Publications by authors named "Leila Safaeian"

38 Publications

The effect of pramlintide, an antidiabetic amylin analogue, on angiogenesis-related markers .

Res Pharm Sci 2020 Aug 28;15(4):323-330. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Irregularities of angiogenesis may participate in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. Pramlintide is an amylin analogue administered for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The present investigation aimed at surveying the effect of pramlintide on angiogenesis-related markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

Experimental Approach: The proliferation of cells was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The effect of pramlintide on migration was estimated by Transwell® assay. evaluation of angiogenesis was performed by tube formation assay. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to the supernatant of HUVECs was measured by an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All experiments were performed in triplicate.

Findings / Results: Pramlintide exhibited no inhibitory effect on HUVECs proliferation. It significantly increased cell migration at the concentration of 1 μg/mL. Pramlintide (1 μg/mL) also enhanced average tubules length, size, and the mean number of junctions. However, there was not any significant change in VEGF release from HUVECs.

Conclusion And Implications: Findings of this research revealed the effect of pramlintide on angiogenesis- related markers enhancing migration and tubulogenesis , suggesting a worthwhile proposition for further clinical researches on improving vascular complications and healing of diabetic wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.293510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714014PMC
August 2020

Calcitonin-loaded octamaleimic acid-silsesquioxane nanoparticles in hydrogel scaffold support osteoinductivity in bone regeneration.

Pharm Dev Technol 2021 Feb 27;26(2):220-232. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Novel osteoinductive scaffolds fabricated using the benefits of tissue engineering techniques accompanied by utilizing drugs can accelerate bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to load salmon calcitonin (sCT) in octamaleimic acid-silsesquioxane (OMA-POSS) nanoparticles and enrich the hydrogel scaffold based on hydroxyapatite, Gelrite® and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for use in bone tissue engineering. The loading efficiency, release percentage, particle size and zeta potential of the nanoparticles were evaluated. The proliferation of seeded MG-63 osteoblast cells on the designed scaffold, its cytotoxicity and osteo-conductivity were studied by alkaline phosphatase measurement and Alizarin red staining. The expression of cellular osteogenic markers such as collagen 1 (COL1A1), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osteopontin (SPP1) was examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that the particle size of the nanoparticles varied between 94.2 and 199.2 nm and their negative surface charge increased after drug conjugation. The osteoblast cell proliferation and calcium granule production in the optimum formulation were significantly higher in comparison with the control group ( < 0.05). Osteogenic markers increased significantly after a specific number of days of cell culture compared to the control group ( < 0.05). The results also showed the potential of the designed scaffold in bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2020.1858318DOI Listing
February 2021

Citral Protects Human Endothelial Cells Against Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress.

Turk J Pharm Sci 2020 Oct 30;17(5):549-554. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Applied Physiology Research Center, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Oxidative stress plays a major role in endothelial dysfunction. Citral is a monoterpene aldehyde with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of citral on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced oxidative stress.

Materials And Methods: The cells were treated with citral (0.625-10 μg/mL) for 24 h before exposure to HO (0.5 mM, 2 h). Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The hydroperoxide concentrations and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in intra- and extracellular fluids.

Results: Pretreatment of HUVECs with citral at concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/mL significantly enhanced the cell viability in HO-induced cytotoxicity. It reduced intracellular hydroperoxide levels at the concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/mL and extracellular hydroperoxide levels at the concentrations of 2.5-10 μg/mL. Pretreatment with citral significantly increased the FRAP value in intra- and extracellular fluids at the concentration range of 1.25-10 μg/mL.

Conclusion: Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects were found for citral against oxidative damage induced by HO in human endothelial cells. However, more studies in this area are needed to assess its clinical value for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.71602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650734PMC
October 2020

Evolocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor, protects human endothelial cells against HO-induced oxidative stress.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Jul 3:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Recent surveys have shown an association between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and oxidative stress. In this investigation, the effect of evolocumab an anti-PCSK9 antibody was assessed against oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide (HO) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Viability of HUVEC was measured by MTT assay. Hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were detected in HUVEC that pre-treated with evolocumab and, then exposed to HO. Evolocumab significantly prevented the cytotoxicity induced by HO at the concentrations of 5-100 µg/ml. Pre-treatment of HUVEC with evolocumab reduced hydroperoxides and MDA levels and also increased FRAP value in intra- and extra-cellular mediums compared with HO stimulated cells at different concentration ranges. This study displayed anti-oxidative and cytoprotective activities of evolocumab against oxidative damage caused by HO in endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1788605DOI Listing
July 2020

Encapsulation of Imatinib in Targeted KIT-5 Nanoparticles for Reducing its Cardiotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2020 ;20(16):1966-1980

Department of Pharmaceutics, Novel Drug Delivery Systems Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Using imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug used in lymphoblastic leukemia, has always had limitations due to its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity side effects. The objective of this study is to develop a target-oriented drug carrier to minimize these adverse effects by the controlled release of the drug.

