Publications by authors named "Lei Yang"

3,558 Publications

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Accelerating the discovery of anticancer peptides targeting lung and breast cancers with the Wasserstein autoencoder model and PSO algorithm.

Brief Bioinform 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Institute of modern physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China.

In the development of targeted drugs, anticancer peptides (ACPs) have attracted great attention because of their high selectivity, low toxicity and minimal non-specificity. In this work, we report a framework of ACPs generation, which combines Wasserstein autoencoder (WAE) generative model and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) forward search algorithm guided by attribute predictive model to generate ACPs with desired properties. It is well known that generative models based on Variational AutoEncoder (VAE) and Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) are difficult to be used for de novo design due to the problems of posterior collapse and difficult convergence of training. Our WAE-based generative model trains more successfully (lower perplexity and reconstruction loss) than both VAE and GAN-based generative models, and the semantic connections in the latent space of WAE accelerate the process of forward controlled generation of PSO, while VAE fails to capture this feature. Finally, we validated our pipeline on breast cancer targets (HIF-1) and lung cancer targets (VEGR, ErbB2), respectively. By peptide-protein docking, we found candidate compounds with the same binding sites as the peptides carried in the crystal structure but with higher binding affinity and novel structures, which may be potent antagonists that interfere with these target-mediated signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbac320DOI Listing
August 2022

CreatureShop: Interactive 3D Character Modeling and Texturing from a Single Color Drawing.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2022 Aug 9;PP. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Creating 3D shapes from 2D drawings is an important problem with applications in content creation for computer animation and virtual reality. We introduce a new sketch-based system, CreatureShop, that enables amateurs to create high-quality textured 3D character models from 2D drawings with ease and efficiency. CreatureShop takes an input bitmap drawing of a character (such as an animal or other creature), depicted from an arbitrary descriptive pose and viewpoint, and creates a 3D shape with plausible geometric details and textures from a small number of user annotations on the 2D drawing. Our key contributions are a novel oblique view modeling method, a set of systematic approaches for producing plausible textures on the invisible or occluded parts of the 3D character (as viewed from the direction of the input drawing), and a user-friendly interactive system. We validate our system and methods by creating numerous 3D characters from various drawings, and compare our results with related works to show the advantages of our method. We perform a user study to evaluate the usability of our system, which demonstrates that our system is a practical and efficient approach to create fully-textured 3D character models for novice users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2022.3197560DOI Listing
August 2022

Huangjia Ruangan Granule Inhibits Inflammation in a Rat Model with Liver Fibrosis by Regulating TNF/MAPK and NF-B Signaling Pathways.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 30;2022:8105306. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510000, China.

The Huangjia Ruangan granule (HJRG) is a clinically effective Kampo formula, which has a significant effect on liver fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis. However, the mechanism underlying HJRG in treating liver fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, carbon tetrachloride (CCl) was used to induce liver fibrosis in rats to clarify the effect of HJRG on liver fibrosis and its mechanism. Using network pharmacology, the potential mechanism of HJRG was initially explored, and a variety of analyses were performed to verify this mechanism. In the liver fibrosis model, treatment with HJRG can maintain the liver morphology, lower the levels of AST and ALT in the serum, and ameliorate pathological damage. Histopathological examinations revealed that the liver structure was significantly improved and fibrotic changes were alleviated. It can effectively inhibit collagen deposition and the expression of -SMA, reduce the levels of the rat serum (HA, LN, PC III, and Col IV), and inhibit the expression of desmin, vimentin, and HYP content in the liver. Analyzing the results of network pharmacology, the oxidative stress, inflammation, and the related pathways (primarily the TNF signaling pathway) were identified as the potential mechanism of HJRG against liver fibrosis. Experiments confirmed that HJRG can significantly increase the content of superoxide dismutase and glutathione and reduce the levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase in the rat liver; in addition, HJRG significantly inhibited the content of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6) and reduced the expression of inflammatory regulators (Cox2 and iNOS). Meanwhile, treatment with HJRG inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-B P65, IB, ERK, JNK, and MAPK P38. Moreover, HJRG treatment reversed the increased expression of TNFR1. The Huangjia Ruangan granule can effectively inhibit liver fibrosis through antioxidation, suppressing liver inflammation by regulating the TNF/MAPK and NF-B signaling pathways, thereby preventing the effect of liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8105306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9356785PMC
July 2022

Understanding the complexity of existing fossil fuel power plant decarbonization.

iScience 2022 Aug 16;25(8):104758. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Growing national decarbonization commitments require rapid and deep reductions of carbon dioxide emissions from existing fossil-fuel power plants. Although retrofitting existing plants with carbon capture and storage or biomass has been discussed extensively, yet such options have failed to provide evident emission reductions at a global scale so far. Assessments of decarbonization technologies tend to focus on one specific option but omit its interactions with competing technologies and related sectors (e.g., water, food, and land use). Energy system models could mimic such inter-technological and inter-sectoral competition but often aggregate plant-level parameters without validation, as well as fleet-level inputs with large variability and uncertainty. To enhance the accuracy and reliability of top-down optimization models, bottom-up plant-level experience accumulation is of vital importance. Identifying sweet spots for plant-level pilot projects, overcoming the technical, financial, and social obstacles of early large-scale demonstration projects, incorporating equity into the transition, propagating the plant-level potential to generate fleet-level impacts represent some key complexity of existing fossil-fuel power plant decarbonization challenges that imposes the need for a serious re-evaluation of existing fossil fuel power plant abatement in energy transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9356183PMC
August 2022

Treatment of Stage I-III Hip Joint Tuberculosis With Open Surgical Debridement and Hip Spica in Children: A Retrospective Study.

