Publications by authors named "Leif Groop"

487 Publications

Novel Reclassification of Adult Diabetes Is Useful to Distinguish Stages of β-Cell Function Linked to the Risk of Vascular Complications: The DOLCE Study From Northern Ukraine.

Front Genet 2021 2;12:637945. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Clinical Science, Center for Diabetes Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Presently, persons with diabetes are classified as having type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) based on clinical diagnosis. However, adult patients exhibit diverse clinical representations and this makes treatment approaches challenging to personalize. A recent Scandinavian study proposed a novel classification of adult diabetes into five clusters based on disease pathophysiology and risk of vascular complications. The current study aimed to characterize new subgroups of adult diabetes using this strategy in a defined population from northern Ukraine.

Methods: We analyzed 2,140 patients with established diabetes from the DOLCE study ( = 887 with new-onset diabetes and = 1,253 with long duration). We used the k-means approach to perform clustering analyses using BMI, age at onset of diabetes, HbA, insulin secretion (HOMA2-B), and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) indices and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) levels. Risks of macro- (myocardial infarction or stroke) and microvascular [retinopathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and neuropathy] complications and associations of genetic variants with specific clusters were studied using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, and diabetes duration.

Results: Severe autoimmune diabetes (SAID, 11 and 6%) and severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD, 25 and 14%) clusters were twice as prevalent in patients with long-term as compared to those with new-onset diabetes. Patients with long duration in both SAID and SIDD clusters had highest risks of proliferative retinopathy, and elevated risks of CKD. Long-term insulin-resistant obese diabetes 1 (IROD1) subgroup had elevated risks of CKD, while insulin-resistant obese diabetes 2 (IROD2) cluster exhibited the highest HOMA2-B, lowest HbA, and lower prevalence of all microvascular complications as compared to all other clusters. Genetic analyses of IROD2 subgroup identified reduced frequency of the risk alleles in the gene as compared to all other clusters, cumulatively and individually ( = 0.0001).

Conclusion: The novel reclassification algorithm of patients with adult diabetes was reproducible in this population from northern Ukraine. It may be beneficial for the patients in the SIDD subgroup to initiate earlier insulin treatment or other anti-diabetic modalities to preserve β-cell function. Long-term diabetes cases with preserved β-cell function and lower risk for microvascular complications represent an interesting subgroup of patients for further investigations of protective mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.637945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283002PMC
July 2021

Replication and cross-validation of type 2 diabetes subtypes based on clinical variables: an IMI-RHAPSODY study.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Section of Cell Biology and Functional Genomics, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: Five clusters based on clinical characteristics have been suggested as diabetes subtypes: one autoimmune and four subtypes of type 2 diabetes. In the current study we replicate and cross-validate these type 2 diabetes clusters in three large cohorts using variables readily measured in the clinic.

Methods: In three independent cohorts, in total 15,940 individuals were clustered based on age, BMI, HbA, random or fasting C-peptide, and HDL-cholesterol. Clusters were cross-validated against the original clusters based on HOMA measures. In addition, between cohorts, clusters were cross-validated by re-assigning people based on each cohort's cluster centres. Finally, we compared the time to insulin requirement for each cluster.

Results: Five distinct type 2 diabetes clusters were identified and mapped back to the original four All New Diabetics in Scania (ANDIS) clusters. Using C-peptide and HDL-cholesterol instead of HOMA2-B and HOMA2-IR, three of the clusters mapped with high sensitivity (80.6-90.7%) to the previously identified severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD), severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD) and mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD) clusters. The previously described ANDIS mild age-related diabetes (MARD) cluster could be mapped to the two milder groups in our study: one characterised by high HDL-cholesterol (mild diabetes with high HDL-cholesterol [MDH] cluster), and the other not having any extreme characteristic (mild diabetes [MD]). When these two milder groups were combined, they mapped well to the previously labelled MARD cluster (sensitivity 79.1%). In the cross-validation between cohorts, particularly the SIDD and MDH clusters cross-validated well, with sensitivities ranging from 73.3% to 97.1%. SIRD and MD showed a lower sensitivity, ranging from 36.1% to 92.3%, where individuals shifted from SIRD to MD and vice versa. People belonging to the SIDD cluster showed the fastest progression towards insulin requirement, while the MDH cluster showed the slowest progression.

