Publications by authors named "Lei Zhao"

2,291 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Differences in patterns of metabolic abnormality and metabolic syndrome between early-onset and adult-onset first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia patients.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jun 29;132:105344. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Although metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) often occur in schizophrenia, few studies have investigated them in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients. To our knowledge, this was the first to compare clinical correlates of metabolic abnormalities between first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) EOS and adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) patients. A total of 489 Chinese FEDN schizophrenia patients (116 EOS and 373 AOS) and 451 healthy controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), Body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin and insulin resistance were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to evaluate the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients, and higher scores on PANSS indicate increased severity. EOS patients had lower rates of: MetS, elevated WC, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hyper-LDLC than EOS patients (all p < 0.05). In EOS patients, WC was positively associated with PANSS general psychopathology score (p = 0.04). In AOS patients, WC (p = 0.01; p = 0.02) and glucose (p < 0.001; p < 0.001) were positively associated with PANSS general psychopathology and total score. HOMA-IR was positively associated with PANSS total score (p = 0.04). Systolic BP, triglycerides and HDLC were main contributors to MetS in AOS (all p < 0.05), but not in EOS. BMI was a risk factor of MetS in EOS, while BMI and HOMA-IR were risk factors of MetS in AOS (all p < 0.05). Our results indicate differences in metabolic abnormalities patterns, risk factors and their association with clinical characteristics between Chinese EOS and AOS patients. DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT: The datasets that support the findings of this study are not publically available due to ongoing analyses for further publications, but are available from the corresponding author X.Z. upon reasonable request.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2021.105344DOI Listing
June 2021

LncRNA CASC2 is involved in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease targeting miR-18a-5p/IGF1 axis.

Ther Adv Respir Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;15:17534666211028072

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pudong New Area Gongli Hospital, 219 Miao-Pu Road, Shanghai 200315, PR China.

Aims: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a systemic disease. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be aberrantly expressed in COPD patients. This study investigated the role of lncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) in COPD, as well as its potential mechanism.

Methods: Fifty smokers with COPD and another 50 smokers without COPD were recruited. Receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to assess the diagnostic value of CASC2 in COPD patients. 16HBE cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to establish a cell model. qRT-PCR was used for the measurement of mRNA levels. The cell viability and apoptosis were detected by using Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Luciferase reporter assay was performed for the target gene analysis.

Results: Serum CASC2 was dramatically decreased in COPD patients compared with smokers without COPD, and was positively associated with FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second). Serum CASC2 was overexpressed in severe COPD patients, and had the diagnostic accuracy to distinguish COPD patients from smokers. CASC2 overexpression alleviated CSE-induced apoptosis and inflammation in 16HBE cells. CASC2 functions as a ceRNA of miR-18a-5p. Upregulation of miR-18a-5p reversed the influence of CASC2 on cell apoptosis and inflammation in 16HBE cells. IGF1 was the target gene of miR-18a-5p.

Conclusion: CASC2 was downregulated in COPD patients and it might be a promising biomarker for the disease diagnosis. Overexpression of CASC2 might inhibit the bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and inflammation targeting miR-18a-5p/IGF1 axis..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17534666211028072DOI Listing
July 2021

Comorbid major depression in first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia: Analysis of the Depression in Schizophrenia in China (DISC) study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 5;294:33-38. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Depression is very common in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the diagnosed major depressive episode (MDE) in first episode and drug naive (FEDN) schizophrenia. To our best knowledge, this is the first large sample study to examine the prevalence, clinical correlates and associated factors of diagnosed MDE in FEDN schizophrenia, as well as the relationship between depressive symptoms and psychopathological symptoms in these schizophrenia patients.

Methods: A total of 996 FEDN schizophrenia patients were recruited. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were used to assess the severity of depression and psychopathology, respectively.

Results: Our results demonstrated that MDE coexisted in nearly half (49.30%) of FEDN schizophrenia patients. Male gender, smoking, PANSS general psychopathology and early age of onset were associated with MDE in patients with FEDN schizophrenia (all p<0.05). In schizophrenia patients with MDE, oridinal logistic regression showed that men (OR=6.65, 95%CI: 4.12-10.45, p<0.001) and smoking (OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.25-3.01, p=0.003) were positively associated with severity category of depression (all p<0.05), while multivariate regression showed that HAMD17 total score was significantly associated with the PANSS general psychopathology (B=0.06, t=2.72, p=0.007) and total scores (B=0.04, t=2.57, p=0.01).