J Pediatr Orthop 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of surgical debridement combined with postoperative hip spica immobilization in the treatment of hip joint tuberculosis in children.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 87 children with stage I to III hip joint tuberculosis treated surgically at our hospital from January 2010 to January 2016. All patients considering hip tuberculosis routinely received a 4-week conservative treatment first, including rest, protected weight-bearing, and 4-drugs antitubercular chemotherapy. Surgical debridement was indicated when there was no relief after this conservative protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the duration of hip spica immobilization after operation: group A (hip spica for 4 wk, 39 patients) and group B (hip spica for 6 wk, 48 patients). All patients were recommended partial weight-bearing for 7 days and then followed the same hip joint exercises program when spica was removed. Postoperative radiographs, hip dislocation or subluxation, and modified Harris hip score (MHHS) were assessed. All patients were followed up at least 5 years.

Results: There were 87 patients enrolled in our study, including 34 females and 53 males, with a mean age of 7.2±2.8 years old (range: 2 to 14 y). No significant difference was observed between these 2 groups in baseline data. In group A, the mean MHHS improved from 52.1±14.7 before surgery to 87.8±8.3 at the final follow-up (P<0.000). In group B, there was also a significant difference between the preoperative MHHS (52.7±9.4) and the final MHHS (88.6±6.5) (P<0.000). Although there was no significant difference between these 2 groups in the final MHHS (P=0.593), there were also no significant differences between these 2 groups in wound healing delay (3 in group A and 6 in group B, P=0.705) and pathologic subluxation (3 in group A and 1 in group B, P=0.467). The only difference between group A (79.2±8.5) and group B (75.5±7.5) was the early functional outcome assessed by using MHHS after 1 month of hip joint exercises (P=0.032).

Conclusions: Surgical debridement combined with antitubercular chemotherapy is an effective treatment for stage I to III hip tuberculosis in children when there is no improvement after conservative treatment. Prolonged hip spica immobilization may not reduce the risk of hip subluxation after open surgical debridement but could lead to a delay in early functional recovery. Time of spica immobilization should be individualized and based on the surgeon's evaluation and the patient's condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000002227DOI Listing
August 2022

Evaluation of effect of robotic versus laparoscopic surgical technology on genitourinary function after total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

Int J Surg 2022 Aug 4:106800. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of General Surgery, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 138 Tongzipo Street, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Because the recovery of genitourinary function after total mesorectal excision (TME) is affected by multiple factors, the role of robot-assisted TME technology in postoperative function in previous studies is still controversial. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of robotic technology on the recovery of genitourinary function after TME for rectal cancer by analysing the correlations between influencing factors of genitourinary function and robotic surgery.

Methods: Between January 2017 and January 2020, patients with rectal cancer (cT1-3NxM0) were registered. Genitourinary function was assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) test, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and urodynamic examination before surgery and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Genitourinary function was compared between the laparoscopic total mesorectal excision(L-TME) and robotic total mesorectal excision(R-TME) groups, and the correlative factors associated with postoperative genitourinary function were analysed using the generalized estimated equation (GEE).

Results: Compared with L-TME, R-TME showed a superior IPSS, voiding volume, residual urine volume and IIEF score during the early postoperative period. According to the GEE analysis, postoperative genitourinary function was positively correlated with laparoscopic anterior resection/abdomen perineal resection(LAR/APR) but negatively correlated with tumour size, tumour distance to anus, TNM, adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, complete TME, circumferential resection margin(CRM), blood loss, diverting stoma, conversion, and anastomotic leakage.

Conclusion: Due to the important role of robotic surgical technology on the influential factors of postoperative genitourinary function and the superiority of identifying and preserving autonomic nerves, robotic technology is conducive to the early recovery of postoperative urogenital function while adhering to oncological dissection principles. No significant difference was found between the da Vinci R-TME and MicroHand R-TME groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2022.106800DOI Listing
August 2022

Genome-wide analysis of the serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins in Brassica napus L.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2022 Sep 19;186:310-321. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China. Electronic address:

The serine carboxypeptidase-like protein (SCPL) family plays a key part in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins in Brassica napus L. (B. napus) have not been reported yet. Here, we identified a total of 117 putative SCPL genes in B. napus, which were unevenly distributed on all 19 chromosomes and were divided into three groups (carboxypeptidase Ⅰ to Ⅲ) according to their phylogenetic relationships. Synteny and duplication analysis revealed that the SCPL gene family of B. napus was amplified during allopolyploidization, in which the whole genome triplication and dispersed duplication played critical roles. After the separation of Brassica and Arabidopsis lineages, orthologous gene analysis showed that many SCPL genes were lost during the evolutionary process in B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus. Subsequently, the analyses of the gene structure, conserved motifs, cis-element and expression patterns showed that the members in the same group were highly conserved. Furthermore, candidate gene based association study suggested the role of BnSCPL52 in controlling seed number per silique, seed weight and silique length and a CAPS marker was developed to distinguish different haplotypes. Our results provide an overview of rapeseed SCPL genes that enable us for further functional research and benefit the marker-assisted breeding in Brassica napus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.07.020DOI Listing
September 2022

Polydopamine modified acellular dermal matrix sponge scaffold loaded with a-FGF: Promoting wound healing of autologous skin grafts.