Conclusions/interpretation: Clusters based on C-peptide instead of HOMA2 measures resemble those based on HOMA2 measures, especially for SIDD, SIRD and MOD. By adding HDL-cholesterol, the MARD cluster based upon HOMA2 measures resulted in the current clustering into two clusters, with one cluster having high HDL levels. Cross-validation between cohorts showed generally a good resemblance between cohorts. Together, our results show that the clustering based on clinical variables readily measured in the clinic (age, HbA, HDL-cholesterol, BMI and C-peptide) results in informative clusters that are representative of the original ANDIS clusters and stable across cohorts. Adding HDL-cholesterol to the clustering resulted in the identification of a cluster with very slow glycaemic deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05490-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Determinants of penetrance and variable expressivity in monogenic metabolic conditions across 77,184 exomes.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3505. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Hundreds of thousands of genetic variants have been reported to cause severe monogenic diseases, but the probability that a variant carrier develops the disease (termed penetrance) is unknown for virtually all of them. Additionally, the clinical utility of common polygenetic variation remains uncertain. Using exome sequencing from 77,184 adult individuals (38,618 multi-ancestral individuals from a type 2 diabetes case-control study and 38,566 participants from the UK Biobank, for whom genotype array data were also available), we apply clinical standard-of-care gene variant curation for eight monogenic metabolic conditions. Rare variants causing monogenic diabetes and dyslipidemias display effect sizes significantly larger than the top 1% of the corresponding polygenic scores. Nevertheless, penetrance estimates for monogenic variant carriers average 60% or lower for most conditions. We assess epidemiologic and genetic factors contributing to risk prediction in monogenic variant carriers, demonstrating that inclusion of polygenic variation significantly improves biomarker estimation for two monogenic dyslipidemias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23556-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190084PMC
June 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

HLA class I genes modulate disease risk and age at onset together with DR-DQ in Chinese patients with insulin-requiring type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diabetology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aims/hypothesis: The study aimed to investigate the effects of HLA class I genes on susceptibility to type 1 diabetes with different onset ages, in addition to the well-established effects of HLA class II genes.

Methods: A total of 361 patients with type 1 diabetes (192 patients with onset <18 years and 169 patients with onset ≥18 years) and 500 healthy control participants from China were enrolled and genotyped for the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1 and -DRB1 genes using next-generation sequencing.

Results: The susceptible DR3 (β = -0.09, p = 0.0009) and DR4-DQ8 (β = -0.13, p = 0.0059) haplotypes were negatively associated with onset age, while the protective DR11 (β = 0.21, p = 0.0314) and DR12 (β = 0.27, p < 0.0001) haplotypes were positively associated with onset age. After adjustment for linkage disequilibrium with DR-DQ haplotypes, A*11:01:01 was positively associated with onset age (β = 0.06, p = 0.0370), while the susceptible C*15:02:01 was negatively associated with onset age (β = -0.21, p = 0.0050). The unit for β was double square-root (fourth root) transformed years of change in onset age associated with per copy of the HLA haplotype/allele. In addition, B*46:01:01 was protective (OR 0.41, 0.46; pc [corrected for multiple comparisons] = 0.0044, 0.0040), whereas A*24:02:01 (OR 2.71, 2.25; pc = 0.0003, 0.0002) and B*54:01:01 (OR 3.96, 3.79; pc = 0.0018, 0.0004) were predisposing in both the <18 group and the ≥18 group compared with healthy control participants. In the context of DR4-DQ4, A*11:01:01 (61.29% vs 28.26%, pc = 0.0144) was increased while the predisposing A*24:02:01 (19.35% vs 47.83%, pc = 0.0403) was decreased in patients with onset ≥18 years when compared with patients with onset <18 years.