Conclusion: Our study shows that the prevalence of comorbid MDE is high in FEDN schizophrenia patients. Some demographic and clinical variables are associated with the severity of depression in these schizophrenia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.075DOI Listing
July 2021

Highly stable CsPbBr perovskite quantum dot-doped tellurite glass nanocomposite scintillator.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(14):3448-3451

All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) appear to be promising scintillators for radiation detection; however, they are suffering from poor stabilities against light, heat, and moisture. Here a strategy of using AgCl as the nucleating agent is developed to facilitate growth of PQDs in chemically inert tellurite glasses via controlled crystallization. The PQDs are uniformly dispersed and well protected in the dense glass matrix without aggregation. The nanocomposites thus obtained are featured by excellent optical transparency owing to the unique character of tellurite glass having a refractive index comparable to that of the crystal. The X-ray excited radioluminescence properties are comprehensively studied. The results show that PQD-doped tellurite glasses are highly stable against continuous X-ray irradiation and repeated heat-cooling cycles (from room temperature up to 573 K) without sacrificing their scintillation properties, thus appearing to be a potential scintillator for long-term practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.430990DOI Listing
July 2021

A modified percutaneous atrial balloon septoplasty for difficult transseptal puncture.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(28):e26525

Heart Center & Beijing Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Abstract: Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation sometimes encounters difficulty in passing the interatrial septum. This study reports a modified percutaneous atrial balloon septoplasty with short balloon to gain access to left atrium (LA) during challenging transseptal puncture (TSP).We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients (61.75 ± 7.31 years, 45% male) who received modified percutaneous atrial balloon septoplasty from August 2015 to October 2018. Soft-headed balance middle weight (BMW) guidewire was inserted into left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV) and short non-compliant balloon (15 mm in length and 4.0 or 5.0 mm in diameter) was used for atrial balloon septoplasty (ABS). Interatrial septum was located with inflated balloon and contrast "Hitting Wall" sign. All patients were followed-up for iatrogenic atrial septal defect (iASD) and other related complications.ABS and LA access were performed successfully without complications in all 20 patients. Time needed for ABS was correlated to the number of prior TSP (P = .007). During the 6-month follow-up, no remaining iASD was found by echocardiography.For atrial fibrillation patients with difficulty in passing the interatrial septum, this modified percutaneous ABS might be an alternative strategy which is safe to obtain transseptal access without short or long term complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284759PMC
July 2021

Laboratory experimental study of the evaporation and mechanical behaviour of deposited tailings.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, China.

Surface deposition has been widely used in the mining industry to manage mill tailings. Tailings are generally discharged in the form of a slurry into tailings ponds. The slurried tailings are deposited in layers that undergo complex processes, e.g. evaporation, desiccation and consolidation. The evaporation of the deposited tailings controls their geotechnical engineering behaviour, which is necessary to characterise the physical properties. In this study, a constant temperature device was employed in evaporation tests to investigate two classes of deposited tailings, and the effects of the initial concentration, particle size, exposure area and deposited layer thickness on the evaporation processes were analysed. The test results showed four stages in the evaporation processes of deposited coarse and fine tailings. Dewatering of the deposited tailings occurred during the first two stages, which were keys to improving the desiccation efficiency of the tailings in the pond. The exposure area and deposited layer thickness also had a considerable influence on evaporation. The evaporation rate increased with the exposure area and layer thickness. Direct shear tests were performed to measure the shear strength of intact tailings during evaporation and used to determine the variation law of the mechanical properties of the test tailings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14951-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Decoding of Motor Coordination Imagery Involving the Lower Limbs by the EEG-Based Brain Network.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 23;2021:5565824. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Brain Cognition and Brain-computer Intelligence Integration Group, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

Compared with the efficacy of traditional physical therapy, a new therapy utilizing motor imagery can induce brain plasticity and allows partial recovery of motor ability in patients with hemiplegia after stroke. Here, we proposed an updated paradigm utilizing motor coordination imagery involving the lower limbs (normal gait imagery and hemiplegic gait imagery after stroke) and decoded such imagery via an electroencephalogram- (EEG-) based brain network. Thirty subjects were recruited to collect EEGs during motor coordination imagery involving the lower limbs. Time-domain analysis, power spectrum analysis, time-frequency analysis, brain network analysis, and statistical analysis were used to explore the neural mechanisms of motor coordination imagery involving the lower limbs. Then, EEG-based brain network features were extracted, and a support vector machine was used for decoding. The results showed that the two employed motor coordination imageries mainly activated sensorimotor areas; the frequency band power was mainly concentrated within theta and alpha bands, and brain functional connections mainly occurred in the right forehead. The combination of the network attributes of the EEG-based brain network and the spatial features of the adjacency matrix had good separability for the two kinds of gait imagery ( < 0.05), and the average classification accuracy of the combination feature was 92.96% ± 7.54%. Taken together, our findings suggest that brain network features can be used to identify normal gait imagery and hemiplegic gait imagery after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5565824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245246PMC
June 2021

