Publications by authors named "Leila Zarei"

47 Publications

Expectations of citizens from the government in response to COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 8;21(1):686. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Fars, Iran.

Background: The government is the main body in charge of controlling epidemics; hence, expectations from the intention and capacities of the government would affect the flexibility and behaviors of citizens. Given the severity of COVID-19 pandemic and the urgent need for cooperation of people in the prevention and combat processes, understanding the public perspectives would be crucial and instructive. This study aimed to explore such perspectives towards the current pandemic among the Iranian. Indeed, we sought to provide a favorable platform for effective policies in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic through recognizing public expectations.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey used an open-ended online questionnaire to investigate the common perspectives of the Iranian towards the response of government to COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were selected using snowball and convenient sampling techniques across the country. The collected data were analyzed and described using a thematic analysis.

Results: In general, 2547 participants agreed to participate in this study and completed the online questionnaire. According to the findings, the Iranian exhibited several expectations regarding the response of the government to COVID-19 pandemic. Three main themes were extracted based on these expectations: (1) health-related expectations, (2) policy-related expectations, and (3) Information-related expectations. In this study, a majority of participants highlighted the need to consider and follow-up the patients and their families, providing the financial and hygiene support during the pandemic, applying strict restrictions, and using close monitoring and controlling procedures. Furthermore, they mentioned that authorities and news agencies should observe the principals honesty and transparency.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed that people expect the government and other responsible institutions to minimize the burden of this pandemic through adopting effective policies. Also, they could help policy-makers become aware of the expectations of people and develop better strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10722-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027969PMC
April 2021

An application of multi-criteria decision-making approach to sustainable drug shortages management: evidence from a developing country.

J Pharm Health Care Sci 2021 Apr 2;7(1):14. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Drug shortage is a significant public health problem, especially for drugs related to life threatening conditions. Almost all countries affected by variety of supply problems and spent a considerable amount of time and resources responding to shortage. The aim of present study is to determine and prioritize strategies to achieve best solutions for these considerable healthcare system challenges and to evaluate this strategies base on practical criteria.

Methods: To achieve the study objectives, the research was conducted in two phases. Determining of the strategies to control drug shortage, and comprehensive assessments of priority of possible strategies. For each phase, a self-design questionnaire was developed. The five main managerial strategies dimensions including: regulatory, financial, supply chain, information system and policy-making were set out. Forty-five alternatives were elicited from literature, and were evaluated and trimmed to 37 strategies based on experts' opinion. The Multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods were applied in second phase. Five important criteria including cost, time, labor, compliance with law and culture were weighed by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Then, 37 alternatives have been rated base on the five criteria on the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) technique.

Results: "Creating integrated Supply chain information system to manage medicines inventory in the country", "Creating and using the databases to predict the shortage of medicines", "Using track and trace system" are alternatives 20th, 24th and 25th, which related to supply chain (SC) and information system (IS) dimensions have higher priority in the experts' point of view. The results show IS dimension has 100 percentage of priority; following that policy and supply chain have higher priority, respectively.

Conclusion: Health systems rely on consistent supplying of pharmaceuticals to support patient care. The results show that information system, policy-making and supply chain are in the top-ranking priorities. Warning system needs to be improved to the advance system via better collaboration with stakeholders, publish precise and explicit national guidelines for drug shortage management, enforce the guidelines, and improve Iran FDA's pharmaceutical market control capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40780-021-00200-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017892PMC
April 2021

Protective Effect of Thyme Honey against Valproic Acid Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:8839898. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Anatomy Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Introduction: Valproic acid is a medication most commonly used in the treatment of emotional and neurological depression, psychological imbalances, epilepsy, and bipolar disorder. Dark honey, like thyme honey, contains more antioxidant compounds than other samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of thyme honey on the potential hepatic effects of valproic acid.

Methods: In this study, 48 male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups ( = 6): G1 (control): healthy rats (normal saline 0.9%), G2: thyme honey (1 g/kg), G3: thyme honey (2 g/kg dose), G4: thyme honey (3 g/kg dose), G5: VPA (500 mg/kg), G6: VPA (500 mg/kg) and thyme honey (1 g/kg), G7: VPA (500 mg/kg) and thyme honey (2 g/kg dose), and G8: VPA (500 mg/kg) and thyme honey (3 g/kg dose). Groups G1 to G5 received the drug for 28 days. On day 14, administration of thyme honey for G6 to G8 groups was carried out using gavage until day 28. VPA was administered one hour after honey. To carry out the biochemical evaluation, blood samples were collected from all the groups and their serums were used for MDA, TAC, and liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and GGT). Tissue samples of each rat were also removed for histological studies with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining.

Results: The use of thyme honey significantly improved the histopathological parameters of the liver tissue, including hypertrophic degeneration and nucleus alteration, expansion of sinusoids, fibrosis and hepatic necrosis, and inflammation as well as hypertrophy of Kupffer cells. In the groups receiving VPA, the rate of lipid peroxidation increased, which indicates the destruction of the liver cell membrane due to drug consumption. TAC levels also increased following increase in thyme honey dosage ( ≤ 0.05). The results of liver enzyme analysis showed a decrease in AST and ALT levels in the G6 group and a decrease in GGT level in the G8 group ( ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that high percentage of antioxidants in thyme honey enabled it to improve hepatic complications and reduce the rate of hepatocellular destruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8839898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920727PMC
May 2021

Temperament and character of patients with alcohol toxicity during COVID - 19 pandemic.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 01 20;21(1):49. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Heath, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Fars, Iran.

