Publications by authors named "Lei Yang"

2,956 Publications

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Structure-Driven Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Cross-Modality Cardiac Segmentation.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Jun 23;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Performance degradation due to domain shift remains a major challenge in medical image analysis. Unsupervised domain adaptation that transfers knowledge learned from the source domain with ground truth labels to the target domain without any annotation is the mainstream solution to resolve this issue. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised domain adaptation framework for cross-modality cardiac segmentation, by explicitly capturing a common cardiac structure embedded across different modalities to guide cardiac segmentation. In particular, we first extract a set of 3D landmarks, in a self-supervised manner, to represent the cardiac structure of different modalities. The high-level structure information is then combined with another complementary feature, the Canny edges, to produce accurate cardiac segmentation results both in the source and target domains. We extensively evaluate our method on the MICCAI 2017 MM-WHS dataset for cardiac segmentation. The evaluation, comparison and comprehensive ablation studies demonstrate that our approach achieves satisfactory segmentation results and outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised domain adaptation methods by a significant margin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2021.3090432DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent Progress in Van der Waals 2D PtSe2.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, CHINA.

As a new member in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) family, platinum diselenium (PtSe2) has many excellent properties, such as the layer-dependent band gap, high carrier mobility, high photoelectrical coupling, broadband response, etc., thus it shows good promising application in room-temperature photodetectors, broadband photodetectors, transistors and other fields. Furthermore, compared with other TMDCs, PtSe2 is chemical inert in ambient, showing nano-devices potential with higher performance and stability. However, up to now, the synthesis and its device applications are in its early stage. This review systematically summarized the state of the art of PtSe2 from its structure, property, synthesis and potential application. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives are outlined for the applications of 2D PtSe2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0d7cDOI Listing
June 2021

Advanced Exergy Analysis for a Novel Gasoline Absorption-Stabilization Process.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 28;6(23):15332-15347. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Energy Resources Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby 2800, Denmark.

The advanced exergy analysis can identify the improved potential of each component and the interaction among components of the refining processes. In this work, a new gasoline absorption-stabilization process (GASP) is proposed for better energy utilization considering the absorption process intensification, which can be further explained using exergy analysis. Both conventional and new GASPs are simulated in PRO/II, which are verified with the actual plant operation data. The energy performance of both conventional and new GASPs is evaluated through the advanced exergy analysis. The exergy efficiencies of conventional and new GASPs are 65.04 and 71.44%, respectively. In addition, the total exergy destruction rates are 7.79 and 6.01 MW, respectively. The total exergy destructions of 46.37 and 40.73% can be reduced, respectively. Though the stabilizer has the largest exergy destruction in both the processes, the air cooler for the rich gas in the new GASP has the largest potential for reducing exergy destruction, which is different from the conventional GASP. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the new GASP is performed to study the effects of newly added operation and design parameters on the conventional and advanced exergy analyses of the absorber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210431PMC
June 2021

METTL3 induces bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells osteogenic differentiation and migration through facilitating M1 macrophage differentiation.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):4376-4388. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University Harbin 150081, China.

Despite the crucial role of mA methyltransferase METTL3 in multiple diseases onset and progression, there are still lacking hard evidence proving that METTL3 could affect macrophage polarization in the stage of bone repair. Here, we aimed to explore the potential involvement of METTL3 in bone repair through modulating macrophage polarization and decipher the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms. Here we treated RAW 264.7 cells and BM-derived primary macrophages (BMDM) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce M1 differentiation. METTL3 expression was upregulated in pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) as compared with macrophages (M0). And overexpression of METTL3 promoted the expression of IL-6 and iNOS secretion by M1 macrophage. In the coculture condition, M1 macrophages with forced expression of METTL3 significantly enhanced migration ability of BMSCs, and also remarkably facilitated osteogenesis ability of BMSCs; the opposite was true when expression of METTL3 was knockdown. In addition, the mA-RIP microarray suggested that METTL3 silencing significantly reduce the mA modification of DUSP14, HDAC5 and Nfam1. Furthermore, the findings showed that expression of HADC5 was downregulated in M1 macrophages with METTL3 knockdown, while the DUSP14 expression had slight change and Nfam1 expression was very low. In contrast, METTL3 overexpression promoted HDAC5 expression, indicating that HDAC5 is the critical target gene of METTL3. Under such a theme, we proposed that METTL3 overexpression might be a new approach of replacement therapy for the treatment of bone repair.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205672PMC
May 2021

Sirtuin3 ameliorates lung senescence and improves type II alveolar epithelial cell function by enhancing the FoxO3a-dependent antioxidant defence mechanism.

