer. The efficacy parameters, measured at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, included cough-induced leak point pressure, urine leakage by provocation test, number of incontinence episodes in 24 hours, and patient perception of bladder condition, rated on a 6-point scale.

Results: The collected cough-induced leak point pressure data were not judged to be valid and reliable. Statistically significant reductions in median urine leakage were observed (P <0.0001), from 36 g (range 0.0-300) after 20 "jumping jacks" or vigorous coughs at baseline to 5.5 g (range 0.0-98) at 3 months and sustained at 12 months (7.0 g, range 0.0-98). Of the 42 patients, 32 (76%) demonstrated a degree of improvement in urine leakage at 3 and 12 months. The median number of incontinence episodes in 24 hours decreased significantly from 1.9 (range 0.0-24) at baseline to 0.4 (range 0.0-24) at 12 months (P <0.0001). At both 3 and 12 months, 29 patients (69%) had improved by at least one category on the 6-point patient perception scale. Treatment was well tolerated, and no complications were reported with use of the Implacer.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that a novel system (NASHA/Dx copolymer insertion using the Implacer) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for invasive therapy-naive patients with stress urinary incontinence, with improvement sustained for at least 12 months. These encouraging results warrant additional study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2004.03.017DOI Listing
August 2004

Stress urinary incontinence: feasibility of surgery after urethral injection.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003 Nov;82(11):1060

Huddinge University Hospital, Kvinnokliniken, Stockholm, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0412.2003.00257.xDOI Listing
November 2003

Treatment of stress urinary incontinence: recent developments in the role of urethral injection.

Urol Res 2003 Feb 30;30(6):356-62. Epub 2003 Jan 30.

Department of Urology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Stress urinary incontinence is prevalent in adult women and has a considerable impact on quality of life. However, it often remains undiagnosed and therefore untreated. Non-invasive treatment is likely to be offered in mild cases and may entail physiotherapy, minimally invasive devices or pharmacotherapy. Surgical intervention is widely considered as the only effective option for more severe cases. These strategies are not suitable for all patients, and urethral injection represents an alternative, minimally invasive procedure. The choice of the bulking agent is the key to the success of this treatment: the most extensively studied are silicone, polytetrafluoroethylene and bovine collagen. However, doubts regarding the safety and efficacy of these materials has led to the development of carbon-coated zirconium beads, calcium hydroxylapatite and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) copolymer. Of these, the most clinical experience has been gained with Dx/HA copolymer. Until 2 years ago, urethral injection could only be administered endoscopically. The recent development of devices for 'blind' injection has increased the speed and convenience of urethral injection, removing the need for surgical facilities. Although few data are yet available, it is conceivable that urethral injection administered 'blind' may in future be considered as an option for all patients failing non-invasive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-002-0290-1DOI Listing
February 2003