Development and validation of survival nomograms in colorectal cancer patients with synchronous liver metastases underwent simultaneous surgical treatment of primary and metastatic lesions.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(6):2654-2669. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Oncological and Laparoscopic Surgery, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Colorectal cancer patients with synchronous liver metastases (CRSLM) can be treated by simultaneous surgery, that is the primary tumor and liver metastasis are removed at the same time. However, criteria for simultaneous surgery are underwent continuously modified and expanded. An appropriate selection of adequate candidates for simultaneous surgery is vital to get best benefits. A retrospective study including CRSLM patients underwent simultaneous surgical treatment was conducted. CRSLM patients from SEER database were screened as development set, while CRSLM patients in Harbin (China) were enrolled as validation set. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were applied as end-point. Variables were screen by LASSO-Cox regression, then Cox regression was applied to construct 1-, 3- and 5-year OS, and CSS nomograms. Nomograms were compared to TMN stage for survival prediction and evaluated by concordance indexes (C-indexes), Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Decision Curve Analysis (DCA). 1347 and 112 CRSLM patients were included in the development set and validation set respectively. Nine factors were found associated with OS and CSS, i.e., Age, Primary Site, Differentiation grade, Histology type, T stage, N stage, Tumor size, Chemotherapy, CEA. Compared to the TNM stage, OS nomogram in development set and validation set got C-indexes values of 0.701 vs 0.641, 0.670 vs 0.557 respectively. Meanwhile, compared to the TNM stage, CSS nomogram in development set and validation set got C-indexes values of 0.704 vs 0.649, 0.677 vs 0.569 respectively. AUC values of the OS and CSS nomograms were higher than the TNM stage, DCA showed the OS and CSS nomograms got more clinical net benefit than the TNM stage, in both the development set and validation set. Our nomograms for predicting survival might be helpful to identify the right CRSLM patients who can get most benefit from simultaneous surgery.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263634PMC
June 2021

Identification and Characterization of Genes Encoding the Hydroxypyruvate Reductases in Reveal Their Distinct Roles in Photorespiration.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:690296. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Photorespiration plays an important role in maintaining normal physiological metabolism in higher plants and other oxygenic organisms, such as algae. The unicellular eukaryotic organism is reported to have a photorespiration system different from that in higher plants, and only two out of nine genes encoding photorespiratory enzymes have been experimentally characterized. Hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR), which is responsible for the conversion of hydroxypyruvate into glycerate, is poorly understood and not yet explored in . To identify the candidate genes encoding hydroxypyruvate reductases in (CrHPR) and uncover their elusive functions, we performed sequence comparison, enzyme activity measurement, subcellular localization, and analysis of knockout/knockdown strains. Together, we identify five proteins to be good candidates for CrHPRs, all of which are detected with the activity of hydroxypyruvate reductase. CrHPR1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent enzyme in mitochondria, may function as the major component of photorespiration. Its deletion causes severe photorespiratory defects. CrHPR2 takes part in the cytosolic bypass of photorespiration as the compensatory pathway of CrHPR1 for the reduction of hydroxypyruvate. CrHPR4, with NADH as the cofactor, may participate in photorespiration by acting as the chloroplastidial glyoxylate reductase in glycolate-quinone oxidoreductase system. Therefore, the results reveal that CrHPRs are far more complex than previously recognized and provide a greatly expanded knowledge base for studies to understand how CrHPRs perform their functions in photorespiration. These will facilitate both modification of photorespiration and genetic engineering for crop improvement by synthetic biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.690296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264790PMC
June 2021

A rare case of ciliated muconodular papillary tumor accompanied with adenocarcinoma in situ.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Jul 12;21(1):223. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Des Moines University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Des Moines, IA, 50312, USA.

Background: Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is an incredibly rare pulmonary tumor. Currently, little is known about CMPT, and it has not yet been classified by the World Health Organization. The clinical manifestation of CMPT is nonspecific and the diagnosis is only based on pathology. CMPT has been documented in limited reports as a benign tumor, thus the treatment is typically with surgical excision if a solid tumor is identifiable. The prognosis of CMPT is very positive, as no recurrence has been reported in the limited literature available. However, CMPT accompanied with adenocarcinoma in situ has not been reported previously in the literature.

Case Presentation: In this report, we presented a case of a 53-year-old male smoker with CMPT associated with adenocarcinoma in situ. This diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination, including immunohistostaining. No solid resectable lesion was identified on CT scan; therefore, no surgery was performed. The patient's adenocarcinoma in situ was disseminated in both lungs, thus chemotherapeutic treatment with cisplatin and pemetrexed was given. The patient will be continually followed up closely on a wait-and-watch basis.

Conclusions: In summary, our report reveals a unique case of CMPT in conjunction with adenocarcinoma in situ, potentially revealing an association between CMPT and malignancy which has not been previously reported. More similar case studies will be beneficial to determine the authentic relationship between CMPT and adenocarcinoma in situ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01581-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273990PMC
July 2021

The interaction between gut microbiota and flavonoid extract from Roxb. and its potent alleviation of fatty liver.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Fatty liver is associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and low-grade chronic inflammation. Herein we report the interaction of the flavonoid extract from Smilax glabra Roxb. (FSGR) with gut microbiota. Then, FSGR's function of modulating microbiota in a rat model of high-fat diet (HFD) induced fatty liver has been explored. These investigations indicated that the main compound in FSGR, such as astilbin and its isomers, could be metabolized to aglycone, while further splitting resulted in some phenolic acid compounds through a redox reaction. The data obtained clearly showed that FSGR not only alleviated the steatosis degree of liver cells and modulated the contents of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the intestinal tract, but also reversed gut dysbiosis induced by HFD as prognosticated by the decreased ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) and altered gene expression. The results demonstrated that FSGR probably could be used as a prebiotic agent to impede gut dysbiosis and fatty liver-related metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00727kDOI Listing
July 2021

Long non-coding RNA LINC00607 silencing exerts antioncogenic effects on thyroid cancer through the CASP9 Promoter methylation.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of General Surgery Three Wards, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, China.