Background: Corona virus epidemic may be acts as a stressor or trauma that affects both physical health and mental health. People exhibited various reactive behaviors to confront with this stressful situation. In Iran, one of the common motives for alcohol consumption is to scape problems and cope with stresses. It has been shown that personality factors influence alcohol consumption, since they are associated with drinking motives. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between temperament and character and alcohol abuse.

Methods: This cross-section study was conducted on 135 alcohol intoxicated patients admitted to emergency room in March 2020 and 255 participants who were randomly selected from public in Shiraz. A questionnaire consisted of TCI (Temperament and character inventory) and several questions about COVID-19 pandemic. It was completed by a trained interviewer using the matched answer technique. Demographic factors were self-reported.

Results: Among the alcohol intoxicated group, 117 (86.7%) were males and 18(13.3%) were females. The mean age of the participants was 32.43 ± 10.81 years. Among control group, 99 (38.8%) were males and 156 (61.2%) were females. The mean age of control group was 33.12 ± 14.77 years. Alcohol toxicity was mostly observed among the young males (male/female ratio was 6.45). According to temperament and character index, mean scores of novelty seeking, harm avoidant, and self-transcendence were higher in the alcohol toxicity group than normal population (P < 0.01). Mean scores of reward dependent, cooperativeness, and self-directedness were higher in normal population than the alcohol toxicity group (P < 0.001). The mean score of persistence was not significantly different between methanol intoxicated and normal population groups (P = 0.718).

Conclusion: Alcohol intoxicated patients had higher scores of novelty-seeking and self-transcendence and lower scores of reward-dependency scores, cooperativeness and self-directedness. These scores are associated with higher likelihood of personality disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03052-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816132PMC
January 2021

The effect of risk communication on preventive and protective Behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak: mediating role of risk perception.

BMC Public Health 2021 01 6;21(1):54. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic, during which the community preventive and protective behaviors play a crucial role in the containment and control of infection. This study was designed to contribute to the existing knowledge on how risk communication (RC) and risk perception (RP) affect protective and preventive behaviors (PPB) during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Methods: The required data were extracted from a national online survey of Iranian adults aged 15 and older during March 15-19, 2020 (n=3213). Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling.

Results: The study findings reveal that RC has direct and indirect positive effects on PB. Furthermore, this study also provides new evidence indicating that RP mediates the relationship between RC and PB and there is a two-way relationship between RC and RP. These interactions may have impact on risk communication strategies which should be adopted during this pandemic.

Conclusion: The study findings have remarkable implications for informing future communications as well as interventions during this ongoing outbreak and subsequent national risk events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10125-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787415PMC
January 2021

Mental health status during COVID-19 pandemic in Fars Province, Iran: timely measures.

BMC Public Health 2020 Dec 7;20(1):1866. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Heath, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: The current corona virus pandemic is acting as a stressor or trauma, which not only threats physical health status, but also threats mental health status and well-being of people. Currently, COVID-19 pandemic is a life-threatening unpredictable condition accompanied with a large number of uncertainties. The present study has mainly aimed to assess mental health and the relevant social factors during this pandemic in Fars province.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 922 participants in Fars province, Iran, using internet-based data collection technique. All the included participants filled out the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Moreover, demographic variables and some social factors were evaluated by asking some questions. All the participants were ensured of the confidentiality of the collected data, and willingly completed the questionnaire.

Results: Among the participants, there were 629 women (68.2%) and 293 men (31.2%). The mean age of the participants was 36.98 ± 11.08 years old. Four hundred twenty-five subjects (46.1%) obtained GHQ-28 scores above the cut-off point, and accordingly, they were suspected of having poor mental health statuses. Women, in comparison to men (OR = 2.034, 95%:1.62-3.28), and individuals aged < 50 years old, in comparison to those aged > 50 years old (OR: 4.01 95%:2.15-7.50), have poorer mental health statuses. Trusting on media, health authorities, and cooperation with policy makers, as well as having uncertainty on information about Coronavirus pandemic were also shown to be associated with poor mental health condition (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The present study revealed that the number of those people with suspected poor mental health in Fars province significantly increased compared to a previous study using the same questionnaire. Furthermore, the participants who had less trust in media and policymakers were more prone to mental health problems. Therefore, it can be concluded that supporting people in these life-threatening pandemic crises is of great importance, so the policy makers and media must present reliable and valid information to people as soon as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09928-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719730PMC
December 2020

A Population-Based Study on Patients Complaining Regarding Community Pharmacies Services.

J Res Pharm Pract 2020 Apr-Jun;9(2):88-93. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: Patients' complain regarding pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies is a fundamental issue as it can directly affect people's service utilization. For the first time in Iran, this survey aimed to investigate the experience of people regarding declare a complaint against the pharmacy sectors as a community-based study.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, over 100 samples based on postal codes were randomly selected from the city of Shiraz in 2017-2018. The data collection instrument was designed in two parts (demographic and social profile which record the complaint experiences against pharmacists, pharmacy services, etc.). The data were analyzed by SPSS.