Methods: KIT-5 nanoparticles were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and conjugated to rituximab as the targeting agent for the CD20 positive receptors of the B-cells. Then they were loaded with imatinib and their physical properties were characterized. The cell cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was studied by MTT assay in Ramos (CD20 positive) and Jurkat cell lines (CD20 negative) and their cellular uptake was shown by fluorescence microscope. Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of the free drug or targeted nanoparticles for 21 days. Then the level of aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in serum of animals. The cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity of the drug were also studied by hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tissues.

Results: The targeted nanoparticles of imatinib showed to be more cytotoxic to Ramos cells rather than Jurkat cells. The results of the biochemical analysis displayed a significant reduction in AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH levels in animals treated with targeted nanoparticles, compared to the free drug group. By comparison with the free imatinib, histopathological results represented less cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in the animals, which received the drug through the current designed delivery system.

Conclusion: The obtained results confirmed that the rituximab targeted KIT-5 nanoparticles are promising in the controlled release of imatinib and could decrease its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520620666200619174323DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of Face-to-Face Education on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Toward "Traffic Light" Food Labeling in Isfahan Society, Iran.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2021 Apr 6;41(3):275-284. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth, and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Emerging noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) with premature mortality are one of the major concerns in health supervising organizations of the world. High intake of energy, salt, sugar, fat, and trans fatty acids are introduced as dietary risk factors of NCDs. The status of food risk factors is presented in Traffic Light (TL) food labeling through colors of red, yellow, and green as the signs of , and , respectively. This stepwise interventional study examined whether TL education can result in choosing healthier food via assessing the impact of face-to-face educational sessions on knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 673 respondents toward TL food labeling through a self-administered and structured questionnaire. Paired test or alternatively Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the influence of education in total scores of knowledge, attitudes, and practices in test-retest. Results indicated that before education, the average of the scores for the knowledge, attitudes, and practices was 1.003 ± 0.69, 10.97 ± 1.86, and 1.60 ± 1.84, respectively. After education, the scores were increased to 8.72 ± 3.11, 15.95 ± 2.64, and 8.42 ± 1.69. Significant differences in the scores of the respondents were observed before and after education ( < .05). This study revealed that the intervention of education had positive effect on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the studied population. Even though general awareness about the food risk factors of NCDs existed, special education is required to make public TL and food labeling information usage as an actual guidance for every food item in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684X20916612DOI Listing
April 2021

Cardioprotective effect of vanillic acid against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rat.

Res Pharm Sci 2020 Feb 20;15(1):87-96. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective agent for the treatment of many neoplastic diseases. Cardiotoxicity is the major side effect of this drug and limits its use. Vanillic acid (VA) is a pharmaceutical compound from the phenolic acids family. The present study is an attempt to investigate the possible helpful effects of VA against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Experimental Approach: For induction of cardiotoxicity, male Wistar rats received total of six doses of DOX (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) three times per week from days 14 to 28. Treatment groups received daily oral doses of VA (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) two weeks before DOX injection and then plus DOX for 2 weeks. At the end of experiment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were detected using tail-cuff method. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in serum samples. Troponin-I and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were measured in cardiac tissue. All the measurements processed spectrophotometrically using commercial ELISA kits. Cardiac tissue was also processed for histopathological examination.

Findings / Results: Treatment with VA significantly increased SBP compared to the DOX group and restored HR near to the normal level. Administration of VA at all of doses, decreased serum levels of LDH, SGOT, CK-MB, MDA, cardiac troponin-I, cardiac TLR4 and increased FRAP value.

Conclusion And Implications: These results suggest that VA may exert cardioprotective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, suppression of TLR4 signaling and consequently inflammation pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.278718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053285PMC
February 2020

Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane /Platelets Rich Plasma/Gelrite-Based Hydrogel Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

Curr Pharm Des 2020 ;26(26):3147-3160

Dental Research Center, Dental Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) is a monomer with silicon structure and an internal nanometric cage.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide an injectable hydrogel that could be easily located in open or closed bone fractures and injuries, and also to reduce the possible risks of infections caused by bone graft either as an allograft or an autograft.