Thyroid cancer (TC) was the most frequent thyroid malignant tumour, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumours. Some long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to exert essential tumour promotion effects, while caspase-9 (CASP9) gene could play a promotive role in the cell apoptosis in TC. However, whether they have a specific effect on TC remains unclear. Hence, this study aims to explore the relationship between LINC00607 and CASP9, and its effect in TC. LINC00607 expression in the TC tissues and cell lines was determined. Then, we explored the combination effect between a LINC00607 and a methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-dc in doxorubicin-resistant ARO cells using colony formation assay, flow cytometry, WST-1 and EdU assay, as well as in vivo tumour growth assay. Besides, the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, RIP, ChIP, methylation-specific PCR and BSP method were employed to detect the relationship between LINC00607 and CASP9 and its methylation. LINC00607 expression was up-regulated in the doxorubicin-resistant TC cell lines and tissues and negatively correlated to the poor prognosis of TC patients. Knockdown of LINC00607 suppressed doxorubicin resistance, proliferation and colony formation, and promoted cell apoptosis of TC cells in vitro, as well as suppressed tumour growth in vivo, whereas LINC00607 overexpression was observed to exercise the opposite effects. Notably, it was also revealed that LINC00607 down-regulated the CASP9 expression by promoting CASP9 promoter methylation. In conclusion, LINC00607 could inhibit the apoptosis and augment the doxorubicin resistance of TC cells by decreasing CASP9 expression, which might provide a novel therapeutic target for TC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16265DOI Listing
July 2021

Hypermucinous, Goblet Cell Deficient, and Crypt Cell Dysplasias in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are Often Associated with Flat/Invisible Endoscopic Appearance and Advanced Neoplasia on Follow-Up.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Pathology, New York, NY.

Background And Aims: Several different types of non-conventional dysplasia have been recently described in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hypermucinous, goblet cell deficient, and crypt cell dysplasias have received more attention, but there is limited information regarding their clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes.

Methods: A total of 126 cases of hypermucinous (n = 55), goblet cell deficient (n = 26), and crypt cell (n = 45) dysplasias from 97 IBD patients were collected from 7 different institutions and analyzed.

Results: The cohort included 62 (64%) men and 35 (36%) women with a mean age of 49 years (range: 20-78). The majority of affected patients had longstanding IBD (mean duration: 18 years). Nineteen (20%) patients had a concurrent history of primary sclerosing cholangitis. As a group, non-conventional dysplasia was predominantly found in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 68; 70%) and occurred in the left colon (n = 80; 63%); however, hypermucinous dysplasia (57%) was the least frequently associated with UC compared with goblet cell deficient (74%) and crypt cell (89%) dysplasias (p = 0.016). Fifty (52%) patients had a history of conventional dysplasia, detected in the same colonic segment as non-conventional dysplasia at a rate of 33%. Goblet cell deficient dysplasia (74%) was more frequently associated with conventional dysplasia than hypermucinous (43%) and crypt cell (48%) dysplasias (p = 0.044). While hypermucinous dysplasia often had a polypoid appearance (58%), crypt cell (96%) and goblet cell deficient (65%) dysplasias were more likely to present as flat/invisible lesions (p < 0.001). Most lesions were low-grade (87%) at diagnosis, but goblet cell deficient dysplasia (31%) more often showed high-grade dysplasia (HGD) than hypermucinous (15%) and crypt cell (0%) dysplasias (p = 0.003). Hypermucinous dysplasia usually demonstrated a tubulovillous/villous architecture (76%), whereas goblet cell deficient dysplasia was predominantly tubular (92%). A flat architecture was exclusively associated with crypt cell dysplasia (100%) (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical stain results for p53 were available for 33 lesions; 14 (42%) showed strong (3+) and patchy (10-50%) to diffuse (> 50%) nuclear overexpression or null staining pattern, including 4 (33%) of 12 hypermucinous, 2 (29%) of 7 goblet cell deficient, and 8 (57%) of 14 crypt cell dysplastic lesions (p = 0.726). Follow-up biopsies or resections were available for 92 low-grade lesions from 71 patients; 55 (60%) lesions, including 19 (49%) of 39 hypermucinous, 10 (59%) of 17 goblet cell deficient, and 26 (72%) of 36 crypt cell dysplastic lesions (p = 0.116), were associated with subsequent detection of HGD (n = 34; 37%) or adenocarcinoma (n = 21; 23%) at the site of previous biopsy or in the same colonic segment within a mean follow-up time of 12 months (range: < 1-73).

Conclusions: Hypermucinous, goblet cell deficient, and crypt cell dysplasias have distinct clinicopathologic features but appear to have a similar high risk of association with advanced neoplasia (HGD or adenocarcinoma). Greater than half of the lesions (66%) presented as flat/invisible dysplasia, suggesting that IBD patients may benefit from random biopsy sampling in addition to targeted biopsies. Although not uncommonly associated with conventional dysplasia, non-conventional dysplasia may be the only dysplastic subtype identified in IBD patients. Therefore, it is important to recognize these non-conventional subtypes and recommend complete removal and/or careful examination and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab120DOI Listing
July 2021

The impact of thiamine deficiency and benfotiamine treatment on Nod-like receptor protein-3 inflammasome in microglia.