Findings: All 1035 eligible participants had a mean age of 45.54 ± 15.82 years (ranged from 14 to 91). Nearly 70% of the participants were female. Around 81.8% had a family physician coverage, whereas 7.4% of them had no medical insurance coverage. The frequency of complaints from the pharmacies was 35.6%. Nearly 55% of the complaints were related to governmental pharmacies. Homemakers were 1.36 times more likely to have experienced complaints in comparison with their employed female counterparts. Health status had an inverse association with complaints. Those participants who had received prescription medication were about two times more likely to have filed a complaint in comparison with those who received medication without a prescription. In addition, females aged 40-59 and above 60 and unemployed participants were more satisfied with respect to complaint follow-up process.

Conclusion: Low level of satisfaction with respect to the complaint process is a concerning issue; hence, strategies are warranted to improve the quality of services provided in the pharmacies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_82DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547744PMC
June 2020

Effect of Selenium on Expression of Apoptosis-Related Genes in Cryomedia of Mice Ovary after Vitrification.

Biomed Res Int 2020 23;2020:5389731. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Introduction: Freezing of ovarian tissue is used for preservation of fertility. The freezing-thawing process is accompanied by oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is a complex process that has been studied in animal models. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of selenium on suppression of apoptosis during vitrification-thawing process of mice ovary via studying expression of apoptosis-related genes, and also, we aimed to design statistical models for the roles of single genes and gene-gene interactions in suppression of apoptosis.

Methods: A total of 10 right ovary samples from 10 mice were randomly divided into two groups of selenium treatment (at dose 5 g/ml sodium selenite, through adding to the media) and control group. Vitrification-thawing process was done according to the existed protocols. Real-time PCR was used for gene expression study. The apoptosis gene profile included , , , and . General linear model was applied to study single gene associations and gene-gene interactions.

Results: From the studied genes, showed a significant downregulation in the selenium group in comparison to the control group (∆∆CT = 1.96; = 0.013; relative expression (RE) = 0.28). showed a significant upregulation in the selenium group in comparison to the control group (∆∆CT = -2.49; < 0.001; RE = 3.49). No significant result was found for other genes. According to the multiple models, showed a protective single gene association (beta = -0.33; = 0.032), and ∗ interaction was significantly positive (beta = 0.19; = 0.036).

Conclusion: Addition of selenium to cryomedia of vitrification-thawing process could reduce the apoptosis induced by freezing-thawing stress in mice ovary via downregulation of and upregulation of at transcription level. Multivariable statistical models should be performed in future researches to study biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5389731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530498PMC
May 2021

COVID-19: The Challenge of Disadvantaged Groups and their Access to Care.

Arch Iran Med 2020 09 1;23(9):647-648. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.79DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluating Pharmacist's Patient Care Process in Shiraz, using a newly-validated questionnaire: The First Report from Iran.

Acta Biomed 2020 09 7;91(3):e2020059. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Heath, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran..

Background: The Pharmacists' Patient Care Process (PPCP) as one of many inter-related foundations for the delivery of evidence-based and outcomes-focused patient care has a positive trend in academic literatures in the world. Unfortunately, PPCP has not been establish well in community pharmacies in Iran, yet. This study was performed to explore the current status of the provision and perception toward patient care services and finally evaluate professional competency of pharmacists about PPCP implementation, in both patients and pharmacist's perspectives.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using two self-administrated Likert-based questionnaires_ one for pharmacists and another one for patients. In total, 121 pharmacists and 479 patients participated to the study. Questionnaires were distributed and collected in the Shiraz during the Oct 2017 till Jun 2018. Obtained data were analyzed through the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 25. In addition, the competency to PPCP implementation was classified to three groups _good, moderate, and weak _ based on achieving ≥75%, 50%-75%, and <50% of the dimensions' total score, respectively.

Results: The pharmacist's age range was 23-76 years (mean age: 40.61±12.85 years). Their Competency to PPCP implementation was good (43.8%), moderate (52%), and just 4% weak. Patient's response to PPCP was 11.2% good, 50.7% moderate and 35.6% weak.

Conclusion: Besides promotion of public awareness about PPCP, improvement of pharmacists' motivation toward these services seems necessary. In addition, the introduced instrument may be useful for practice of pharmacists, but it should be used cautiously until it is tested among clients of pharmacies known to provide all levels of pharmacy care within pharmacy stores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i3.8027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717002PMC
September 2020

Nursing experiences of COVID-19 outbreak in Iran: A qualitative study.

Nurs Open 2020 Aug 19. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Health Policy Research Cente, Institute of Heath Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Shiraz Iran.

Aim: The global outbreak of coronavirus in 2020 was considered as a serious risk for healthcare providers, especially nurses. This study aimed to investigate nurses' perceptions and experiences of COVID-19 outbreak in Iran.

Design: This thematic analysis study was conducted in March 2020.

Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 nurses in Qazvin, Arak, Shiraz and Kashan cities of Iran.

Results: It was found out that all the participants had faced a mysterious world created by the virus. No one had clear understanding of the new virus and knew how to tackle with such a virus. In this case, the main experiences were related to defected preparedness, the worst perceived risk, family protection, social stigma and sacrificial commitment. Urgent preparedness of facilities in such outbreaks is inevitable. Accordingly, psycho-social support of nurses and their families and strengthening their sacrificial commitments are proposed in these conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461197PMC
August 2020

Affordability of Medication Therapy in Diabetic Patients: A Scenario-Based Assessment in Iran's Health System Context.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Aug 22. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Diabetes imposes an enormous burden on patients, families, societies, and healthcare systems. Determining the affordability of medications is an important complicated and vague task, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to assess the affordability of diabetes medication therapy in Iran's health system.