Methods: Various formulations of temperature sensitive hydrogels containing hydroxyapatite, Gelrite, POSS and platelets rich plasma (PRP), such as the co-gelling agent and cell growth enhancer, were prepared. The hydrogels were characterized for their injectability, gelation time, phase transition temperature and viscosity. Other physical properties of the optimized formulation including compressive stress, compressive strain and Young's modulus as mechanical properties, as well as storage and loss modulus, swelling ratio, biodegradation behavior and cell toxicity as rheometrical parameters were studied on human osteoblast MG-63 cells. Alizarin red tests were conducted to study the qualitative and quantitative osteogenic capability of the designed scaffold, and the cell adhesion to the scaffold was visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

Results: The results demonstrated that the hydrogel scaffold mechanical force and injectability were 3.34±0.44 Mpa and 12.57 N, respectively. Moreover, the scaffold showed higher calcium granules production in alizarin red staining compared to the control group. The proliferation of the cells in G4.5H1P0.03PRP10 formulation was significantly higher than in other formulations (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The optimized Gelrite/Hydroxyapatite/POSS/PRP hydrogel scaffold has useful impacts on osteoblasts activity, and may be beneficial for local drug delivery in complications including a break or bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200311124732DOI Listing
January 2021

Evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, promotes angiogenesis in vitro.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2019 May 15;97(5):352-358. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

c Applied Physiology Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The proprotein convertases family is involved in several physiological processes such as cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, and also in different pathological conditions. Evolocumab, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), has recently been approved for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed to investigate the effect of evolocumab on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation and migration were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Transwell methods. In vitro angiogenesis was assessed by tube formation assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by HUVECs was also determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Evolocumab significantly increased HUVECs viability at 100 μg/mL. Significant enhancement in cell migration, and mean tubules length and size was observed at the concentrations of 10 and 100 μg/mL and also in mean number of junctions at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Administration of evolocumab at the concentration of 10 μg/mL increased VEGF release into supernatants of HUVECs. Findings of this investigation provided in vitro evidence for pro-angiogenic activity of evolocumab through promoting cell proliferation, migration, tubulogenesis, and VEGF secretion in HUVECs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2018-0542DOI Listing
May 2019

The effect of celecoxib on blood pressure and plasma oxidant/antioxidant status in co-administration with glucocorticoid in rat.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 17;108:1804-1808. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

There is limited information about the concomitant uses of selective COX-2 inhibitors with corticosteroids or with antihypertensive medications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of celecoxib on blood pressure and plasma oxidant/antioxidant status in glucocorticoid-induced hypertension and in co-administration with captopril. Male Wistar rats received dexamethasone (30 μg/kg/day, s.c.) for 14 days. The tested groups received dexamethasone and orally treated with celecoxib (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg) or captopril (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) or celecoxib (50 mg/kg) + captopril from day 8 to 14. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured using tail-cuff method. Hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value were determined in plasma samples. Dexamethasone significantly increased BP and plasma hydroperoxides level and decreased body weights. High dose of celecoxib resulted in a small but significant increase in SBP, DBP and MAP in normotensive rats however it did not alter BP markers in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats. Celecoxib reduced the hypotensive effect of all doses of captopril in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats however the SBP and MAP was preserved near to normal at low and middle doses of captopril but DBP was more than normal at low dose of captopril. Heart rate was not significantly altered by different treatments. High dose of celecoxib also increased plasma hydroperoxides concentration without effect on FRAP level. In conclusion, celecoxib did not change blood pressure in glucocorticoid-induced hypertensive rats but may blunt the hypotensive effect of low dose of captopril. Further studies are needed for detailed information addressing the effects of COX-2 inhibitors on blood pressure in concomitant uses with corticosteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.047DOI Listing
December 2018

A high school-based education concerning drug abuse prevention.

J Educ Health Promot 2018 6;7:88. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Research and Development, Vice Chancellery for Food and Drug, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: There is increasing evidence for declining the onset age of drug abuse worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of four educational methods including lecture, presentation of poster and leaflet, presentation of video clip, and group/class discussion for life skills training and changing in knowledge and attitude of adolescents toward drug abuse.

Materials And Methods: In a pretest-posttest design, a sample of 897 girl and boy high school students from the first grade (14-15 years old) were involved in this cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran. After collection of pretest questionnaires, each educational method was implemented separately for one class in one session (3 h) in each high school, and evaluation was carried out immediately after intervention through posttest questionnaires by the same students.