Neuroreport 2021 Aug;32(12):1041-1048

Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan university.

Thiamine-dependent processes are critical in cerebral glucose metabolism, it is abnormity induces oxidative stress, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated inflammation is closely related to neurologic diseases and can be activated by oxidative stress. However, the impact of thiamine deficiency on NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unknown. In this study, we found that NLRP3 inflammasomes were significantly activated in the microglia of thiamine deficiency mice model. In contrast, benfotiamine dampened inflammation NLRP3 mediated in BV2 cells stimulated with LPS and ATP through reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels and mitigating autophagy flux defect. These data identify an important role of thiamine metabolism in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and correcting thiamine metabolism through benfotiamine provides a new therapeutic strategy for NLRP3 inflammasome related neurological, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001691DOI Listing
August 2021

Circulating CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells are elevated in active rheumatoid arthritis and reflect the severity of the disease.

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To examine the expression and clinical significance of circulating CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells in peripheral blood of 35 patients with active RA, 17 with RA in stable remission, and 24 healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum IgG and circulating plasmablast percentages were measured and correlations with CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells were systematically analyzed. Disease Activity Scale 28 (DAS28) scores were also calculated and correlation analysis with CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells was conducted. The levels of CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells were compared before and after disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment. Cytokine levels in plasma and cytokine secretion in CD4 cells were measured and their correlations with CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells were further analyzed.

Results: The levels of CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with active RA were significantly increased compared with healthy controls. CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells in patients with active RA were positively correlated with serum IgG and DAS28 scores. CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells were significantly decreased in patients after treatment. Plasma interleukin-10 concentrations and interleukin-10-positive CD4 cell percentages were significantly positively correlated with CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cell levels.

Conclusion: Circulating CD4  FoxP3  CXCR5  CXCR3  PD-1 cells in patients with active RA are increased and could reflect the severity of the disease, which may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.14170DOI Listing
July 2021

Minimally invasive removal of a deep-positioned cannulated screw from the femoral neck: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(18):4760-4764

Department of Orthopaedics, Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi Province, China.

Background: Clinical femoral neck fracture is common. Based on patient age and fracture type, different surgical methods can be selected, including cannulated screw fixation of the femoral neck and artificial total hip joint or semi-hip joint replacement. When patients with femoral neck fracture are treated with cannulated screw fixation, a cannulated screw may be positioned too deep. The excessively deep-placed screw is difficult to remove and causes major trauma to the patient.

Case Summary: A patient with poliomyelitis and femoral neck fracture was treated with a cannulated screw that was placed too deep. A self-made auxiliary tool (made of a steel sternal wire) was used to remove the cannulated screw near the pelvic cavity.

Conclusion: The depth of the cannulated screw can be estimated before screw placement using an improved hollow screwdriver with a scale mark, thus improving the safety of screw placement and facilitating clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i18.4760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223848PMC
June 2021

Structure and Function of Oral Microbial Community in Periodontitis Based on Integrated Data.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 17;11:663756. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: Microorganisms play a key role in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Research studies have focused on seeking specific microorganisms for diagnosing and monitoring the outcome of periodontitis treatment. Large samples may help to discover novel potential biomarkers and capture the common characteristics among different periodontitis patients. This study examines how to screen and merge high-quality periodontitis-related sequence datasets from several similar projects to analyze and mine the potential information comprehensively.

Methods: In all, 943 subgingival samples from nine publications were included based on predetermined screening criteria. A uniform pipeline (QIIME2) was applied to clean the raw sequence datasets and merge them together. Microbial structure, biomarkers, and correlation network were explored between periodontitis and healthy individuals. The microbiota patterns at different periodontal pocket depths were described. Additionally, potential microbial functions and metabolic pathways were predicted using PICRUSt to assess the differences between health and periodontitis.

Results: The subgingival microbial communities and functions in subjects with periodontitis were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. , , , , , , and were periodontitis biomarkers, while , , , , , , and were signature of healthy periodontium. With the variation of pocket depth from shallow to deep pocket, the proportion of Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, TM7, and Fusobacteria increased, whereas that of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria decreased. Synergistic relationships were observed among different pathobionts and negative relationships were noted between periodontal pathobionts and healthy microbiota.

Conclusion: This study shows significant differences in the oral microbial community and potential metabolic pathways between the periodontitis and healthy groups. Our integrated analysis provides potential biomarkers and directions for in-depth research. Moreover, a new method for integrating similar sequence data is shown here that can be applied to other microbial-related areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.663756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248787PMC
July 2021

Global identification of phospho-dependent SCF substrates reveals a FBXO22 phosphodegron and an ERK-FBXO22-BAG3 axis in tumorigenesis.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Chemical Proteomics Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligases play fundamental roles in cellular functions. Typically, substrate phosphorylation is required for SCF recognition and subsequent degradation. However, phospho-dependent substrates remain largely unidentified. Here, using quantitative phoshoproteome approach, we performed a system-wide investigation of phospho-dependent SCF substrates. This strategy identified diverse phospho-dependent candidates. Biochemical verification revealed a mechanism by which SCF recognizes the motif XXPpSPXPXX as a conserved phosphodegron to target substrates for destruction. We further demonstrated BAG3, a HSP70 co-chaperone, is a bona fide substrate of SCF. FBXO22 mediates BAG3 ubiquitination and degradation that requires ERK-dependent BAG3 phosphorylation at S377. FBXO22 depletion or expression of a stable BAG3 S377A mutant promotes tumor growth via defects in apoptosis and cell cycle progression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our study identified broad phosphorylation-dependent SCF substrates and demonstrated a phosphodegron recognized by FBXO22 and a novel ERK-FBXO22-BAG3 axis involved in tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00827-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanical Robustness of Metal Nanocomposites Rendered by Graphene Functionalization.