Methods: This paper presents a scenario-based assessment of the affordability of all registered anti-diabetes medications in Iran in 2017. To this end, 4 medication therapy scenarios were defined as mono, dual, triple, and insulin therapy in accordance with the existing guidelines and clinicians' opinions. Then the affordability ratio of each treatment scenario was determined for type 1 and type 2 diabetes drawing on the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) Methodology. If the affordability ratio for treatment schedules was more than 1, the patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses exceeded the lowest-paid unskilled government worker (LPGW)' wage per day, and the treatment was labelled as non-affordable.

Results: The results revealed that the mono, dual, and triple (non-insulin) medication therapies in type 2 diabetes were affordable, despite an increase in the dosage or a switch from the monotherapy to the combination therapy of oral medications. However, some treatment scenarios in the triple therapy, including oral plus insulin and some insulin only therapies, were proved to be non-affordable. In type 1 diabetes, only insulin glulisine, detemir, and lispro were non-affordable in monotherapy. Regarding the combination therapy, only isophane insulin with aspart or regular insulin were affordable treatments.

Conclusion: Although oral medication therapies were documented to be affordable, insulin therapy, with current coverage conditions, for patients with lowest paid wages and those receiving even less is unaffordable and a major barrier to treatment; hence, policy-maker should consider targeting and more financial protection policies to improve the affordability of insulin therapies among this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.152DOI Listing
August 2020

An application of analytic network process model in supporting decision making to address pharmaceutical shortage.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 8;20(1):626. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Pharmacoeconomics and Pharma Management, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of MedicalSciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The present study aimed to develop an Analytic Network Process (ANP) model to assist policymakers in identifying and prioritizing allocation indicators, which are being used or should be used to distribute drugs in short supply among different provinces.

Methods: The model encompasses the interactions between various indicators and efficiency, equity, and effectiveness paradigms. Accordingly, a set of clusters and elements, which were associated with the allocation of drugs in short supply in Iran's pharmaceutical system, were detected to develop the model and were then compared in pairs in terms of a specified factor to show the priorities.

Results: Equity had the highest priority (0.459) following by Efficiency (0.37), and Effectiveness (0.171). The 4 most important allocation indicator were "number of prescriptions" (0.26) and "total bed occupancy rate" (0.19) related to equity, "total population" (0.21) in efficiency and "the burden of rare and incurable disease" (0.07) in effectiveness paradigm.

Conclusions: The capability to overcome inefficient resource allocation patterns caused by both oversupply and undersupply derived from historic resource allocation may be highly limited in the absence of the need indicators. The quality of the decision is related to a careful balancing act of the three paradigms which represents roughly the triple aim of public healthcare systems: clinical improvement (effectiveness), population health improvement (equity and access), and reducing cost (economic aspects -efficiency).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05477-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346520PMC
July 2020

All-Trans Retinoic Acid (atRA) effectively improves liver steatosis in a rabbit model of high fat induced liver steatosis.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Mar 23:1-6. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Pathology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of All-Trans Retinoic Acid, the biologically active metabolite of retinoids, on liver steatosis in a rabbit model of high fat induced lever steatosis. 30 male rabbits were evaluated in 5 groups: group 1 treated with normal diet, group 2-5 included rabbit's groups 2 to 5 were fed on high cholesterol diet, group 2 received no drugs, group 3 received atorvastatin, group 4 received atRA, and group 5 received both the drugs. the liver was obtained for histopathological evaluation. oral administration of atRA, atorvastatin or their combination significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL, AST and ALT. atorvastatin slightly but atRA remarkably decreased liver steatosis where the difference was significant. atRA group showed the highest TAC and the lowest PCO concentrations. atRA can be effective in reducing liver steatosis and its antioxidant effect plays a crucial role in the process.HighlightsNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common disorder of the liver in general population and is strongly associated with metabolic risk factors including hyperlipidaemia, obesity and diabetes.atRA is very effective in reducing liver steatosis and its antioxidant effect plays a crucial role in the process.we suggest focussing on other aspects of liver steatosis such as carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance in order to find better ways of controlling and treating liver steatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1743725DOI Listing
March 2020

Affordability Assessment from a Static to Dynamic Concept: A Scenario-Based Assessment of Cardiovascular Medicines.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 5;17(5). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Medicines and Healthcare, Department of Pharmacy, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate,Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK.

The out-of-pocket payments for prescription medications can impose a financial burden on patients from low- and middle- incomes and who suffer from chronic diseases. The present study aims at evaluating the affordability of cardiovascular disease (CVD) medication in Iran. This includes measuring affordability through World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) methodology. In this method, affordability is characterized as the number of days' wages of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. The different medication therapy scenarios are defined in mono-and combination therapy approaches. This method adds on to WHO/HAI methodology to discover new approaches to affordability assessments. The results show the differences in the medicines affordability when different approaches are used in mono-and combination therapy between 6 main sub-therapeutic groups of CVD. It indicates the medicine affordability is not a static concept and it changes dynamically between CVD therapeutic subgroups when it used alone or in combination with other medicines regarding patients' characteristics and medical conditions. Hypertension and anti-arrhythmia therapeutic groups had the most non-affordability and hyperlipidemia had the most affordable medicines. Therefore, affordability can be considered as a dynamic concept, which not only affected by the medicine price but significantly affected by a patient's characteristics, the number of medical conditions, and insurance coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084506PMC
March 2020

A novel Cu(II) distorted cubane complex containing CuO core as the first tetranuclear catalyst for temperature dependent oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol and in interaction with DNA & protein (BSA).