Conclusions/interpretation: In addition to DR-DQ haplotypes, novel HLA class I alleles were detected to play a role in susceptibility to type 1 diabetes with different onset ages, which could improve the understanding of disease heterogeneity and has implications for the design of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05476-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic factors affect the susceptibility to bacterial infections in diabetes.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9464. Epub 2021 May 4.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Diabetes increases the risk of bacterial infections. We investigated whether common genetic variants associate with infection susceptibility in Finnish diabetic individuals. We performed genome-wide association studies and pathway analysis for bacterial infection frequency in Finnish adult diabetic individuals (FinnDiane Study; N = 5092, Diabetes Registry Vaasa; N = 4247) using national register data on antibiotic prescription purchases. Replication analyses were performed in a Swedish diabetic population (ANDIS; N = 9602) and in a Finnish non-diabetic population (FinnGen; N = 159,166). Genome-wide data indicated moderate but significant narrow-sense heritability for infection susceptibility (h = 16%, P = 0.02). Variants on chromosome 2 were associated with reduced infection susceptibility (rs62192851, P = 2.23 × 10). Homozygotic carriers of the rs62192851 effect allele (N = 44) had a 37% lower median annual antibiotic purchase rate, compared to homozygotic carriers of the reference allele (N = 4231): 0.38 [IQR 0.22-0.90] and 0.60 [0.30-1.20] respectively, P = 0.01). Variants rs6727834 and rs10188087, in linkage disequilibrium with rs62192851, replicated in the FinnGen-cohort (P < 0.05), but no variants replicated in the ANDIS-cohort. Pathway analysis suggested the IRAK1 mediated NF-κB activation through IKK complex recruitment-pathway to be a mediator of the phenotype. Common genetic variants on chromosome 2 may associate with reduced risk of bacterial infections in Finnish individuals with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88273-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096814PMC
May 2021

Combined lifestyle factors and the risk of LADA and type 2 diabetes - Results from a Swedish population-based case-control study.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Apr 17;174:108760. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes in relation to a healthy lifestyle, the proportion of patients attributable to an unhealthy lifestyle, and the influence of family history of diabetes (FHD) and genetic susceptibility.

Methods: The population-based study included incident LADA (n = 571), type 2 diabetes (n = 1962), and matched controls (n = 2217). A healthy lifestyle was defined by BMI < 25 kg/m, moderate-to-high physical activity, a healthy diet, no smoking, and moderate alcohol consumption. We estimated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex, education, and FHD.

Results: Compared to a poor/moderate lifestyle, a healthy lifestyle was associated with a reduced risk of LADA (OR 0.51, CI 0.34-0.77) and type 2 diabetes (OR 0.09, CI 0.05-0.15). A healthy lifestyle conferred a reduced risk irrespective of FHD and high-risk HLA genotypes. Having a BMI < 25 kg/m conferred the largest risk reduction for both LADA (OR 0.54, CI 0.43-0.66) and type 2 diabetes (OR 0.12, CI 0.10-0.15) out of the individual items.

Conclusion: People with a healthy lifestyle, especially a healthy body weight, have a reduced risk of LADA including those with genetic susceptibility to diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108760DOI Listing
April 2021

Accuracy of 1-Hour Plasma Glucose During the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes in Adults: A Meta-analysis.

Diabetes Care 2021 Apr;44(4):1062-1069

Public Health Promotion Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: One-hour plasma glucose (1-h PG) during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is an accurate predictor of type 2 diabetes. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the optimum cutoff of 1-h PG for detection of type 2 diabetes using 2-h PG as the gold standard.

Research Design And Methods: We included 15 studies with 35,551 participants from multiple ethnic groups (53.8% Caucasian) and 2,705 newly detected cases of diabetes based on 2-h PG during OGTT. We excluded cases identified only by elevated fasting plasma glucose and/or HbA. We determined the optimal 1-h PG threshold and its accuracy at this cutoff for detection of diabetes (2-h PG ≥11.1 mmol/L) using a mixed linear effects regression model with different weights to sensitivity/specificity (2/3, 1/2, and 1/3).

Results: Three cutoffs of 1-h PG, at 10.6 mmol/L, 11.6 mmol/L, and 12.5 mmol/L, had sensitivities of 0.95, 0.92, and 0.87 and specificities of 0.86, 0.91, and 0.94 at weights 2/3, 1/2, and 1/3, respectively. The cutoff of 11.6 mmol/L (95% CI 10.6, 12.6) had a sensitivity of 0.92 (0.87, 0.95), specificity of 0.91 (0.88, 0.93), area under the curve 0.939 (95% confidence region for sensitivity at a given specificity: 0.904, 0.946), and a positive predictive value of 45%.

Conclusions: The 1-h PG of ≥11.6 mmol/L during OGTT has a good sensitivity and specificity for detecting type 2 diabetes. Prescreening with a diabetes-specific risk calculator to identify high-risk individuals is suggested to decrease the proportion of false-positive cases. Studies including other ethnic groups and assessing complication risk are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1688DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationship between insulin sensitivity and gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Feb 27;21(1):32. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes & Endocrinology, Lund University, University Hospital Malmö, SE-20502, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle is a key feature of the pre-diabetic state, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and also predicts type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood.