Nano Lett 2021 Jul 2;21(13):5706-5713. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China.

Nanocarbon materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and their derivatives, are considered highly effective reinforcing agents in metals. Copious experimental and computational observations suggest that the nature of the interfaces may significantly affect the mechanical behavior of nanocarbon-metal composites, while the exact correlation between the interfacial structure and the deformation and failure mechanisms of the composite remains elusive. Using a nanolaminated graphene-aluminum (Al) composite as the model material, we designed and created composites with distinct interfacial structures and bonding states via graphene functionalization. The mechanical behavior of the composites was strongly affected by the structure of the functionalized graphene (FG)/Al interface, and the optimum strength-ductility synergy came from the composite with the intermediate extent of functionalization. Complementing experimental results with molecular dynamics and phase-field simulation efforts, we interpreted these results by the combined effects of the intrinsic strength of FG nanosheets and the FG/Al interfacial bonding state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01438DOI Listing
July 2021

Crossed cerebellar diaschisis after acute ischemic stroke detected by intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Taian, 271000, Shandong, China.

Purpose: To study the value of 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in the diagnosis of the crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) after the unilateral supratentorial acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: Seventy-four patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning were enrolled. Intravoxel incoherent motion-derived perfusion-related parameters including fast diffusion coefficient (D*), slow diffusion coefficient (D), vascular volume fraction (f), and arterial spin-labeling-derived cerebral blood flow (CBF) of bilateral cerebellum were measured.

Results: In the CCD-positive group, D*, D, and CBF values of the contralateral cerebellum decreased compared with those of the ipsilesional cerebellum (P < 0.05), whereas f significantly increased (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was detected between the slow diffusion coefficient-based asymmetry index (AI-D) and the cerebral blood flow-based asymmetry index (AI-CBF) (r = 0.515, P < 0.01), whereas the vascular volume fraction-based asymmetry index (AI-f) had a negative correlation with the cerebral blood flow-based asymmetry index (AI-CBF) (r =  - 0.485, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve value of AI-D and AI-f was 0.81 and 0.76, respectively.

Conclusions: The IVIM is feasible for the detection of CCD. This technique might provide opportunities to further investigate the pathophysiology of CCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05425-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Microstructure and Its Effect on the Magnetic, Magnetocaloric and Magnetostrictive Properties of TbCoFe Glassy Ribbons.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;14(11). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China.

In the present work, the microstructure and its effect on the magnetic, magnetocaloric, and magnetoelastic properties of the TbCoFe melt-spun ribbon were investigated. The ribbon exhibits typical amorphous characteristics in its X-ray diffraction examination and differential scanning calorimetry measurement. However, the magnetic properties of the ribbon indicate that the ribbon is inhomogeneous in the nanoscale, as ascertained by a high-resolution electron microscope. Compared to the TbCo amorphous alloy, the TbCoFe ribbon shows poor magnetocaloric properties but outstanding magnetostriction. A rather high value of reversible magnetostriction up to 788 ppm under 5 T was obtained. The mechanism for the formation of nanoparticles and its effect on the magnetocaloric and magnetostrictive properties were investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14113068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199978PMC
June 2021

Ultrastrong nanotwinned pure nickel with extremely fine twin thickness.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 30;7(27). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, China.

The strength of nanocrystalline and nanotwinned metals stops increasing or even starts decreasing when their grain size or twin thickness is below a critical size-a phenomenon known as Hall-Petch breakdown-which hinders the attainment of ultrahigh strength. Here, we report continuous strengthening in nanotwinned pure Ni with twin thicknesses ranging from 81.0 to 2.9 nm. An unprecedented strength of 4.0 GPa was achieved at extremely fine twin thickness of 2.9 nm, which is about 12 times stronger than that of conventional coarse-grained nickel. This ultrahigh strength arises from the excellent stability of twin boundaries and their strong impedance to dislocation motion. In particular, we find that secondary nanotwins are activated to sustain plastic deformation, which also contribute to the high strength. These results not only advance the understanding of the strengthening mechanisms in nanotwinned metals but also offer an alternative pathway to develop engineering materials with ultrahigh strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg5113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245049PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the GA2ox gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) under various abiotic stress conditions.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 24;166:621-633. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Agro-Biotechnology Research Institute, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, 130033, China.