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Feb 17;227:117593. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Immunology and Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, 71454, Iran.

The tri-dentate Schiff base ligand 3-(2-hydroxyethylimino)-1-phenylbut-1-en-1-ol (L) produced the tetra-nuclear Cu(II) distorted cubane complex which contain CuO core, upon reaction with Cu(II)acetate.HO. The complex was structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and found that, in this tetrameric and tetra-nuclear distorted cubane structure, each two-fold deprotonated Schiff base ligand coordinated to a Cu(II) center with their alcoholic oxygens and imine nitrogens and formed six and five-membered chelate rings. At the same time, each ligand bridged to a neighboring Cu(II) atom by its alcoholic oxygen, thus the metal centers became penta-coordinated. The copper(II) complex with μ-ɳ-hydroxo bridges and Cu….Cu distance about 3 Å was structurally similar to the active site of natural catechol oxidase enzyme and exhibited excellent catecholase activity in aerobic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol to its o-quinone. The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of 3, 5-DTBCH catalyzed by [CuL] complex, were studied at four different temperatures from 283 to 313K by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Interaction of [CuL] complex with FS-DNA was investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD) and agarose gel electrophoresis. The main mode of binding of the complexes with DNA was intercalation. The interaction between [CuL] complex and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV-Vis, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated a high binding affinity of the complex to BSA. In vitro anticancer activity of the complex was evaluated against A549, Jurkat and Ragi cell lines by MTT assay. The complex was remarkably active against the cell lines and can be a good candidate for an anticancer drug. Theoretical docking studies were performed to further investigate the DNA and BSA binding interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.117593DOI Listing
February 2020

The Scarce Drugs Allocation Indicators in Iran: A Fuzzy Delphi Method Based Consensus.

Iran J Pharm Res 2019 ;18(2):1126-1135

School of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Sciences and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Almost all countries are affected by a variety of drug-supply problems and spend a considerable amount of time and resources to address shortages. The current study aims to reach a consensus on the scarce drug allocation measures to improve the allocation process of scarce drugs in Iran by a population needs-based approach. To achieve the objective, two phases were conducted. Firstly, a set of population-based indicators of health needs were identified by reviewing the literature and were scrutinized by fifty academics/executives who were specialists in pharmaceutical resource allocation. In the second phase, a structured process, based on the Delphi technique requirements, was performed to finalize the indicators. The yield of literature review step was about 20 indicators, which was based on availability of data in Iran, 16 indicators were added to the next step and formed the initial questionnaire. Based on the results of the first questionnaire, only 3 indicators were rejected and 13 indicators were added to the Delphi phase. Then, in Delphi phase, the consensus was built after three Rounds. In addition to the burden of endemic, special, rare, and incurable diseases, traumatic diseases and total population of each province were the main measures. Furthermore, total mortality rates and the number of pharmacies in each province were on the border; hence, the monitoring team made the decision about inclusion or exclusion of such indicators. Other measures were in the range of 'important' ones. To reach a higher effective and efficient process of resource allocation, the paper suggests the use of a population needs-based approach in Iran's pharmaceutical sector. The scarce drug allocation indicators extracted in this study can make a considerable contribution to preventing, controlling, and mitigating drug shortages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2019.1100678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6706748PMC
January 2019

Effects of Chitosan/Nano Selenium Biofilm on Infected Wound Healing in Rats; An Experimental Study.

Bull Emerg Trauma 2019 Jul;7(3):284-291

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Kharamabad, Iran.

Objective: The present study was aimed at assessment of effect of application of Chitosan/Nano Selenium biofilm on infected wound healing in rats.

Methods: Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of 17 animals each. In group I (Normal) the wounds were created with no infection. In group II (MRSA), the wounds were infected with methicillin resistant MRSA). In group III (MRSA/CHIT), animals with infected wounds were dressed with chitosan biofilm only. In group IV (MRSA/CHIT/NS), animals with infected wounds were dressed with Chitosan/Nano Selenium biofilm.

Results: There were significant differences in comparisons of group IV and other groups, particularly in terms of cellular infiltration and neovascularization. During the study period, scores for neovascularization was significantly higher in group IV rats than other groups (<0.05). Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MNC) cell count and fibroblast cell proliferation in group IV were significantly higher than those of other experimental groups (<0.05).

Conclusion: Chitosan/Nano Selenium biofilm resulted in significant improvement in histopathological indices in full thickness infected wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/beat-0703012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681872PMC
July 2019

Co-administration of retinoic acid and atorvastatin mitigates high-fat diet induced renal damage in rats.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(2):133-138. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Obesity causes many problems such as cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of retinoic acid and atorvastatin co-administration in kidneys protection against high-fat diet induced damage. Twenty-five male Wistar rats (200.00 ± 20.00 g) were divided into five groups: 1) Control (standard diet), 2) High-fat diet (cholesterol 1.00%, 75 days), 3) High-fat diet + atorvastatin (20.00 mg kg per day, orally, on the 30 day, for 45 consecutive days), 4) High-fat diet + retinoic acid (5 mg kg per day, orally, on the 30 day, for 45 consecutive days), and 5) High fat diet + atorvastatin and retinoic acid. At the end, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. The results showed that atorvastatin and retinoic acid alone and in combination decreased cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and increased high-density lipoprotein in high-fat diet. Also, atorvastatin - caused total antioxidant capacity increase and protein carbonyl content decrease the in the renal tissue. Atorvastatin also prevented high-fat diet-induced renal histological injury. Treatment with atorvastatin significantly mitigates high-fat diet-induced renal changes probably due to its potent antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects. The effect of retinoic acid in renal protection in a high-fat diet is far less than that of atorvastatin. The protective effect of the combination of these two agents in the high-fat diet on the kidneys seems to be due to the effect of atorvastatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2019.74079.1996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626641PMC
June 2019