Biomater Adv 2022 May 4;136:212790. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Burns, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Jingxi Street, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510515, PR China. Electronic address:

Despite increasing potentials as a skin regeneration template (DRT) to guide tissue healing, acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is still challenged by issues (like dense architecture, low cellular adhesion and poor vascularization), contributing to necrosis and shedding of upper transplanted skins. Modified with polydopamine (PDA), a novel and porous DRT capable of drug delivery was designed using porcine-derived ADM (PADMS) gels, termed PDA-PADMS. However, it was unclear whether it could efficiently deliver human acidic fibroblast growth factor (a-FGF) and regenerate skin defects. Herein, after being fabricated and optimized with PADMS gels in different ratios (1:6, 1:7, 1:8), PDA-PADMS loading a-FGF (PDA-PADMS-FGF) was evaluated by the morphology, physical& chemical properties, drug release and in-vitro biological evaluations, followed by full-thickness skin defects implanted with PDA-PADMS-FGF covered by transplanted skins. Apart from containing abundant collagen and elastin, porous PADMS (with a loose and uniform structure) was demonstrated to possess controlled release of a-FGF and biocompatibility attributed to PDA coating. Consistent with augmented cellular migration and proliferation in vitro, PDA-PADMS-FGF also accelerated wound healing and reduced scarring, improving collagen arrangement and neovascularization. In conclusion, PDA-PADMS-FGF has a good potential and application prospect as a matrix material for wound repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioadv.2022.212790DOI Listing
May 2022

Comprehensive comparative analysis of histopathology and gene expression in subchondral bone between kashin-beck disease and primary osteoarthritis.

Front Genet 2022 18;13:942326. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Joint Surgery, Hong Hui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic, degenerative osteoarthropathy that exhibits some similar characteristics to osteoarthritis (OA) but with different etiologies and pathogeneses. In addition to cartilage damage, microstructural changes of bone were observed in KBD. This study aimed to comparatively demonstrate the general histopathological changes, transcriptomics, and differentially expressed miRNAs of subchondral bone between KBD and OA. Tibial plateau subchondral bone samples were collected from eighteen patients with KBD and eighteen patients with OA. Histopathological changes were examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, safranin O-fast green staining, and picrosirius red staining. RNA sequencing and miRNA array analysis were performed to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs), respectively. The subchondral bone samples of the tibial plateau of KBD and OA both showed increased thickness and sclerosis. A total of 179 DEGs and 124 DEMs were identified in subchondral bone between KBD and OA, which were involved in several vital GO terms and KEGG signaling pathways. Our results suggest that the pathological mechanisms of subchondral bone are different between KBD and OA, although they exhibit similar histopathological features. Integrated analysis revealed several genes such as ADAMTS14, SLC13A5, and CEACAM1, that may be crucial DEGs in subchondral bone between KBD and OA, suggesting that these genes could serve as potential differential diagnostic biomarkers for subchondral bone lesions in KBD and OA. These findings provide valuable information for further clarifying pathological changes in subchondral bone in KBD and OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.942326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339956PMC
July 2022

Proteomic analysis reveals that ACSL4 activation during reflux esophagitis contributes to ferroptosis-mediated esophageal mucosal damage.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Jul 31:175175. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Institute of Graduate, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China.

Ferroptosis has been shown to be involved in the pathological process of many diseases. However, the function and mechanism of ferroptosis in reflux esophagitis (RE), especially in the esophageal mucosal damage, remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to screen potential therapeutic target genes that mediate RE esophageal mucosal damage and regulate ferroptosis. RE rats were established by our previous protocol and proteomic analysis of esophageal mucosa was performed. In addition, the ferroptosis-related genes were retrieved from the FerrDb database and were cross analyzed with the differential proteins of proteomics to obtain potential therapeutic target genes Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family 4 (ACSL4), a key enzyme for ferroptosis. In the present study, we used the ACSL4 inhibitor rosiglitazone (ROSI) and the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 to intervene with RE rats, and evaluate the levels of protein, histological changes, lipid peroxidation levels, iron accumulation and morphological changes in esophageal tissue by HE staining, Western blot, related kit tests, and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that both ferrostatin-1 and ROSI treatment significantly reduced the levels of iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation, and protected against ferroptosis and esophageal tissue injury in RE rats. Through Immunohistochemical staining, 16SrDNA sequencing, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot and other tests on the esophagus, gut, spleen and serum of RE rats, we further found that the changes of esophageal and intestinal microbiota and the increase of peripheral blood LPS were the key factors regulating ferroptosis in esophageal epithelial tissue. On the one hand, LPS could increase the expression of ACSL4 in esophageal tissue by up-regulating special protein 1 (Sp1). On the other hand, LPS could increase the secretion of serum ferritin in spleen and the accumulation of iron in esophageal tissue by activating Capase11/GSDMD pyroptosis pathway. Collectively, this study suggests that ACSL4 and ferroptosis are potential therapeutic targets for RE esophageal mucosal damage, and esophageal and gut microecology play a critical role in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2022.175175DOI Listing
July 2022

A Combination of Preoperative Computed Tomography-Defined Sarcopenia and Systemic Inflammation on Survival in Patients with Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Following Radical Resection.