Results: According to paired -test, the video clip- and lecture-based methods were significantly efficient in changing the attitudes toward drug abuse in boy and girl students, respectively. Analysis of covariance showed significant differences between girls and boys in pretest-posttest attitude scores using group discussion-based and video clip-based methods.

Conclusion: Life skills training program through lecture-based and video clip-based educational methods was considerably effective in changing the high school students' attitude toward drug abuse and addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_122_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052774PMC
July 2018

Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Different Fractions Obtained from Hydroalcoholic Extract in Rats.

Int J Prev Med 2018 9;9:30. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: This study was aimed to screen the antihyperlipidemic effect of different fractions of to obtain the most efficient herbal fraction for isolation of bioactive constituents responsible for hypolipidemic activity.

Methods: Chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions were obtained from hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts using partitioning process. To induce hyperlipidemia, dexamethasone (Dex) was injected 10 mg/kg/day (s.c.) for 8 days. In the test groups, animals received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and different fractions orally simultaneously with Dex. Serum lipid profile and hepatic marker enzymes were evaluated using biochemical kits.

Results: All treatments, especially chloroform and aqueous fractions, reversed serum lipid markers in hyperlipidemic rats. Maximum reduction in triglyceride (60.2%, < 0.001) and maximum elevation in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (35.0%, < 0.01) was observed for chloroform fraction. Maximum cholesterol-lowering effect (29.0%, < 0.001) and maximum reduction in low-density lipoprotein were found for hydroalcoholic extract (72.9%, < 0.001). Aqueous fraction improved all lipid markers at the highest dose. Butanol fraction decreased triglyceride at the lowest dose (43.9%, < 0.001) and increased HDL (33%, < 0.05) at the highest dose. There was a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in all tested groups compared to normal group ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study showed strong antihyperlipidemic effect of various fractions derived from hydroalcoholic extract of . Chloroform and aqueous fractions may be worthy candidates for isolation of bioactive hypolipidemic constituents. However, possible hepatotoxicity should be considered for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_100_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5869962PMC
March 2018

Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of protocatechuic acid in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Apr 8;100:147-155. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a natural antioxidant with beneficial cardiovascular properties. In this study, the effect of supplementation with PCA was investigated in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Male Wistar rats received DOCA (25 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly and 1% NaCl in drinking water and simultaneously treated with PCA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was detected using tail-cuff method. Electrolytes including Na, K and chloride, catalase activity, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroperoxides concentration were measured in serum samples. Body and organs weight, water intake and, kidney and heart histopathology were also evaluated. Administration of PCA reversed the changes caused by DOCA-salt approximately at all doses. At the lowest dose, PCA significantly decreased SBP (132.5 ± 4.0 vs 152.3 ± 4.5 mmHg, P < .05), serum sodium (138.5  ± 1.52 vs 141 ± 1.50, P < .05) and chloride level (101.6 ± 1.47 vs 110 ± 1.39, P < .01) and raised serum potassium level (3.8 ± 0.09 vs 3.1 ± 0.17, P < .05) compared with DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. PCA increased serum catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione concentration and reduced MDA and hydroperoxides levels. PCA also improved organ weight changes, reduced water intake and moderately prevented histopathological changes of kidney and heart upon DOCA-salt administration. The present study indicates the antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of PCA against DOCA-salt hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.01.107DOI Listing
April 2018

The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Wendelbo bulb on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress in rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Feb;13(1):22-29

Isfahan Center of Public Health Training and Research, Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

Recent evidences have suggested the beneficial cardiovascular effects of some plants belonging to the genus . The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of bulb on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia in rats. Total phenolic content of bulb hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats in 6 groups were studied. Group 1 (dyslipidemic control) received dexamethasone (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 7 days, groups 2-4 (treated) received dexamethasone and simultaneously treated orally with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, group 5 (normal control) received a single daily injection of normal saline (1 mL/kg, s.c.) and the vehicle orally, and group 6 (reference) received dexamethasone and atorvastatin (40 mg/kg) orally. At the end of experiment, blood glucose, lipid profile, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed in serum samples. Livers were processed for histopathological examination. Total phenolic content of extract was estimated to be 33.52 ± 1.3% mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the dried plant extract. The plant extract significantly reduced serum blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and MDA levels and increased the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and also improved liver steatosis compared to the dyslipidemic control group. These results suggest the hydroalcoholic extract of bulb has anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic, and antioxidant effects on rats receiving high doses of dexamethasone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.220964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772078PMC
February 2018

Evaluation of fibrinolytic and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract.