Therapeutic effects of curcumin and ursodexycholic acid on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jul 6;115:108938. Epub 2019 May 6.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan Univercity of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Sciences, Lorestan Univercity of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis of hepatocytes. This study was designed to investigate the combinational therapeutic effects of curcumin (CMN) and Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups: NAFLD-induced rats, NAFLD-induced rats + CMN, NAFLD-induced rats + UDCA, and NAFLD-induced rats that received CMN + UDCA. CMN (200 mg/kg) and UDCA (80 mg/kg) was administered orally for 14 and 28 consecutive days. Biochemical and histopathological analysis were conducted in all the groups. It was seen that co-administration of CMN and UDCA significantly reduced fatty degeneration, cellular necrosis, edema, and immune cell infiltration compared to non-treated NAFLD-induced rats. Whereas, combinational therapy caused a significant decrease in levels of SGOT and SGPT enzymes and expression of p53, caspase III, iNOS and bcl-2 mRNA and proteins, in variant with the treatment of CMN and UDCA, respectively. Co-administration of CMN and UDCA was also associated with the restoration of the levels of serum TG and HDL-C however, had no effect on LDL-C. It also resulted in an in TAC, GSH- PX, and SOD and decrease in MDA level. Our study concludes that combinational therapy of CMN and UDCA is effective for the treatment of NAFLD, as compared to their solo treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108938DOI Listing
July 2019

Genomic Regions From an Iranian Landrace Increase Kernel Size in Durum Wheat.

Front Plant Sci 2019 18;10:448. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Fiorenzuola d'Arda, Italy.

Kernel size and shape are important parameters determining the wheat profitability, being main determinants of yield and its technological quality. In this study, a segregating population of 118 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between the Iranian durum landrace accession "Iran_249" and the Iranian durum cultivar "Zardak", was used to investigate durum wheat kernel morphology factors and their relationships with kernel weight, and to map the corresponding QTLs. A high density genetic map, based on wheat 90k iSelect Infinium SNP assay, comprising 6,195 markers, was developed and used to perform the QTL analysis for kernel length and width, traits related to kernel shape and weight, and heading date, using phenotypic data from three environments. Overall, a total of 31 different QTLs and 9 QTL interactions for kernel size, and 21 different QTLs and 5 QTL interactions for kernel shape were identified. The landrace Iran_249 contributed the allele with positive effect for most of the QTLs related to kernel length and kernel weight suggesting that the landrace might have considerable potential toward enhancing the existing gene pool for grain shape and size traits and for further yield improvement in wheat. The correlation among traits and co-localization of corresponding QTLs permitted to define 11 clusters suggesting causal relationships between simplest kernel size trait, like kernel length and width, and more complex secondary trait, like kernel shape and weight related traits. Lastly, the recent release of the reference genome sequence allowed to define the physical interval of our QTL/clusters and to hypothesize novel candidate genes inspecting the gene content of the genomic regions associated to target traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482228PMC
April 2019

Using CuO nanoparticles and hyperthermia in radiotherapy of MCF-7 cell line: synergistic effect in cancer therapy.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):1396-1403

b Solid Tumor Research Center , Urmia University of Medical Sciences , Urmia , Iran.

The aim of this paper was examining the combined impacts of CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs), hyperthermia (H), and irradiation (R) on an increment of MCF-7 cells. The MTT assay was employed to assess the antiproliferative effects of CuO NPs (25, 50, and 100 μg/ml), hyperthermia (41 °C for 1 h), and irradiation (200 cGy). Moreover, the perniciousness was estimated through the survival capability of cells, and apoptosis, ROS production, and levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins were determined. A significant (p < .01) decrease in proliferation index (0.124 ± 0.021), a significant (p < .01) increase in apoptosis (42% ± 1.54) of MCF7 cells, a significant (p < .03) increase in ROS formation (32.16 ± 1.9) and a significant (p < .01) increase in LDH release (33.28 ± 1.56) were recorded in the adjacency of MCF-7 cells by a combination of CuO NPs (100 µg/ml) and R + H compared to control and other treatments. The activities of caspase-3 (0.33 ± 0.014) and caspase-9 (0.389 ± 0.019) also increased significantly (p < .05). However, caspase-8 showed no significant changes in its activity (p = .065). Based on these observations, a combination of CuO NPs, hyperthermia, and irradiation could suppress the growth of MCF-7 cells and evoke cell apoptosis via mitochondrial membrane potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1600529DOI Listing
December 2019

Willingness to pay for one quality-adjusted life year in Iran.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2019 28;17. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

6Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Recent years have witnessed a strong tendency to apply economic evidence as a guide for making health resource allocation decisions, especially those related to reimbursement policies. One such measure is the use of the cost-effectiveness threshold as a benchmark. This study explored the threshold for use in the health system of Iran by determining society's preferences.