GA 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) are a class of enzymes that inhibit the biosynthesis of bioactive GAs in plants. Although GA2oxs have clear roles in the development and defence responses in Arabidopsis, rice, and wheat, their potential effects on maize remain unclear. This study identified thirteen ZmGA2ox genes in maize and further characterized them using phylogenetic, gene structure, genomic locus, expression pattern analyses and GA content determination. Phylogenetic relationship analysis clearly divided the ZmGA2ox family into three groups-seven in C19-GA2ox class I, three in C19-GA2ox class II, and three in C20-GA2ox class. Evolutionary analysis suggested that ZmGA2ox1;1 and ZmGA2ox1;2, ZmGA2ox3;1 and ZmGA2ox3;2, and ZmGA2ox7;1 and ZmGA2ox7;2 are three pairs of segmental duplicated genes. Prediction of cis-regulatory elements in promoters suggested that ZmGA2ox genes were mainly associated with growth, development, hormones, and biotic/abiotic stress. Therefore, their spatial and temporal expression patterns and responses to various stress treatments were analysed on the basis of published RNA-seq data. Moreover, the changes of ZmGA2ox expression in leaves and roots of maize seedlings was detected under salt, alkali, dehydration, and cold stresses by qRT-PCR. The ZmGA2oxs exhibited obvious expression tendencies or characteristics in various organs under different abiotic stresses. The variations in the expression of three ZmGA2ox genes in the C20-GA2ox class in maize seedling roots showed significant regularity and a clear negative correlation with bioactive GA contents under cold and drought conditions, indicating that these three genes might exert key effects on the regulation of GA synthesis and the response to drought and cold stress. Taken together, this study is useful for further dissection of the effect of ZmGA2oxs on abiotic stress responses and might provide potential targets for the genetic improvement of maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.06.043DOI Listing
June 2021

Induction chemotherapy followed by definitive chemoradiotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy alone in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a randomized phase II trial.

Nat Commun 2021 06 29;12(1):4014. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Esophageal Cancer Institute, Guangzhou, China.

This randomized phase II trial aims to compare the efficacy and safety of induction chemotherapy followed by definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus CRT alone in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) unsuitable for surgery (N = 110). The primary outcome was overall response rate (ORR), whereas the secondary outcome was overall survival. This trial did not meet pre-specified endpoints. The ORR was 74.5% in the induction chemotherapy group versus 61.8% in the CRT alone group (P = 0.152). The 3-year overall survival rate was 41.8% in the induction chemotherapy group and 38.1% in the CRT alone group (P = 0.584; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.54-1.41). Grade 3-5 adverse events were similar. Patients who responded to induction chemotherapy had improved survival in the post-hoc analysis. These results demonstrate no improvement in response rate or survival with the addition of induction chemotherapy to CRT in unselected patients with ESCC. Trial number: NCT02403531.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24288-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242031PMC
June 2021

[Execution, assessment and improvement methods of motor imagery for brain-computer interface].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(3):434-446

School of Information Engineering and Automation, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, P.R.China.

Motor imagery (MI) is an important paradigm of driving brain computer interface (BCI). However, MI is not easy to control or acquire, and the performance of MI-BCI depends heavily on the performance of the subjects' MI. Therefore, the correct execution of MI mental activities, ability evaluation and improvement methods play important and even critical roles in the improvement and application of MI-BCI system's performance. However, in the research and development of MI-BCI, the existing researches mainly focus on the decoding algorithm of MI, but do not pay enough attention to the above three aspects of MI mental activities. In this paper, these problems of MI-BCI are discussed in detail, and it is pointed out that the subjects tend to use visual motor imagery as kinesthetic motor imagery. In the future, we need to develop some objective, quantitatively visualized MI ability evaluation methods, and develop some effective and less time-consumption training methods to improve MI ability. It is also necessary to solve the differences and commonness of MI problems between and within individuals and MI-BCI illiteracy to a certain extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202101037DOI Listing
June 2021

N6-Methylandenosine-Related lncRNAs in Tumor Microenvironment Are Potential Prognostic Biomarkers in Colon Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:697949. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of General Surgery, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: LncRNA dysregulation and the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been shown to play a vital role in the progression and prognosis of colon cancer (CC). We aim to reveal the potential molecular mechanism from the perspective of lncRNA in the TME and provide the candidate biomarkers for CC prognosis.

Methods: ESTIMATE analysis was used to divide the CC patients into high and low immune or stromal score groups. The expression array of lncRNA was re-annotated by Seqmap. Microenvironment-associated lncRNAs were filtered through differential analysis. The m6A-associated lncRNAs were screened by Pearson correlation analysis. Lasso Cox regression analyses were performed to construct the m6A- and tumor microenvironment-related lncRNA prognostic model (m6A-TME-LM). Survival analysis was used to assess the prognostic efficacy of candidate lncRNAs. Enrichment analyses annotated the candidate genes' functions.

Results: We obtained 25 common differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) associated with immune microenvironment and m6A-related genes for subsequent lasso analysis. Four out of these DELs were selected for the m6A-TME-LM. All the four lncRNAs were related to overall survival, and a test set testified the result. Further stratification analysis of the m6A-TME-LM retained its ability to predict OS for male and chemotherapy adjuvant patients and performed an excellent prognostic efficacy in the TNM stage III and IV subgroups. Network analysis also found the four lncRNAs mediated co-expression network was associated with tumor development.