Nutr Cancer 2022 Aug 3:1-11. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

This retrospective study of 122 patients with gastrointestinal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-PDNEN) who underwent radical resection between January 2010 and December 2020 aimed to investigate the usefulness of combined computed tomography (CT)-defined sarcopenia and systemic inflammation to evaluate long-term prognoses for patients who underwent radical surgical resection. Sarcopenia, based on a pre-defined L3 skeletal muscle index cutoff value, was assessed using preoperative abdominal CT images. Patients (neuroendocrine carcinoma, 86 patients; mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, 36 patients) were divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups using sarcopenia scores and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (SNLRs). Higher SNLRs were significantly associated with higher age ( = 0.004), larger tumor size ( = 0.042), lower body mass index ( = 0.042), and lower hemoglobin ( = 0.001) and albumin ( = 0.031) levels. Multivariate analysis indicated that a higher SNLR was an independent risk factor for poor overall survival (OS,  = 0.01) and relapse-free survival (RFS,  = 0.001) in patients with GI-PDNEN postoperatively. Sarcopenia and a higher NLR were significantly associated with poor RFS and OS following radical resection. The SNLR had a definite predictive prognostic value in preoperatively identifying patients with GI-PDNEN and a probable poor long-term prognosis, especially those with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2022.2102660DOI Listing
August 2022

ABC portal: a single-cell database and web server for blood cells.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Haihe Laboratory of Cell Ecosystem, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020, China.

ABC portal (http://abc.sklehabc.com) is a database and web portal containing 198 single-cell transcriptomic datasets of development, differentiation and disorder of blood/immune cells. All the datasets were re-annotated with a manually curated and unified single-cell reference, especially for the haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. ABC portal provides web-based interactive analysis modules, especially a comprehensive cell-cell communication analysis and disease-related gene signature analysis. Importantly, ABC portal allows customized sample selection based on a combination of several metadata for downstream analysis and comparison analysis across datasets. ABC portal also allows users to select multiple cell types for analysis in the modules. Together, ABC portal provides an interactive interface of single-cell data exploration and re-analysis with customized analysis modules for the researchers and clinicians, and will facilitate understanding of haematopoiesis and blood/immune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkac646DOI Listing
August 2022

Hui Medicine Moxibustion Promotes the Absorption of Lumbar Disc Herniation and the Recovery of Motor Function in Rats through Fas/FasL Signaling Pathway.

Biomed Res Int 2022 23;2022:9172405. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Traditional Chinese Medicine and Traumatology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004 Ningxia, China.

Objectives: To study the resorption of the herniated lumbar disc (RHLD) and its mechanism in the SD rats of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation treated with Hui medicine moxibustion (HMM).

Methods: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, normal group, lumbar disc herniation (LDH) group, HMM group, and antagonist (HMM+Met12) group, with 10 rats in each group. The rat model of LDH was prepared with the method of lumbar epidural emplacement of the caudal intervertebral disc. In the HMM group and HMM+Met12 groups, 4 weeks after modeling, HMM therapy was performed in the lumbar spine for 3 months with 1 time per day and 20 min each time, the samples were collected 8 weeks after the treatment. The histological degeneration was observed through HE staining, and the neovascularization of intervertebral disc tissues was detected by the expression of CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The apoptosis of nucleus pulpous cells was detected by TUNEL assay, and the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and extracellular matrix enzymes was detected by western blotting.

Results: HMM treatment significantly improved the behavioral ability of rats with LDH surgery. The morphological structure was obviously destroyed in the LDH group, but disc structure was significantly repaired in the HMM group, and mild structure alterations were observed in the HMM+Met12 group. Higher levels of CD34 and VEGF were detected in the HMM group indicating that neovascularization is formed. The expression level of FasL was significantly increased in the HMM group. The protein expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-8, and cleaved-caspase-9 in nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues were also elevated when treated with HMM, and the TUNEL staining showed the same results. The protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases- (MMP-) 1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4 were markedly promoted in the HMM group. Met12, a small peptide antagonist of FasL, significantly reduced the effects of HMM.

Conclusion: HMM can promote the formation of neovascularization of lumbar intervertebral disc, support the apoptosis of NP cells through Fas/FasL signaling, and regulate the degradation of extracellular matrix enzyme, which then accelerates the absorption of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and the recovery of motor function in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9172405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338866PMC
August 2022

Epidemiological Characteristics of Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma: A Population-Based Study.

Front Oncol 2022 13;12:863269. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Beijing Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.

Objects: The aim of this study is to explore the epidemiological characteristics of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in Beijing.

Methods:  All data were extracted from the Beijing Cancer Registry database from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2018. Segi's World Standard Population was used to estimate the age-standardized rate (ASR). Changes in trends were examined using joinpoint regression analysis. The observed survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Relative survival was calculated using Ederer II and standardized using the Brenner method and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) group 1 age structure. Stratified by gender, area, and histological type, incidence, mortality, and age of onset trends were observed in Beijing.

Results:  In Beijing, there were 801 new cases and 463 deaths of T-cell lymphoma from 2007 to 2018. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the most prevalent subtype (37.45%), followed by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL; 20.35%), NK/T-cell lymphoma (NK/TCL; 17.60%), and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL; 10.24%). The crude incidence and mortality rates were 0.52 and 0.30 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, whereas the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) were 0.35 and 0.18 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Both ASIR and ASMR were more prevalent in men (0.48 and 0.24 per 100,000) and urban area (0.38 and 0.19 per 100,000) than in women (0.22 and 0.11 per 100,000) and rural area (0.30 and 0.15 per 100,000). The average annual percentage change (AAPC) of ASIR and ASMR was 5.72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.79%-9.81%) and 4.35% (95% CI: -0.09%-8.99%), respectively. The age-specific incidence rate increased with age and peaked at the age groups of 10-14 and 80-84. The mean and median age of onset increased between 2007 and 2018. In addition, it decreased after the age of onset was age standardization (, ). The 5-year age-standardized relative survival was 39.02% for all patients, 58.14% for NK/TCL, 57.60% for ALCL, 31.38% for AITL, and 29.18% for PTCL-NOS.