Methods: A cross-sectional household survey based on the contingent valuation method was administered to a representative general population of 1002 in Tehran, Iran from April to June 2015. The survey was intended to estimate the respondents' willingness-to-pay (WTP) preferences for one quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. The valuation scenarios featured 12 vignettes on mild to severe diseases that can change people's quality of life. The mean of WTP for QALY was estimated using different health instruments, and the determinants of such willingness were analyzed using the Heckman selection model.

Results: WTP for QALY varied depending on the severity of a disease and the instrument used to determine health preferences. Mean low health state value were associated with high valuation. The best estimated WTP values ranged from US$1032 to US$2666 and 0.22-0.56 of Iran's local gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in 2014. Except for educational level, significant variables differed across different disease scenarios. Generally, a high health state valuation for target diseases, high income, high educational level, and being married were associated with high WTP for QALY.

Conclusion: From the general public's perspective, the monetary value of QALY for mild to severe diseases with no risk of death was less than one GDP per capita. Therefore, the obtained valuation range is recommended as reference only for the adoption of interventions designed to improve quality of life. Future studies should estimate the threshold of interventions for life-threatening diseases or formulate transparent policies in such contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12962-019-0172-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396529PMC
February 2019

The Worth of a Quality-Adjusted Life-Year in Patients with Diabetes: An Investigation Study using a Willingness-to-Pay Method.

Pharmacoecon Open 2019 Sep;3(3):311-319

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Heath, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: A limited number of studies have specifically examined the value of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from the patient's perspective.

Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the worth of QALYs from the perspectives of patients with diabetes using health and willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures.

Methods: A hypothetical treatment characterized by a permanent cure was presented to 149 patients with diabetes in Tehran, Iran, to elicit the monetary value that they attach to QALYs. The QALY gains of the participants were determined using the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, 3 Levels instrument, the visual analogue scale, and the time trade-off method. A mixed closed-ended WTP model supported by an open-ended question was used to ascertain the monetary value of a QALY gained. Finally, we used each respondent's ratio of WTP to QALY gained and the mean of the ratios to estimate the worth of a QALY to all respondents.

Results: In total, 96% of respondents were willing to pay out of pocket for the restoration of full health, whereas 4% exhibited a zero WTP because of an inability to pay. The mean WTP per QALY varied depending on the health measure and discount rate used, ranging from $US1191 to $US5043 in sensitivity analysis, which is equal to 0.23-0.95 of Iran's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in 2015.

Conclusion: Applying the upper limit of the World Health Organization's (WHO) cost-effectiveness threshold (i.e., three times the local GDP per capita) in resource allocation decisions requires caution and investigation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries with limited healthcare resources. To generalize our findings, especially for application to decision making, additional surveys involving more representative samples from different settings are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41669-018-0111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6710303PMC
September 2019

Corrigendum to "Mast cells improve functional recovery of transected peripheral nerve: A novel preliminary study" [Injury 48/7 (2017) 1480-1485].

Injury 2019 02 20;50(2):622. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2018.11.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Extract of Berula angustifolia (L.) Mertens Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

Wounds 2018 Aug 25;30(8):242-248. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Introduction: Diabetes-impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered to be a major concern.

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the wound healing activity of the methanolic extracts of Berula angustifolia leaves.

Materials And Methods: Seven- week-old male Wistar rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin injection were randomized into 5 groups of 6 rats based on allocated treatment. Wounds were created by an excision-based or incision-based wound model. For wound healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with the control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, biomechanical, and biochemical studies.

Results: The healing rate of the extract-treated groups was significantly different compared with the control group (P < .05). Hydroxyproline contents increased significantly in the extract-treated groups (P < .05). There were significant differences in the extract-treated versus nonextract-treated groups, particularly in terms of cellular infiltration, acute hemorrhage, congestion, edema, collagen production and density, reepithelialization, and neovascularization.

Conclusions: The methanolic extract of B angustifolia enhances wound healing activity significantly in both studied wound models. From this animal study, enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, improved mechanical indices, histological characteristics, and biochemical studies suggest the extract of B angustifolia leaves may have therapeutic benefits in diabetes-impaired wound healing.
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August 2018

DNA-Hybridization Detection on Si(100) Surfaces Using Light-Activated Electrochemistry: A Comparative Study between Bovine Serum Albumin and Hexaethylene Glycol as Antifouling Layers.

Langmuir 2018 12 19;34(49):14817-14824. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

School of Chemistry, Australian Centre for NanoMedicine, ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology , The University of New South Wales , Sydney , New South Wales 2052 , Australia.

Light can be used to spatially resolve electrochemical measurements on a semiconductor electrode. This phenomenon has been explored to detect DNA hybridization with light-addressable potentiometric sensors and, more recently, with light-addressable amperometric sensors based on organic-monolayer-protected Si(100). Here, a contribution to the field is presented by comparing sensing performances when bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hexaethylene glycol (OEG) are employed as antifouling layers that resist nonspecific adsorption to the DNA-modified interface on Si(100) devices. What is observed is that both sensors based on BSA or OEG initially allow electrochemical distinction among complementary, noncomplementary, and mismatched DNA targets. However, only surfaces based on OEG can sustain electroactivity over time. Our results suggest that this relates to accelerated SiO formation occasioned by BSA proteins adsorbing on monolayer-protected Si(100) surfaces. Therefore, DNA biosensors were analytically explored on low-doped Si(100) electrodes modified on the molecular level with OEG as an antifouling layer. First, light-activated electrochemical responses were recorded over a range of complementary DNA target concentrations. A linear semilog relation was obtained from 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10 mol L with a correlation coefficient of 0.942. Then, measurements with three independent surfaces indicated a relative standard deviation of 4.5%. Finally, selectivity tests were successfully performed in complex samples consisting of a cocktail mixture of four different DNA sequences. Together, these results indicate that reliable and stable light-activated amperometric DNA sensors can be achieved on Si(100) by employing OEG as an antifouling layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b02222DOI Listing
December 2018