Res Pharm Sci 2017 Aug;12(4):299-306

Department of Pharmacognosy and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

is a member of Amaryllidaceae family, which grows wildly in some western regions of Iran. Limited information is available about the pharmacological activities of this plant. The present study aimed to evaluate the fibrinolytic and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts. The antioxidant properties of the extract were evaluated by total phenolic content assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The studies included the determination of hydroperoxides level and FRAP value in serum samples of rats receiving i.p. injections of the plant extract for 21 days. The fibrinolytic activity of the extract was quantitatively evaluated by measuring the clot weight. antioxidant analysis exhibited the promising potential of DPPH scavenging and total antioxidant capacity of extract. In the analysis, extract reduced the serum hydroperoxides level and increased the serum total antioxidant capacity in rats. fibrinolytic assay also elucidated notable thrombolytic activity of the plant extract. The results of this study revealed the valuable antioxidant and fibrinolytic activities of extract. Further studies are needed for better evaluation of anticoagulant and thrombolytic activities of this plant and understanding its detailed mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.212047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566004PMC
August 2017

Evaluation of fibrinolytic and antioxidant effects of bulb extracts.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2017 May-Jun;7(3):223-231

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: is an endemic plant of the family Amaryllidaceae that grows wild in northern Iran with some nutritional and medicinal applications. The present study was aimed to investigate the fibrinolytic and antioxidant effects of bulb extracts.

Materials And Methods: Hydroalcoholic, aqueous, chloroformic and butanolic extracts were evaluated in this research. antioxidant assays were performed using total phenolic, DPPH, and FRAP methods. In the analysis, animals received i.p. injection of hydroalcoholic extract for 21 days and hydroperoxides level, FRAP value, PT and aPTT were determined in serum samples. The fibrinolytic activity of different extracts was quantitatively evaluated by measurement of clot weight.

Results: antioxidant assay showed that aqueous extract had the highest DPPH scavenging and the highest total antioxidant capacity. In the assay, hydroalcoholic extract reduced serum hydroperoxides level and increased serum total antioxidant capacity in rats. fibrinolytic assay revealed remarkable thrombolytic activity for this plant with the highest effect for the aqueous extract. However, coagulation parameters including PT and aPTT were not affected by administration of hydroalcoholic extract in rats.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of this study revealed the potential antioxidant and fibrinolytic effects of bulb extracts. For developing novel thrombolytic agents, further investigations for isolation of bioactive constituents and finding the underlying mechanisms are suggested.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5511974PMC
July 2017

The Effect of Protocatechuic Acid on Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Glucocorticoid-induced Hypertension in Rat.

Iran J Pharm Res 2016 ;15(Suppl):83-91

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms involved in Dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a natural compound with high antioxidant capacity. In this investigation, the effect of pretreatment with PCA was studied in Dex-induced hypertensive male Wistar rats. For induction of hypertension, Dex was injected subcutaneously for 14 days. PCA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was started from 4 days before Dex administration and continued during the test period. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded using tail-cuff method. Measurement of thymus weight was done as a marker of glucocorticoid activity. The hydrogen peroxide (HO) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were determined in plasma samples. Significant increase in SBP and plasma HO concentration and decrease in FRAP value and in the body and thymus weights were observed in Dex-induced hypertensive rats. PCA dose-dependently prevented hypertension and body weight loss, and reduced plasma HO concentration and increased FRAP values. These results suggest the antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of PCA against Dex-induced hypertension.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5242355PMC
January 2016

Preparation and evaluation of a hair wax containing propolis and seed oil for hair growth.

Adv Biomed Res 2016 28;5:182. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Novel Drug Delivery Systems Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hair growth as a key consumer objective has important role in the hair care products researches. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a hair wax containing propolis, a resinous mixture produced by honeybees in seed oil base on hair growth.

Materials And Methods: The hair wax was designed and formulated compared with marketed brand hair wax and evaluated for pharmaceutical parameters including pH, homogeneity, consistency, spread ability, drug release, and stability. After selection of the best formulation containing 10% ethanolic extract of propolis and 10% seed oil, the hair growth potential was evaluated by application of 1 g hair wax daily on 4 cm area of dorsal side of Wistar rats and compared with controls and standard medication (1 ml of 2% minoxidil). After 30 days treatment, the length and weight of hairs and percentage of hair follicles in different phases of growth in skin biopsies were assessed.