Conclusions:  T-cell lymphoma incidence was rising, but survival was dismal in Beijing, indicating the need for improved early diagnosis and standardized treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.863269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9326059PMC
July 2022

Prevalence of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding and Its Associated Cognitive Risks and Predictive Factors in Women With Severe Mental Disorders.

Front Pharmacol 2022 13;13:904908. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Tianjin Fourth Center Hospital, Tianjin, China.

There has been limited studies examining treatment-induced heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in women with severe mental illnesses. The aim of this study was to examine HMB prevalence and HMB-associated factors in young women (18-34 years old) diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP), major depressive disorder (MDD), or schizophrenia (SCZ) who have full insight and normal intelligence. Eighteen-month menstruation histories were recorded with pictorial blood loss assessment chart assessments of HMB. Multivariate analyses were conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Drug effects on cognition were assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). HMB prevalence were: BP, 25.85%; MDD, 18.78%; and SCH, 13.7%. High glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level was a strong risk factor for HMB [BP OR, 19.39 (16.60-23.01); MDD OR, 2.69 (4.59-13.78); and SCZ OR, 9.59 (6.14-12.43)]. Additional risk factors included fasting blood sugar, 2-h postprandial blood glucose, and use of the medication valproate [BP: OR, 16.00 (95%CI 12.74-20.22); MDD: OR, 13.88 (95%CI 11.24-17.03); and SCZ OR, 11.35 (95%CI 8.84-19.20)]. Antipsychotic, antidepressant, and electroconvulsive therapy use were minor risk factors. Pharmacotherapy-induced visual learning impairment was associated with HMB [BP: OR, 9.01 (95%CI 3.15-13.44); MDD: OR, 5.99 (95%CI 3.11-9.00); and SCZ: OR, 7.09 (95%CI 2.99-9.20)]. Lithium emerged as a protective factor against HMB [BP: OR, 0.22 (95%CI 0.14-0.40); MDD: OR, 0.30 (95%CI 0.20-0.62); and SCZ: OR, 0.65 (95%CI 0.33-0.90)]. In SCZ patients, hyperlipidemia and high total cholesterol were HMB-associated factors (ORs, 1.87-2.22). Psychiatrist awareness of HMB risk is concerningly low (12/257, 2.28%). In conclusion, prescription of VPA should be cautioned for women with mental illness, especially BP, and lithium may be protective against HMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.904908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9326357PMC
July 2022

Long-Read Nanopore Sequencing Identifies Mismatch Repair-Deficient Related Genes with Alternative Splicing in Colorectal Cancer.

Dis Markers 2022 21;2022:4433270. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China.

Background: Alternative splicing (AS) plays a crucial role in regulating the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), but its distribution remains to be explored. Here, we aim to investigate the genes edited by AS which show differential expression in patients with mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI).

Materials And Methods: We applied long-read nanopore sequencing to determine the mRNA profiles and screen AS genes using Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) method in ten paired CRC tissues. CRC tissue and plasma samples were used to validate the differential genes with AS using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: ONT sequencing identified 404 genes were downregulated, and 348 genes were upregulated in MSI cancer tissues compared with microsatellite stability (MSS) cancer tissues. In total, 6,200 AS events were identified in 2,728 mRNA transcripts. WGCNA revealed dMMR/MSI-correlated gene modules, including INHBA and RPL22L1, which were upregulated; conversely, HMGCS2 was downregulated in MSI cancer. Overexpression of RPL22L1, INHBA, and CAPZA1 was further confirmed in CRC tissues. INHBA was found to be associated with tumor lymphatic metastasis. Importantly, the levels of INHBA in CRC plasma were significantly increased compared with those in noncancer plasma. INHBA showed a higher level in dMMR/MSI CRC than in MSS CRC, indicating that INHBA is a useful biomarker.

Conclusion: Our results showed that ONT-identified genes provide a pool to explore AS-associated markers for dMMR/MSI CRC. We demonstrated INHBA as a promising signature for clinical application in predicting tumor lymphatic metastasis and screening dMMR/MSI candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4433270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334049PMC
August 2022

The Innovation and Development Path of Cultural and Creative Industries in Anhui Province, China: Nvivo12-Based Policy Text Analysis.

Authors:
Hui Zeng Lei Yang

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 20;2022:6202746. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

School of Art, Anhui University of Finance and Economics, Bengbu 233030, China.

The policy planning of cultural and creative industries is the leading factor affecting the development of cultural and creative industries and is also an important factor in driving China's economic transformation. How to combine the policy with the actual industrial development and how to scientifically assess the construction effect of cultural and creative industries and build the corresponding planning system are the key points of the current development of cultural and creative industries in Anhui Province, China. The study first analyzes the regional cultural characteristics and development status of Anhui Province, then uses Nvivo12 qualitative software to conduct grounded research and qualitative text analysis on 20 Chinese cultural and creative industry development policy texts, and summarizes three core elements that promote the development of China's cultural and creative industry: "development task," "development goal," and "development guarantee." Then, according to the three core elements of the text, we propose policy recommendations for the innovation and development of Anhui's cultural and creative industries: focus on "cultural heritage and sustainable development" policy formulation, explore Anhui's regional characteristics and culture; strengthen the development of urban-rural cultural integration and mechanism innovation; optimize and adjust the structure and supply of cultural industries; top-level design to clarify the strategic direction of culture, and coordinate the research tasks to empower industrial innovation. Relying on new media means, it integrates three major development strategies to build a new mechanism for internationalized communication of cultural and creative industries in Anhui Province, develop regional advantageous industries, form advantageous cultural industry clusters, effectively spread local culture, and promote sustainable development of local economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6202746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328998PMC
August 2022