All-trans retinoic acid effectively reduces atheroma plaque size in a rabbit model of high-fat-induced atherosclerosis.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Dec;27(12):1631-1636

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the most prevalent causes of death around the world. Since there are different types of risk factors, different types of medications focus on preventing atheromas and plaques from establishing or on preventing established plaques from growing.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on AS in a rabbit model of fat-induced AS.

Material And Methods: Atherosclerosis was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) for 75 days. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 was the negative control group and received a normal diet. The animals in the other groups were fed a HFD. Group 2 (the AS positive control group) received no drugs, Group 3 received atorvastatin orally (20 mg/kg/day), Group 4 received atRA (5 mg/kg/day, orally), and Group 5 received both drugs. All medications were started on day 45 and continued until the end of the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained for lipid profile evaluation. The aorta sections were evaluated for maximum wall and intima thickness.

Results: Oral administration of atRA, atorvastatin or their combination significantly improved serum lipid profile (p < 0.001). Atorvastatin and atRA significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in HFD (p < 0.001). No difference was found in serum HDL-cholesterol levels among the studied groups. The HFD group (Group 2 - positive control) showed significant intima irregularities with fat deposition and foamy macrophage accumulation (atheroma). Administration of atRA and atorvastatin significantly decreased the size of atherosclerotic plaques (intima thickness). The maximum vessel wall and intima thickness were significantly decreased after atRA and atorvastatin administration (p < 0.001). No difference was found between atRA and atorvastatin effectiveness, but combination therapy significantly decreased AS size in comparison to using either of the drugs alone (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In reducing AS plaque size, atRA is as effective as atorvastatin. Additionally, the combination therapy of atRA and atorvastatin decreased AS size much more effectively, showing their synergistic effect. atRA can also improve the serum lipid profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/74552DOI Listing
December 2018

Assessment of synergistic effect of combining hyperthermia with irradiation and calcium carbonate nanoparticles on proliferation of human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells).

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 4;46(sup2):364-372. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

a Solid Tumor Research Center , Urmia University of Medical Sciences , Urmia , Iran.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the synergistic effect of combining hyperthermia with irradiation and calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CC NPs) on proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The cells were randomly allocated to 19 groups: one negative control, three positive controls and 15 treatment groups. MCF-7 cells were treated with three concentrations of CC NPs (50, 100 and 150 μg/mL), gamma radiation (200 cGy), hyperthermia (41 °C for 1 h) and three concentrations of doxorubicin (200, 400 and 800 nm) and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Then the cell viability, the percentage of apoptosis and the levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9 proteins were measured. The results indicated that the combination group (150 µg/mL CC NPs + thermoradiotherapy) had a significant (p < .001) decrease in cell viability (48.65 ± 4.8%) and a significant (p < .001) increase in apoptosis percentage (45 ± 1.63%) of MCF-7 cells, as compared with the negative control and most of the other treatment groups. Moreover, a significant (p < .05) increase was observed in the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Our findings revealed that CC NPs in combination with irradiation and hyperthermia could significantly reduce the cell viability and enhance the apoptosis of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the same as doxorubicin anti-cancer drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2018.1457537DOI Listing
June 2019

Systemic administration of curcumin nanoparticles protects ischemia-reperfusion injury in ovaries: An animal model study.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2018 Jan;64(1):22-31

Maternal and Childhood Obesity Research Center, Department of Infertility, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Objective: Ovarian torsion must be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of nanocurcumin on ischemia-reperfusion injury in ovaries.

Method: Thirty-five (35) healthy female Wistar rats weighing approximately 250 g were randomized into seven experimental groups (n=5): Group SSG - The rats underwent only laparotomy. Group I: A 3-hour ischemia only. Group I/R: A 3-hour ischemia and 3-hour reperfusion. Group I/C: A 3-hour ischemia only, and 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal administration of curcumin 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia. Group I/R/C: A 3-hour ischemia, 3-hour reperfusion, and 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal administration of curcumin 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia. Group I/NC: A 3-hour ischemia only and 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal administration of nanocurcumin 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia. Group I/R/C: A 3-hour ischemia, 3-hour reperfusion and 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal administration of nanocurcumin 2.5 hours after induction of ischemia.

Results: Nanocurcumin-treated animals showed significantly improved development of ischemia and reperfusion tissue injury compared to those in the other groups (p<0.05). Significant higher values of SOD, tGSH, GPO, GSHRd and GST were observed in I/R/NC animals compared to those in the other groups (p<0.05). The damage indicators (NOS, MDA, MPO and DNA damage level) were significantly lower in I/R/NC animal compared to those of other groups (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Intraperitoneal administration of nanocurcumin can be helpful in minimizing ischemia-reperfusion injury in ovarian tissue exposed to ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.64.01.22DOI Listing
January 2018