Conclusion: We constructed the m6A-TME-LM, which could provide a better prognostic prediction of CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.697949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231021PMC
June 2021

Non-propagation fast phase diverse phase retrieval for wavefront measurement with generalized FFT-based basis function.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(12):18817-18830

Phase retrieval is an attractive optical testing method with a simple experimental arrangement. The sampling grids wave propagation computation based on the FFT operations is usually involved in each iterative process for the classical phase retrieval model. In this paper, a novel non-propagation optimization phase retrieval technique with the FFT-based basis function is proposed to accelerate wavefront measurement. The sampling grids wave diffraction propagation computation is converted to matrix-vector products that have small dimensions to reduce the computational burden. The diffraction basis function based on generalized numerical orthogonal polynomial and two-step Fresnel propagation is deduced, which is suitable for the generally shaped pupil. This paper provides a universal non-propagation framework to accelerate phase retrieval which is applicable to the arbitrarily shaped wavefront measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.424793DOI Listing
June 2021

Reversal of Abnormal CD4+ T Cell Metabolism Alleviates Thyroiditis by Deactivating the mTOR/HIF1a/Glycolysis Pathway.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 4;12:659738. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Endocrine Institute and The Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, NHC Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease that features activation of thyroid antigen-specific helper T cells. HT patients have increased Th1 and Th17 T cell subsets. Glycolysis supports chronic activation of Th1 and Th17 T cells, but how this contributes to HT remains unknown.

Methods: The metabolism of CD4+ T cells from 30 HT patients and 30 healthy controls was evaluated by determining the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Mice in a subacute thyroiditis (SAT) model were treated with 2DG, metformin, or combination. Metrics of mTOR/HIF-1α/HK2/glycolysis were measured by western blot and Seahorse assay methods. The severity of SAT was measured by flow cytometry and HE staining.

Results: CD4+ T cells from HT patients had enhanced ECAR and OCR. Levels of Glut1, HK2, PKM2, and LDHA in cultured HT CD4+ T cells were elevated. The expression of HK2 and PKM2 in cultured SAT CD4+ T cells was elevated compared with the control group. Activation of the mTOR and HIF-1α pathways was significant in SAT mice, and expression of HIF-1α in the 2DG treated group was reduced. Treatment with 2DG and/or metformin significantly decreased the ratio of Th17 and Th1 T cells.

Conclusions: Thyroiditis results in elevation of the mTOR/HIF-1α/HK2/glycolysis pathway in CD4+ T cells. The activation of this pathway is reduced by treatment with 2DG and metformin, which also reverted imbalances in CD4+ T cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.659738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211914PMC
June 2021

Alveolar Recruitment Maneuver Reduces Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Patients During Carotid Endarterectomy.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Jun 20;27:e930617. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the effects of alveolar recruitment maneuver (RM) on cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral blood velocity in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) before clamping of the carotid artery. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this crossover exploratory study, all patients were randomized to undergo an RM (30 cmH₂O of continuous airway pressure for 30 s) and a "sham" maneuver (SM; 5 cmH₂O for 30 s), followed by an alternative intervention after a 5-min equilibration period. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO₂), and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) to evaluate blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (V-MCA). Changes in rSO₂, V-MCA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) in response to the 2 interventions were compared. RESULTS A total of 59 patients underwent the study procedure. RM reduced rSO₂, V-MCA, MAP, and HR, but these variables slightly changed during SM. A significant drop in rSO₂ was observed immediately after RM compared with the baseline value (68.51±4.4% vs 64.12±5.15%; P<0.001). The decrease in rSO₂ was higher during the RM than during the SM (-6±4% vs 1±2%; P<0.001). Similarly, change in V-MCA was more significant in response to RM than SM (-26±19% vs 19±16%; P<0.001). The V-MCA value changed from 39 cm/s to 29 cm/s after RM. In addition, V-MCA of the ipsilateral to the surgical side decreased more obviously than the contralateral side (-26±19% vs -20±17%; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS An RM at 30 cmH₂O of continuous airway pressure for 30 s decreased rSO₂ and V-MCA. In addition, MAP and HR were affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223757PMC
June 2021

Large model structural uncertainty in global projections of urban heat waves.

Nat Commun 2021 06 18;12(1):3736. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA.

Urban heat waves (UHWs) are strongly associated with socioeconomic impacts. Here, we use an urban climate emulator combined with large ensemble global climate simulations to show that, at the urban scale a large proportion of the variability results from the model structural uncertainty in projecting UHWs in the coming decades under climate change. Omission of this uncertainty would considerably underestimate the risk of UHW. Results show that, for cities in four high-stake regions - the Great Lakes of North America, Southern Europe, Central India, and North China - a virtually unlikely (0.01% probability) UHW projected by single-model ensembles is estimated by our model with probabilities of 23.73%, 4.24%, 1.56%, and 14.76% respectively in 2061-2070 under a high-emission scenario. Our findings suggest that for urban-scale extremes, policymakers and stakeholders will have to plan for larger uncertainties than what a single model predicts if decisions are informed based on urban climate simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24113-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213750PMC
June 2021