Photocatalytic dehydrogenative C-C coupling of acetonitrile to succinonitrile.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 28;13(1):4379. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

The coupling of acetonitrile into succinonitrile, an important terminal dinitrile for value-added nylon production, via a dehydrogenative route is highly attractive, as it combines the valuable chemical synthesis with the production of green hydrogen energy. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a highly selective light driven dehydrogenative coupling of acetonitrile molecules to synthesize succinonitrile using anatase TiO based photocatalysts in aqueous medium under mild conditions. Under optimized conditions, the formation rate of succinonitrile reaches 6.55 mmol/(g*h), with over 97.5% selectivity to target product. Mechanism studies reveal that water acts as cocatalyst in the reaction. The excited hole of anatase semiconductor oxidizes water forming hydroxyl radical, which subsequently assists the cleavage of sp C-H bond of acetonitrile to generate ·CHCN radical for further C-C coupling. The synergy between TiO and Pt cocatalyst is important to enhance the succinonitrile selectivity and prevent undesirable over-oxidation and hydrolysis. This work offers an alternative route to prepare succinonitrile based on renewable energy under mild conditions and avoid the use of toxic reagents and stoichiometric oxidative radical initiators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32137-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334571PMC
July 2022

Telomere Length and Hearing Loss: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 22;19(15). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Public Health, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310000, China.

Background: Observational studies have suggested that there may be an association between telomere length (TL) and hearing loss (HL). However, inferring causality from observational studies is subject to residual confounding effects, reverse causation, and bias. This study adopted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to evaluate the causal relationship between TL and increased risk of HL.

Methods: A total of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with TL were identified from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 78,592 European participants and applied to our modeling as instrumental variables. Summary-level data for hearing loss (HL), age-related hearing loss (ARHL), and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) were obtained from the recent largest available GWAS and five MR analyses were used to investigate the potential causal association of genetically predicted TL with increased risk for HL, including the inverse-variance-weighted (IVW), weighted median, MR-Egger regression, simple mode, and weighted mode. In addition, sensitivity analysis, pleiotropy, and heterogeneity tests were also used to evaluate the robustness of our findings.

Results: There was no causal association between genetically predicted TL and HL or its subtypes (by the IVW method, HL: odds ratio (OR) = 1.216, = 0.382; ARHL: OR = 0.934, = 0.928; NIHL: OR = 1.003, = 0.776). Although heterogenous sites rs2736176, rs3219104, rs8105767, and rs2302588 were excluded for NIHL, the second MR analysis was consistent with the first analysis (OR = 1.003, = 0.572).

Conclusion: There was no clear causal relationship between shorter TLs and increased risk of HL or its subtypes in this dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19158937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330868PMC
July 2022

5mC and H3K9me3 of TRAF3IP2 promoter region accelerates the progression of translocation renal cell carcinoma.

Biomark Res 2022 Jul 27;10(1):54. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, Jiangsu, China.

Background: In our previous study, we found that lncRNA TRAF3IP2 antisense RNA 1 (TRAF3IP2-AS1) could play a critical role in the progression of NONO-TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinoma (NONO-TFE3 tRCC). However, the function of TRAF3IP2 (TRAF3 interacting protein 2), encoded by the complementary strand of TRAF3IP2-AS1, remains poorly understood in NONO-TFE3 tRCC.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR were undertaken to study the expression and clinical significance of TRAF3IP2 in Xp11.2 tRCC tissues and cells. The functions of TRAF3IP2 in tRCC were investigated by proliferation analysis, EdU staining, colony and sphere formation assay, Transwell assay, and apoptosis analysis. The regulatory mechanisms among TRAF3IP2, NOTCH1, and TRAF3IP2-AS1 were investigated by luciferase assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, western blot, methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation, and CRISPR/dCas9-based system.

Results: The results showed that TRAF3IP2 was highly expressed in NONO-TFE3 tRCC tissues and cells, and the silence of TRAF3IP2 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of UOK109 cells which were derived from cancer tissue of patient with NONO-TFE3 tRCC. Mechanistic studies revealed that TRAF3IP2 functioned as a co-activator of NOTCH1 to activate the NOTCH1 pathway. Meanwhile, HNRNPK, DNMT1 and SETDB1 could be recruited by TRAF3IP2-AS1 to the promoter region of TRAF3IP2, which mediated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5mC) on DNA and trimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3) at transcriptional level to repress the expression of TRAF3IP2.

Conclusions: TRAF3IP2 functions as an oncogene in NONO-TFE3 tRCC progression and might serve as a novel target for NONO-TFE3 tRCC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40364-022-00402-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331078PMC
July 2022

Physical and Mental Activity, Disease Susceptibility, and Risk of Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on UK Biobank.

Neurology 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

From the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics,West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China (J.Z.), West China Biomedical Big Data Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (F.G., Y.Z., Y.Q., H.Y., H.S.), Medical Big Data Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (F.G., Y.Z., Y.Q., H.Y., H.S.), Division of Nephrology, Kidney Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (W.C.), Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (L.Y.), Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (F.F.), and Center of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavak, Iceland (H.S.).

Background And Objectives: The association between patterns of physical/mental activity and dementia and how it is affected by disease susceptibility remains unknown. We aimed to examine the association between patterns of physical and mental activity and dementia, and whether it can be modified by disease susceptibility to dementia.