Results: The selected hair wax formulation was stable and easy to wash. The formulation significantly increased hair length on 10, 20, and 30 day compared control group (5.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.4, 11.4 ± 0.6 vs. 5.8 ± 0.4, and 17.5 ± 0.5 vs. 12.7 ± 0.4 mm, respectively) and also the weight of newly grown hairs on 30 day (0.056 ± 0.006 vs. 0.043 ± 0.005). It improved hair follicles percentages in anagen phase without any sensitivity reaction.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the formulated hair wax containing of propolis and seed oil could have significant effect on promoting hair growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.190985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5157003PMC
November 2016

Protective effect of extract against HO-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells.

Res Pharm Sci 2016 Oct;11(5):383-389

Applied Physiology Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxidative stress induced by HO. Cells were incubated with HO (0.5 mM, 2 h) after pretreatment with extract (25-500 μg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with extract at the concentrations of 100-500 μg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to HO significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of against HO-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity, this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.192488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5122827PMC
October 2016

Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of bark extract in Wistar rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 Sep-Oct;6(5):558-566

Department of Pathology, Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: () is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study.

Materials And Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated.

Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of The median lethal dose (LD) of was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract.

Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5052419PMC
October 2016

Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2016 15;5:25. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. is a monotypic endemic plant of Apiaceae growing wild in Iran. The aerial parts of this plant are used for treatment of hypertension, ulcer, and inflammatory conditions in folk medicine. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of K. odoratissima were evaluated in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in male Wistar rats.

Materials And Methods: For induction of hypertension, Dex (30 μg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously for 14 days. In a prevention study, rats received oral K. odoratissima extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) from 4 days before Dex administration and during the test period (days 1-18). In a reversal study, K. odoratissima extract was administered orally from day 8 to 14. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using tail-cuff method. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in plasma samples.

Results: Administrations of Dex significantly induced an increase in SBP and in plasma H2O2 and a decrease in body and thymus weights, and in FRAP value (P < 0.001). K. odoratissima extract dose-dependently prevented and reversed hypertension (P < 0.001). It also prevented and reduced the plasma H2O2 concentration and prevented the body weight loss upon Dex administration at all doses (100-400 mg/kg, P < 0.001) but failed to improve FRAP value.

Conclusions: These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of K. odoratissima extract in Dex-induced hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of this herbal medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.176342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4785786PMC
March 2016

Cytoprotective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Pinus eldarica Bark against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells.

Iran Biomed J 2016 Jul 2;20(3):161-7. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Applied Physiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Pinus eldarica is a widely growing pine in Iran consisting of biologically active constituents with antioxidant properties. This study investigates the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

Methods: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) on HUVECs was assessed using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Cytoprotective effect of P. eldarica extract (25-500 µg/ml) on H2O2-induced oxidative stress was also evaluated by MTT assay. The intra- and extra-cellular hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in pretreated cells.

Results: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was estimated as 37.04±1.8% gallic acid equivalent. P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) had no cytotoxic effect on HUVECs viability. The pretreatment of HUVECs with P. eldarica extract at the concentrations of 50-500 µg/ml significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2. P. eldarica extract decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in intra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 100-500 µg/ml and in extra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 25-500 µg/ml.

Conclusions: This study revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of P. eldarica extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Concerning the high content of phenolic compounds in P. eldarica, more research is needed to evaluate its clinical value in endothelial dysfunction and in other oxidative conditions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4949980PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.7508/ibj.2016.03.005DOI Listing
July 2016

Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of human lactoferrin against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

Adv Biomed Res 2015 31;4:188. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Department of Physiology, Applied Physiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective and antioxidant effects of LF on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

Materials And Methods: HUVECs were pretreated by (6.25-100 μg/ml) LF for 24 h and then exposed to 0.5 mM H2O2 for 2 h. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The intra- and extra-cellular hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were determined in pretreated cells.

Results: Pretreatment of HUVECs with LF at the concentrations of 25-100 μg/ml significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner using MTT assay. LF pretreatment at different concentration ranges also decreased the hydroperoxides level and augmented the FRAP value in both intra-and extra-cellular assay.