Methods: To explore these mechanisms, we related global skeletal muscle gene expression profiling of 38 non-diabetic men to a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity, i.e. homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

Results: We identified 70 genes positively and 110 genes inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle, identifying autophagy-related genes as positively correlated with insulin sensitivity. Replication in an independent study of 9 non-diabetic men resulted in 10 overlapping genes that strongly correlated with insulin sensitivity, including SIRT2, involved in lipid metabolism, and FBXW5 that regulates mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) and autophagy. The expressions of SIRT2 and FBXW5 were also positively correlated with the expression of key genes promoting the phenotype of an insulin sensitive myocyte e.g. PPARGC1A.

Conclusions: The muscle expression of 180 genes were correlated with insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that activation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, e.g. SIRT2, and genes regulating autophagy and mTOR signaling, e.g. FBXW5, are associated with increased insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle, reflecting a highly flexible nutrient sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00687-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912896PMC
February 2021

Association of Implementation of a Comprehensive Preconception-to-Pregnancy Management Plan With Pregnancy Outcomes Among Chinese Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes: The CARNATION Study.

Diabetes Care 2021 Apr 24;44(4):883-892. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, U.K.

Objective: To investigate the effect on pregnancy outcome of integrating a comprehensive management plan for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) into the World Health Organization universal maternal care infrastructure.

Research Design And Methods: A comprehensive preconception-to-pregnancy management plan for women with T1D was implemented in 11 centers from 8 Chinese cities from 2015 to 2017. Sequential eligible pregnant women ( = 133 out of 137 initially enrolled) with T1D and singleton pregnancies attending these management centers formed the prospective cohort. The main outcome was severe adverse pregnancy outcome comprising maternal mortality, neonatal death, congenital malformations, miscarriage in the second trimester, and stillbirth. We compared pregnancy outcomes in this prospective cohort with two control groups with the same inclusion and exclusion criteria: a retrospective cohort ( = 153) of all eligible pregnant women with T1D attending the same management centers from 2012 to 2014 and a comparison cohort ( = 116) of all eligible pregnant women with T1D receiving routine care from 2015 to 2017 in 11 different centers from 7 cities.

Results: The rate of severe adverse pregnancy outcome was lower in the prospective cohort (6.02%) than in either the retrospective cohort (18.30%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.31 [95% CI 0.13-0.74]) or the contemporaneous comparison cohort (25.00%; aOR 0.22 [95% CI 0.09-0.52]).

Conclusions: The substantial improvements in the prospective cohort are evidence of a potentially clinically important effect of the comprehensive management plan on pregnancy outcomes among Chinese pregnant women with pregestational T1D. This supports the development of similar approaches in other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-2692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985418PMC
April 2021

Comparison of urinary extracellular vesicle isolation methods for transcriptomic biomarker research in diabetic kidney disease.

J Extracell Vesicles 2020 Dec 7;10(2):e12038. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland.

Urinary Extracellular Vesicles (uEV) have emerged as a source for biomarkers of kidney damage, holding potential to replace the conventional invasive techniques including kidney biopsy. However, comprehensive studies characterizing uEV isolation methods with patient samples are rare. Here we compared performance of three established uEV isolation workflows for their subsequent use in transcriptomics analysis for biomarker discovery in diabetic kidney disease. We collected urine samples from individuals with type 1 diabetes with macroalbuminuria and healthy controls. We isolated uEV by Hydrostatic Filtration Dialysis (HFD), ultracentrifugation (UC), and a commercial kit- based isolation method (NG), each with different established urine clearing steps. Purified EVs were analysed by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blotting. Isolated RNAs were subjected to miRNA and RNA sequencing. HFD and UC samples showed close similarities based on mRNA sequencing data. NG samples had a lower number of reads and different mRNA content compared to HFD or UC. For miRNA sequencing data, satisfactory miRNA counts were obtained by all methods, but miRNA contents differed slightly. This suggests that the isolation workflows enrich specific subpopulations of miRNA-rich uEV preparation components. Our data shows that HFD,UC and the kit-based method are suitable methods to isolate uEV for miRNA-seq. However, only HFD and UC were suitable for mRNA-seq in our settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789228PMC
December 2020

Sex-dimorphic genetic effects and novel loci for fasting glucose and insulin variability.