Methods: In a prospective cohort study based on UK Biobank, 501,376 dementia-free participants were recruited in 2006-2010 and followed from one year after the recruitment date until the end of 2019 for ascertainment of dementia. Data on physical (i.e., physical activity at leisure time, housework-related activity, and transportation) and mental (i.e., intelligence, social contact, and use of electronic device) activity were collected using questionnaires at recruitment. Cox models were used to estimate the associations of physical and mental activity-related items, as well as major activity patterns identified by principal component analysis, with the risk of dementia, adjusted for multiple confounders. The modification role of disease susceptibility on such associations was assessed through stratified analyses by polygenic risk score (PRS) of dementia generated based on summary statistics of independent genome-wide association studies, by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, and by self-reported family history of dementia.

Results: The mean age at recruitment was 56.53, and 45.60 % of the participants were male. During a mean follow-up of 10.66 years, 5,185 dementia cases were identified. When analyzed separately, multiple studied items related to physical and mental activity showed significant associations with the risk of dementia. The pattern analyses revealed that higher level of adherence to activity patterns related to frequent vigorous and other exercises (hazard ratio [HR]=0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.71), housework-related activity (0.79, 0.72-0.85) and friend/family visit (0.85, 0.75-0.96) were associated with a lower risk of dementia. We obtained comparable results for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease as well as in the stratified analyses by PRS for dementia, APOE genotype, or family history of dementia.

Conclusions: Activity patterns more adherent to frequent vigorous and other exercises, housework-related activity, and friend/family visit were associated with a reduced risk of multiple types of dementia. Such associations are independent of disease susceptibility, highlighting the potential of these physical and mental activity patterns, as effective interventions, in the primary prevention of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000200701DOI Listing
July 2022

Exercise-induced FNDC5/irisin protects nucleus pulposus cells against senescence and apoptosis by activating autophagy.

Exp Mol Med 2022 Jul 26;54(7):1038-1048. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 325000, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of low back pain (LBP), and excessive senescence and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are major pathological changes in IVDD. Physical exercise could effectively delay the process of intervertebral disc degeneration; however, its mechanism is still largely unknown. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine released upon cleavage of the membrane-bound precursor protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), and its levels increase after physical exercise. Here, we show that after physical exercise, FNDC5/irisin levels increase in the circulation and NP, senescence and apoptosis are reduced, autophagy is activated in NP tissue, and the progression of IVDD is delayed. Conversely, after knocking out FNDC5, the benefits of physical exercise are compromised. Moreover, the overexpression of FNDC5 in NP tissue effectively alleviated the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) in rats. By showing that FNDC5/irisin is an important mediator of the beneficial effects of physical exercise in the IVDD model, the study proposes FNDC5/irisin as a novel agent capable of activating autophagy and protecting NP from senescence and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-022-00811-2DOI Listing
July 2022

Engineered bioorthogonal POLY-PROTAC nanoparticles for tumour-specific protein degradation and precise cancer therapy.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 26;13(1):4318. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research & Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) has been exploited to degrade putative protein targets. However, the antitumor performance of PROTACs is impaired by their insufficient tumour distribution. Herein, we present de novo designed polymeric PROTAC (POLY-PROTAC) nanotherapeutics for tumour-specific protein degradation. The POLY-PROTACs are engineered by covalently grafting small molecular PROTACs onto the backbone of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer via the disulfide bonds. The POLY-PROTACs self-assemble into micellar nanoparticles and sequentially respond to extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2, intracellular acidic and reductive tumour microenvironment. The POLY-PROTAC NPs are further functionalized with azide groups for bioorthogonal click reaction-amplified PROTAC delivery to the tumour tissue. For proof-of-concept, we demonstrate that tumour-specific BRD4 degradation with the bioorthogonal POLY-PROTAC nanoplatform combine with photodynamic therapy efficiently regress tumour xenografts in a mouse model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer. This study suggests the potential of the POLY-PROTACs for precise protein degradation and PROTAC-based cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32050-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325692PMC
July 2022

Curcumin Alleviates D-Galactose-Induced Cardiomyocyte Senescence by Promoting Autophagy via the SIRT1/AMPK/mTOR Pathway.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 16;2022:2990843. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 100 Haining Road, Shanghai 200080, China.

Oxidative stress and impaired autophagy are the hallmarks of cardiac aging. However, there are no specific drugs available to prevent cardiac aging. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic drug with antioxidant, antiaging, and autophagy-promoting effects. Here, we describe the preventive role of Curcumin in cardiac aging through the induction of autophagy and the restoration of autophagy via the SIRT1/AMPK/mTOR pathway. The number of cells positive for senescence-associated -galactosidase, P53, P16, and intracellular ROS increased significantly in senescent cardiomyocytes, stimulated using D-galactose. Curcumin reversed this effect in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin-induced autophagy increased the expression of SIRT1and phosphorylated AMPK and decreased phosphorylated mTOR in a dose-dependent manner. SIRT1-siRNA-mediated knockdown inhibited the antioxidation, antiaging, the promotion of autophagy, and the SIRT1/AMPK/mTOR pathway activation effect of curcumin. Therefore, curcumin could be an effective anticardiac aging drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2990843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9308546PMC
July 2022

Room-temperature epitaxial welding of 3D and 2D perovskites.

Nat Mater 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.