Conclusion: These findings revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of LF against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. With regard to the beneficial vascular activity of LF, further investigations are suggested for understanding its clinical value in human endothelial dysfunction and prevention and/or treatment of CVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.164010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617156PMC
November 2015

The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula foetida stems on blood pressure and oxidative stress in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2015 Jul-Aug;10(4):326-34

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel. is one of the most widespread and important Ferula species with nutritional and medicinal applications. Some phytochemicals with helpful cardiovascular effects have been isolated from Ferula species. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the stems of F. foetida in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous injection of Dex (30 µg/kg) for 14 days. In a prevention study, rats received oral F. foetida extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) for 4 days prior to Dex administration and during the test period (Days 1-18). In a treatment study, F. foetida extract was administered from day 8 to 14. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using tail-cuff method. The thymus weight was measured as an indicator of glucocorticoid activity. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in plasma samples. Dex-induced hypertensive rats showed significant increases in SBP and in plasma H2O2 and decreases in the body and thymus weights and in FRAP value (P<0.001). Administration of F. foetida extract significantly prevented and reversed hypertension at all doses. It also increased plasma FRAP value (P<0.001) but failed to decrease plasma H2O2 concentration. These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of F. foetida stem extract in Dex-induced hypertension. More investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of antihypertensive effect of this traditional phytomedicine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623621PMC
November 2015

Protective effects of Echium amoenum Fisch. and C.A. Mey. against cerebral ischemia in the rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2015 29;4:107. Epub 2015 May 29.

Department of Physiology, Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran.

Background: This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Echium amoenum total anthocyanin extract (ETAE) on partial/transient cerebral ischemia in the rats.

Materials And Methods: Rats received ETAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the induction of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min, followed by 72 h reperfusion. The neurological deficit, brain performance, and sensory motor function were assessed 48 h and 72 h after surgery. After sacrification, the brains were evaluated for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathological changes.

Results: Our results showed that motor function significantly decreased in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group as compared to the sham group. Histopathological analysis exhibited the shrinkage and atrophy of the neurons in I/R group. ETAE at the dose of 200 mg/kg improved spontaneous activity and memory induced by cerebral ischemia compared to the control group and also decreased brain MPO activity following cerebral ischemia. However, it could not affect the ability to climbing, body proprioception, vibrissae touch and brain water content. In addition, pretreatment with ETAE at higher doses significantly reduced ischemia-induced neuronal loss of the brain.

Conclusion: The anthocyanin rich fraction from E. amoenum was found to have protective effects against some brain damages postischemic reperfusion. However, further researches are required for investigating the exact mechanisms of the effect of this plant in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in human.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.157809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513330PMC
August 2015

The effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. on blood pressure and oxidative status in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2015 11;4:101. Epub 2015 May 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. is a tropical tree growing in southeast of Iran. All parts of this plant have nutritional uses and pharmacological activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in rats.

Materials And Methods: Male Wistar rats received Dex (30 μg/kg, subcutaneously; s.c.) or saline (as vehicle, 1 ml/kg, s.c.) for 14 days. In a prevention study, the rats received M. peregrina extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for 4 days, followed by Dex for 14 days. In a reversal study, the animals received M. peregrina extract orally from day 8 to 14. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using tail-cuff method. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were assessed in plasma samples.

Results: Dex significantly increased the SBP and the plasma H2O2 and decreased the plasma FRAP value (P < 0.001). M. peregrina extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg prevented (P < 0.01) but did not reverse Dex-induced hypertension in rats. It also dose-dependently reduced the plasma H2O2 concentration and improved the FRAP value upon Dex administration.

Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated the antioxidant and partially antihypertensive effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in Dex-induced hypertension. Further experiments on other fractions of the leaves and also other parts of this plant are suggested for better evaluation of its antihypertensive effect and finding its mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.156681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4434450PMC
May 2015

Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of Echium amoenum anthocyanin-rich extract in human endothelial cells (HUVECs).

Avicenna J Phytomed 2015 Mar-Apr;5(2):157-66

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

Objective: Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. is used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional medicine. This plant is a major source of anthocyanins with beneficial cardiovascular properties such as anti-atherosclerotic and antihypertensive effects. In the present study, the protective and antioxidant effects of anthocyanin-rich E. amoenum extract were evaluated on human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxidative stress.

Materials And Methods: Cell viability and oxidative status were assessed on H2O2-induced oxidative stress (0.5 mM H2O2 for 2 h) in HUVECs pretreated by anthocyanin-rich extract from the petals of E. amoenum (25-1000 µg/ml). Cytoprotective effect of the extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were assessed in intra- and extra-cellular fluid of pretreated cells.