Nat Commun 2021 01 5;12(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19366-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785747PMC
January 2021

MuscleAtlasExplorer: a web service for studying gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

Database (Oxford) 2020 12;2020

Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Malmö 20502, Sweden.

MuscleAtlasExplorer is a freely available web application that allows for the exploration of gene expression data from human skeletal muscle. It draws from an extensive publicly available dataset of 1654 skeletal muscle expression microarray samples. Detailed, manually curated, patient phenotype data, with information such as age, sex, BMI and disease status, are combined with skeletal muscle gene expression to provide insights into gene function in skeletal muscle. It aims to facilitate easy exploration of the data using powerful data visualization functions, while allowing for sample selection, in-depth inspection and further analysis using external tools. Availability: MuscleAtlasExplorer is available at https://mae.crc.med.lu.se/mae2 (username 'muscle' and password 'explorer' pre-publication).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/baaa111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747357PMC
December 2020

Genetic Predisposition to Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 12 13;13(6):e002769. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

The Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences & Informatics (A.D.M.), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).

Methods: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D).

Results: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background.

Conclusions: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748049PMC
December 2020

Genetic analysis of obstructive sleep apnoea discovers a strong association with cardiometabolic health.

Eur Respir J 2021 05 6;57(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

There is currently limited understanding of the genetic aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with OSA risk, and to test if OSA and its comorbidities share a common genetic background.We conducted the first large-scale genome-wide association study of OSA using the FinnGen study (217 955 individuals) with 16 761 OSA patients identified using nationwide health registries.We estimated 0.08 (95% CI 0.06-0.11) heritability and identified five loci associated with OSA (p<5.0×10): rs4837016 near (GTPase activating protein and VPS9 domains 1), rs10928560 near (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4), rs185932673 near (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID) and rs9937053 near (fat mass and obesity-associated protein; a variant previously associated with body mass index (BMI)). In a BMI-adjusted analysis, an association was observed for rs10507084 near / (rhabdomyosarcoma 2 associated transcript/NEDD1 γ-tubulin ring complex targeting factor). We found high genetic correlations between OSA and BMI (r=0.72 (95% CI 0.62-0.83)), and with comorbidities including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, hypothyroidism, asthma and inflammatory rheumatic disease (r>0.30). The polygenic risk score for BMI showed 1.98-fold increased OSA risk between the highest and the lowest quintile, and Mendelian randomisation supported a causal relationship between BMI and OSA.Our findings support the causal link between obesity and OSA, and the joint genetic basis between OSA and comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.03091-2020DOI Listing
May 2021

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Low-cost exercise interventions improve long-term cardiometabolic health independently of a family history of type 2 diabetes: a randomized parallel group trial.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 11;8(2)

Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: To investigate the effect of an exercise prescription and a 1-year supervised exercise intervention, and the modifying effect of the family history of type 2 diabetes (FH), on long-term cardiometabolic health.

Research Design And Methods: For this prospective randomized trial, we recruited non-diabetic participants with poor fitness (n=1072, 30-70 years). Participants were randomly assigned with stratification for FH either in the exercise prescription group (PG, n=144) or the supervised exercise group (EG, n=146) group and compared with a matched control group from the same population study (CON, n=782). The PG and EG received exercise prescriptions. In addition, the EG attended supervised exercise sessions two times a week for 60 min for 12 months. Cardiometabolic risk factors were measured at baseline, 1 year, 5 years, and 6 years. The CON group received no intervention and was measured at baseline and 6 years.

Results: The EG reduced their body weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) but not physical fitness (p=0.074) or insulin or glucose regulation (p>0.1) compared with the PG at 1 year and 5 years (p≤0.011). The observed differences were attenuated at 6 years; however, participants in the both intervention groups significantly improved their blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity compared with the population controls (p≤0.003). FH modified LDL-C and waist circumference responses to exercise at 1 year and 5 years.

Conclusions: Low-cost physical activity programs have long-term beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health regardless of the FH of diabetes. Given the feasibility and low cost of these programs, they should be advocated to promote cardiometabolic health.

Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02131701.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682194PMC
November 2020

Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide in the High-Normal Range Is Associated With Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness.