Formation of epitaxial heterostructures via post-growth self-assembly is important in the design and preparation of functional hybrid systems combining unique properties of the constituents. This is particularly attractive for the construction of metal halide perovskite heterostructures, since their conventional solution synthesis usually leads to non-uniformity in composition, crystal phase and dimensionality. Herein, we demonstrate that a series of two-dimensional and three-dimensional perovskites of different composition and crystal phase can form epitaxial heterostructures through a ligand-assisted welding process at room temperature. Using the CsPbBr/PEAPbBr heterostructure as a demonstration, in addition to the effective charge and energy transfer across the epitaxial interface, localized lattice strain was observed at the interface, which was extended to the top layer of the two-dimensional perovskite, leading to multiple new sub-bandgap emissions at low temperature. Given the versatility of our strategy, unlimited hybrid systems are anticipated, yielding composition-, interface- and/or orientation-dependent properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-022-01311-4DOI Listing
July 2022

Cell landscape of larval and adult Xenopus laevis at single-cell resolution.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 25;13(1):4306. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, and Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310000, China.

The rapid development of high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing technology offers a good opportunity to dissect cell heterogeneity of animals. A large number of organism-wide single-cell atlases have been constructed for vertebrates such as Homo sapiens, Macaca fascicularis, Mus musculus and Danio rerio. However, an intermediate taxon that links mammals to vertebrates of more ancient origin is still lacking. Here, we construct the first Xenopus cell landscape to date, including larval and adult organs. Common cell lineage-specific transcription factors have been identified in vertebrates, including fish, amphibians and mammals. The comparison of larval and adult erythrocytes identifies stage-specific hemoglobin subtypes, as well as a common type of cluster containing both larval and adult hemoglobin, mainly at NF59. In addition, cell lineages originating from all three layers exhibits both antigen processing and presentation during metamorphosis, indicating a common regulatory mechanism during metamorphosis. Overall, our study provides a large-scale resource for research on Xenopus metamorphosis and adult organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31949-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314398PMC
July 2022

Structural Brain Network Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease With Freezing of Gait.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 8;14:944925. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have investigated white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the topological changes in the brain network. This study aims to reveal these changes by comparing PD without freezing of gait (FOG) (PD FOG-), PD with FOG (PD FOG+), and healthy control (HC).

Methods: 21 PD FOG+, 34 PD FOG-, and 23 HC were recruited, and DTI images were acquired. The graph theoretical analysis and network-based statistical method were used to calculate the topological parameters and assess connections.

Results: PD FOG+ showed a decreased normalized clustering coefficient, small-worldness, clustering coefficient, and increased local network efficiency compared with HCs. PD FOG+ showed decreased centrality, degree centrality, and nodal efficiency in the striatum, frontal gyrus, and supplementary motor area (SMA). PD FOG+ showed decreased connections in the frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus (CAU). The between centrality of the left SMA and left CAU was negatively correlated with FOG questionnaire scores.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that PD FOG+ exhibits disruption of global and local topological organization in structural brain networks, and the disrupted topological organization can be potential biomarkers in PD FOG+. These new findings may provide increasing insight into the pathophysiological mechanism of PD FOG+.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.944925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9304752PMC
July 2022

Association between gray/white matter contrast and white matter microstructural alterations in medication-naïve obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 Jul 19;35:103122. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Intracortical myelin is involved in speeding and synchronizing neural activity of the cerebral cortex and has been found to be disrupted in various psychiatric disorders. However, its role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has remained unknown. In this study, we investigated the alterations in intracortical myelin and their association with white matter (WM) microstructural abnormalities in OCD. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted brain images were obtained for 51 medication-naïve patients with OCD and 26 healthy controls (HCs). The grey/white matter contrast (GWC) was calculated from T1-weighted signal intensities to characterize the intracortical myelin profile in OCD. Diffusion parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), were extracted from diffusion-weighted images to examine the WM microstructure in OCD. Compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed increased GWC in the bilateral orbitofrontal, cuneus, lingual and fusiform gyrus, left anterior cingulate, left superior parietal, right inferior parietal, and right middle frontal cortices, suggesting reduced intracortical myelin. Patients with OCD also showed decreased FA in several WM regions, with a topology corresponding to the GWC alterations. In both groups, the mean GWC of the significant clusters in between-group GWC analysis was correlated negatively with the mean FA of the significant clusters in between-group FA analysis. In patients with OCD, the FA of a cluster in the right cerebellum correlated negatively with the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale scores. Our results suggest that abnormal intracortical and WM myelination could be the microstructural basis for the brain connectivity alterations and disrupted inhibitory control in OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103122DOI Listing
July 2022

Clostridium as microbial cell factory to enable the sustainable utilization of three generations of feedstocks.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jul 21;361:127656. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

College of Food Science and Light Industry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China; State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China. Electronic address:

The sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels from non-fossil carbon sources is considered key to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Clostridium sp. can convert various substrates, including the 1st-generation (biomass crops), the 2nd-generation (lignocellulosic biomass), and the 3rd-generation (C1 gases) feedstocks, into high-value products, which makes Clostridia attractive for biorefinery applications. However, the complexity of lignocellulosic catabolism and C1 gas utilization make it difficult to construct efficient production routes. Accordingly, this review highlights the advances in the development of three generations of feedstocks with Clostridia as cell factories. At the same time, more attention was given to using agro-industrial wastes (lignocelluloses and C1 gases) as the feedstocks, for which metabolic and process engineering efforts were comprehensively analyzed. In addition, the challenges of using agro-industrial wastes are also discussed. Lastly, several new synthetic biology tools and regulatory strategies are emphasized as promising technologies to be developed to address the aforementioned challenges in Clostridia and realize the efficient utilization of agro-industrial wastes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127656DOI Listing
July 2022
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