Results: Pretreatment of HUVECs with E. amoenum extract at the concentrations of 100-1000 µg/ml reduced the cell death resulted from the exposure to H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. E. amoenum extract decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluid at different concentration ranges. Moreover, it did not show cytotoxic effects at the concentration range of 25-1000 µg/ml.

Conclusion: These results suggest antioxidant and protective effect of anthocyanin-rich extract of the petals of E. amoenum against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. However, further investigations are needed for understanding the detailed mechanisms of cytoprotective effects of this traditional herbal medicine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418065PMC
May 2015

Seasonality and Physician-related Factors Associated with Antibiotic Prescribing: A Cross-sectional Study in Isfahan, Iran.

Int J Prev Med 2015 15;6. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Irrational antibiotic prescribing as a global health problem has a major influence on medical care quality and healthcare expenditure. This study was aimed to determine the pattern of antibiotic use and to assess the seasonality and physician-related factors associated with variability in antibiotic prescribing in Isfahan province of Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on all prescriptions issued by general physicians from rural and urban areas in 2011. Associations between season of prescribing and physician-related variables including gender, practice location and time since graduation with antibiotic prescriptions and also the pattern of antibiotic prescribing were assessed using Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression models.

Results: Of the 7439709 prescriptions issued by 3772 general practitioners, 51% contained at least one antibiotic. Penicillins were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics, followed by cephalosporins and macrolides. Over-prescription of penicillins was associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.13-3.19) and with moderate duration of time in practice (10-20 years) (OR, 1.42; 95% CI 1.14-1.76). Higher rates of cephalosporins prescription were observed in urban areas than rural areas and by male physicians. Seasonal peak was detected for penicillins and cephalosporins prescriptions in autumn.

Conclusions: These findings showed the widespread use of antibiotics by general practitioners that was associated with the physicians' gender, time since graduation and practice location and also season of prescribing. More researches are needed on other factors related to the overprescribing of antibiotics and they could be used to project educational programs for improvement of antibiotic prescribing quality in our country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.151431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362280PMC
March 2015

The role of Bcl-2 family proteins in pulmonary fibrosis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2014 Oct 21;741:281-9. Epub 2014 Jul 21.

Applied Physiology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by epithelial injury, abnormal tissue repair, fibroproliferation and loss of pulmonary function as a result of a complex interaction of multiple cellular and molecular processes. There is accumulating evidence in support of a role for apoptosis in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. The Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) family of proteins, which consists of antiapoptotic and pro-apoptotic members, is a critical regulator for apoptosis and development of pulmonary fibrosis. The association between Bcl-2 family members and various pathways and mediators has been also described in the pulmonary fibrosis. This article reviews the recent advances regarding the roles of Bcl-2 family as the apoptosis-regulatory factors in pulmonary fibrosis from human tissue studies, animal models, ex vivo and in vitro studies. Further understanding of apoptosis signaling regulation through Bcl-2 family proteins in the lung tissue may lead to better design of new therapeutic interventions for pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.029DOI Listing
October 2014

A school-based education concerning poisoning prevention in Isfahan, Iran.

J Educ Health Promot 2014 21;3. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Poison Control Center, Department of Research and Development, Food and Drug Deputy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: A school-based poisoning prevention program for young school children was implemented and evaluated in Isfahan city by Poison Control Center (PCC) of Food and Drug Deputy in 2010.

Objectives: The aim of the program was to evaluate the effectiveness of education on children's knowledge on poisoning and its consequence and also on their attitude in case of exposure to poisonous or hazardous substances and poisoned patient.

Materials And Methods: In a pretest-posttest design, samples of 520 students from the fifth grade (10-11 years old), from twenty randomly selected girls' and boys' primary schools were involved in the study. These children were from two different geographical locations with different socio-economical levels (high-income and middle-income). After collection of pretest questionnaires, 6 poisoning education sessions were implemented in selected schools by trained teachers in a week.

Results: Following the education program, knowledge on various issues of poisoning significantly improved as did attitude to the poisonous agents and poisoned patients. In girl students, strong increase was found in knowledge on poisoning with carbon monoxide and heating devices from pretest to posttest. While in boy students, the strongest increase was in item of knowledge on poisoning prevention. Children living in the regions with middle-income conditions had more base-line knowledge and attitudinal aspect when compared with children with high-income condition. Comparison of all students showed significant differences (P < 0.001) on knowledge scores on various issues of poisoning before and after education.

Conclusion: The school-based educational programs provide a good opportunity to poison information centers in preventing poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9531.127551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977412PMC
April 2014