Diabetes Care 2021 Jan 18;44(1):224-230. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Objective: While existing evidence supports beneficial cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), emerging studies suggest that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and/or signaling via the GIP receptor may have untoward cardiovascular effects. Indeed, recent studies show that fasting physiological GIP levels are associated with total mortality and cardiovascular mortality, and it was suggested that GIP plays a role in pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We investigated the associations between fasting and postchallenge GIP and GLP-1 concentrations and subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by mean intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMTCCA) and maximal intima-media thickness in the carotid bifurcation (IMTBulb).

Research Design And Methods: Participants at reexamination within the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort study ( = 3,734, mean age 72.5 years, 59.3% women, 10.8% subjects with diabetes, fasting GIP available for 3,342 subjects, fasting GLP-1 available for 3,299 subjects) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing and carotid ultrasound.

Results: In linear regression analyses, each 1-SD increment of fasting GIP was associated with increased (per mm) IMTCCA (β = 0.010, = 0.010) and IMTBulb (β = 0.014; = 0.040) in models adjusted for known risk factors and glucose metabolism. In contrast, each 1-SD increment of fasting GLP-1 was associated with decreased IMTBulb (per mm, β = -0.016, = 0.014). These associations remained significant when subjects with diabetes were excluded from analyses.

Conclusions: In a Swedish elderly population, physiologically elevated levels of fasting GIP are associated with increased IMTCCA, while GLP-1 is associated with decreased IMTBulb, further emphasizing diverging cardiovascular effects of these two incretin hormones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1318DOI Listing
January 2021

Increased Plasma Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor Alpha Levels in Patients With Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes With Vascular Complications Associated With and Gene Polymorphisms.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 30;11:575469. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely considered an autoimmune disease leading to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Further, patients with T1D have 3-4-fold increased risk of developing micro- and macrovascular complications. However, the contribution of immune-related factors contributing to these diabetes complications are poorly understood. Individuals with long-term T1D who do not progress to vascular complications offer a great potential to evaluate end-organ protection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of inflammatory protein levels with vascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease) in individuals with long-term T1D compared to individuals who rapidly progressed to complications. We studied a panel of inflammatory markers in plasma of patients with long-term T1D with (n = 81 and 26) and without (n = 313 and 25) vascular complications from two cross-sectional Scandinavian cohorts (PROLONG and DIALONG) using Luminex technology. A subset of PROLONG individuals (n = 61) was screened for circulating immune cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We found that elevated plasma levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2R) were positively associated with the complication phenotype. Risk carriers of polymorphisms in the and gene region had elevated plasma levels of sIL-2R. In addition, cell surface marker analysis revealed a shift from naïve to effector T cells in T1D individuals with vascular complications as compared to those without. In contrast, no difference between the groups was observed either in IL-2R cell surface expression or in regulatory T cell population size. In conclusion, our data indicates that and gene variants might increase the risk of developing vascular complications in people with T1D, by affecting sIL-2R plasma levels and potentially lowering T cell responsiveness. Thus, elevated sIL-2R plasma levels may serve as a biomarker in monitoring the risk for developing diabetic complications and thereby improve patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.575469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664831PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide association analysis of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study.

Sci Data 2020 11 13;7(1):393. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic and lifestyle behavioural factors on the risk of T2D, a total of 12,403 individuals were identified as incident T2D cases, and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals was selected from a larger cohort of 340,234 participants with a follow-up time of 3.99 million person-years. We describe the results from a genome-wide association analysis between more than 8.9 million SNPs and T2D risk among 22,326 individuals (9,978 cases and 12,348 non-cases) from the EPIC-InterAct study. The summary statistics to be shared provide a valuable resource to facilitate further investigations into the genetics of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00716-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666191PMC
November 2020

Adult-onset diabetes in Middle Eastern immigrants to Sweden: Novel subgroups and diabetic complications-The All New Diabetes in Scania cohort diabetic complications and ethnicity.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2020 Oct 29:e3419. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Middle Eastern immigrants to Europe represent a high risk population for type 2 diabetes. We compared prevalence of novel subgroups and assessed risk of diabetic macro- and microvascular complications between diabetes patients of Middle Eastern and European origin.

Methods: This study included newly diagnosed diabetes patients born in Sweden (N = 10641) or Iraq (N = 286), previously included in the All New Diabetes in Scania cohort. The study was conducted between January 2008 and August 2016. Patients were followed to April 2017. Incidence rates in diabetic macro- and microvascular complications were assessed using cox-regression adjusting for the confounding effect of age at onset, sex, anthropometrics, glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and HbA1c.

Findings: In Iraqi immigrants versus native Swedes, severe insulin-deficient diabetes was almost twice as common (27.9 vs. 16.2% p < 0.001) but severe insulin-resistant diabetes was less prevalent. Patients born in Iraq had higher risk of coronary events (hazard ratio [HR] 1.84, 95% CI 1.06-3.12) but considerably lower risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than Swedes (HR 0.19; 0.05-0.76). The lower risk in Iraqi immigrants was partially attributed to better eGFR. Genetic risk scores (GRS) showed more genetic variants associated with poor insulin secretion but lower risk of insulin resistance in the Iraqi than native Swedish group.

Interpretation: People with diabetes, born in the Middle East present with a more insulin-deficient phenotype and genotype than native Swedes. They have a higher risk of coronary events but lower risk of CKD. Ethnic differences should be considered in the preventive work towards diabetes and its complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3419DOI Listing
October 2020

Blood-based epigenetic estimators of chronological age in human adults using DNA methylation data from the Illumina MethylationEPIC array.

BMC Genomics 2020 Oct 27;21(1):747. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Centre for Fertility and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Epigenetic clocks have been recognized for their precise prediction of chronological age, age-related diseases, and all-cause mortality. Existing epigenetic clocks are based on CpGs from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450 K) which has now been replaced by the latest platform, Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip (EPIC). Thus, it remains unclear to what extent EPIC contributes to increased precision and accuracy in the prediction of chronological age.

Results: We developed three blood-based epigenetic clocks for human adults using EPIC-based DNA methylation (DNAm) data from the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository: 1) an Adult Blood-based EPIC Clock (ABEC) trained on DNAm data from MoBa (n = 1592, age-span: 19 to 59 years), 2) an extended ABEC (eABEC) trained on DNAm data from MoBa and GEO (n = 2227, age-span: 18 to 88 years), and 3) a common ABEC (cABEC) trained on the same training set as eABEC but restricted to CpGs common to 450 K and EPIC. Our clocks showed high precision (Pearson correlation between chronological and epigenetic age (r) > 0.94) in independent cohorts, including GSE111165 (n = 15), GSE115278 (n = 108), GSE132203 (n = 795), and the Epigenetics in Pregnancy (EPIPREG) study of the STORK Groruddalen Cohort (n = 470). This high precision is unlikely due to the use of EPIC, but rather due to the large sample size of the training set.

Conclusions: Our ABECs predicted adults' chronological age precisely in independent cohorts. As EPIC is now the dominant platform for measuring DNAm, these clocks will be useful in further predictions of chronological age, age-related diseases, and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07168-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590728PMC
October 2020

Serology assessment of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 by rapid IgM/IgG antibody test.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 Sep 20;10(1):1821513. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Detection of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test and performed serology assessment of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n = 45), the total antibody detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with <2 weeks from disease onset; 85% in non-hospitalized patients with >2 weeks disease duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with >2 weeks disease duration. We also compared different blood sample types and suggest a higher sensitivity by serum/plasma over whole blood. Test specificity was determined to be 97% on 69 sera/plasma samples collected between 2016-2018. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody detection patterns in association with disease progress and hospitalization. Our results support that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1821513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534290PMC
September 2020

Genetic variant effects on gene expression in human pancreatic islets and their implications for T2D.

Nat Commun 2020 09 30;11(1):4912. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Most signals detected by genome-wide association studies map to non-coding sequence and their tissue-specific effects influence transcriptional regulation. However, key tissues and cell-types required for functional inference are absent from large-scale resources. Here we explore the relationship between genetic variants influencing predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits, and human pancreatic islet transcription using data from 420 donors. We find: (a) 7741 cis-eQTLs in islets with a replication rate across 44 GTEx tissues between 40% and 73%; (b) marked overlap between islet cis-eQTL signals and active regulatory sequences in islets, with reduced eQTL effect size observed in the stretch enhancers most strongly implicated in GWAS signal location; (c) enrichment of islet cis-eQTL signals with T2D risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies; and (d) colocalization between 47 islet cis-eQTLs and variants influencing T2D or glycemic traits, including DGKB and TCF7L2. Our findings illustrate the advantages of performing functional and regulatory studies in disease relevant tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18581-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528108PMC
September 2020

Epigenetic markers associated with metformin response and intolerance in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes.

Sci Transl Med 2020 09;12(561)

Epigenetics and Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Scania University Hospital, 214 28 Malmö, Sweden.

Metformin is the first-line pharmacotherapy for managing type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, many patients with T2D do not respond to or tolerate metformin well. Currently, there are no phenotypes that successfully predict glycemic response to, or tolerance of, metformin. We explored whether blood-based epigenetic markers could discriminate metformin response and tolerance by analyzing genome-wide DNA methylation in drug-naïve patients with T2D at the time of their diagnosis. DNA methylation of 11 and 4 sites differed between glycemic responders/nonresponders and metformin-tolerant/intolerant patients, respectively, in discovery and replication cohorts. Greater methylation at these sites associated with a higher risk of not responding to or not tolerating metformin with odds ratios between 1.43 and 3.09 per 1-SD methylation increase. Methylation risk scores (MRSs) of the 11 identified sites differed between glycemic responders and nonresponders with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.80 to 0.98. MRSs of the 4 sites associated with future metformin intolerance generated AUCs of 0.85 to 0.93. Some of these blood-based methylation markers mirrored the epigenetic pattern in adipose tissue, a key tissue in diabetes pathogenesis, and genes to which these markers were annotated to had biological functions in hepatocytes that altered metformin-related phenotypes. Overall, we could discriminate between glycemic responders/nonresponders and participants tolerant/intolerant to metformin at diagnosis by measuring blood-based epigenetic markers in drug-naïve patients with T2D. This epigenetics-based tool may be further developed to help patients with T2D receive optimal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz1803DOI Listing
September 2020

Subtypes of Type 2 Diabetes Determined From Clinical Parameters.

Diabetes 2020 10 25;69(10):2086-2093. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is defined by a single metabolite, glucose, but is increasingly recognized as a highly heterogeneous disease, including individuals with varying clinical characteristics, disease progression, drug response, and risk of complications. Identification of subtypes with differing risk profiles and disease etiologies at diagnosis could open up avenues for personalized medicine and allow clinical resources to be focused to the patients who would be most likely to develop diabetic complications, thereby both improving patient health and reducing costs for the health sector. More homogeneous populations also offer increased power in experimental, genetic, and clinical studies. Clinical parameters are easily available and reflect relevant disease pathways, including the effects of both genetic and environmental exposures. We used six clinical parameters (GAD autoantibodies, age at diabetes onset, HbA, BMI, and measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion) to cluster adult-onset diabetes patients into five subtypes. These subtypes have been robustly reproduced in several populations and associated with different risks of complications, comorbidities, genetics, and response to treatment. Importantly, the group with severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD) had increased risk of retinopathy and neuropathy, whereas the severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD) group had the highest risk for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and fatty liver, emphasizing the importance of insulin resistance for DKD and hepatosteatosis in T2D. In conclusion, we believe that subclassification using these highly relevant parameters could provide a framework for personalized medicine in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi20-0001DOI Listing
October 2020

Physical Activity, Genetic Susceptibility, and the Risk of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults and Type 2 Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 11;105(11)

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: Physical activity (PA) has been linked to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes by reducing weight and improving insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether PA is associated with a lower incidence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and whether the association is modified by genotypes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2)-rs7903146, or the fat mass and obesity-associated gene, FTO-rs9939609.

Methods: We combined data from a Swedish case-control study and a Norwegian prospective study including 621 incident cases of LADA and 3596 cases of type 2 diabetes. We estimated adjusted pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI of diabetes in relation to high (≥ 30 minutes of moderate activity 3 times/week) self-reported leisure time PA, compared to sedentariness.

Results: High PA was associated with a reduced risk of LADA (RR 0.61; CI, 0.43-0.86), which was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (RR 0.90; CI, 0.63-1.29). The reduced risk applied only to noncarriers of HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 (RR 0.49; CI, 0.33-0.72), TCF7L2 (RR 0.62; CI, 0.45-0.87), and FTO (RR 0.51; CI, 0.32-0.79) risk genotypes. Adjustment for BMI attenuated but did not eliminate these associations. For type 2 diabetes, there was an inverse association with PA (RR 0.49; CI, 0.42-0.56), irrespective of genotype.

Main Conclusions: Our findings indicate that high PA is associated with a reduced risk of LADA in individuals without genetic susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947966PMC
November 2020