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 105821, Harbin, China, 150086;

Lung ageing alters the intrinsic structure of the lung and pulmonary surfactant system and increases the mortality and morbidity due to respiratory diseases in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that lung ageing results from an insufficiency of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) in the lung tissue. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the sirtuin family of proteins that promote longevity in many organisms. Increased SIRT3 expression has been linked to an extended lifespan in humans. Hence, we speculated that the overexpression of SIRT3 may help to ameliorate lung senescence and improve AECII function. AECIIs were isolated from young and old patients with pneumothorax caused by pulmonary bullae. The expression of SIRT3, manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as cell function and senescence indicators of young and old AECIIs, were measured before and after SIRT3 overexpression. After SIRT3 overexpression, the aged state of old AECIIs improved, and anti-apoptotic activity, proliferation and secretion were dramatically enhanced. Surfactant protein C (SPC), which is secreted by AECIIs, reduces alveolar surface tension, repairs the alveolar structure and regulates inflammation. SPC deficiency in patients is associated with increased inflammation and delayed repair. SIRT3 deacetylated forkhead box O3a, thereby protecting mitochondria from oxidative stress and improving cell function and the senescent state of old AECIIs. These findings provide a possible direction for ageing-delaying therapies and interventions for diseases of the respiratory system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2021.0099DOI Listing
June 2021

Higenamine mitigates interleukin-1β-induced human nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis by ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt signaling.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Orthopedic, Baoding No. 1 Central Hospital, No. 320 North Changcheng Avenue, Baoding, 071000, China.

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a natural problem linked to the inflammation. Higenamine exerts multiple pharmacological properties in inflammation-related disorders. Our study aimed to explore the function of higenamine on interleukin (IL)-1β-caused apoptosis of human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs). Cell apoptosis was investigated by TUNEL and flow cytometry. Apoptosis-related biomarkers were determined by qRT-PCR or Western blotting. The protein in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling was measured by Western blotting. We found that higenamine showed little effect on cell apoptosis, but mitigated IL-1β-caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent pattern. Higenamine attenuated IL-1β-induced decrease of Bcl-2 and increase of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. Higenamine did not affect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the PI3K/Akt signaling, but attenuated IL-1β-induced ROS production and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling. IL-1β repressed the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, but ROS inhibition using N-acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued this pathway. The PI3K/Akt signaling suppression using LY294002 reversed the inhibitive effect of higenamine on IL-1β-caused apoptosis, and this effect was weakened by ROS inhibition. In conclusion, higenamine attenuates IL-1β-caused apoptosis of HNPCs via ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04197-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Coexistence of Hopf-born Rotation and Heteroclinic Cycling in a Time-Delayed Three-Gene Auto-Regulated and Mutually-Repressed Core Genetic Regulation Network.

J Theor Biol 2021 Jun 15:110813. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

In this work, we study the behavior of a time-delayed mutually repressive auto-activating three-gene system. Delays are introduced to account for the location difference between DNA transcription that leads to production of messenger RNA and its translation that result in protein synthesis. We study the dynamics of the system using numerical simulations, computational bifurcation analysis and mathematical analysis. We find Hopf bifurcations leading to stable and unstable rotation in the system, and we study the rotational behavior as a function of cyclic mutual repression parameter asymmetry between each gene pair in the network. We focus on how rotation co-exists with a stable heteroclinic flow linking the three saddles in the system. We find that this coexistence allows for a transition between two markedly different types of rotation leading to strikingly different phenotypes. One type of rotation belongs to Hopf-induced rotation while the other type, belongs to heteroclinic cycling between three saddle nodes in the system. We discuss the evolutionary and biological implications of our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110813DOI Listing
June 2021

ENaC and ROMK channels in the connecting tubule regulate renal K+ secretion.

J Gen Physiol 2021 Aug 18;153(8). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.

We measured the activities of epithelial Na channels (ENaC) and ROMK channels in the distal nephron of the mouse kidney and assessed their role in the process of K+ secretion under different physiological conditions. Under basal dietary conditions (0.5% K), ENaC activity, measured as amiloride-sensitive currents, was high in cells at the distal end of the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and proximal end of the connecting tubule (CNT), a region we call the early CNT (CNTe). In more distal parts of the CNT (aldosterone-sensitive portion [CNTas]), these currents were minimal. This functional difference correlated with alterations in the intracellular location of ENaC, which was at or near the apical membrane in CNTe and more cytoplasmic in the CNTas. ROMK activity, measured as TPNQ-sensitive currents, was substantial in both segments. A mathematical model of the rat nephron suggested that K+ secretion by the CNTe predicted from these currents provides much of the urinary K+ required for K balance on this diet. In animals fed a K-deficient diet (0.1% K), both ENaC and ROMK currents in the CNTe decreased by ∼50%, predicting a 50% decline in K+ secretion. Enhanced reabsorption by a separate mechanism is required to avoid excessive urinary K+ losses. In animals fed a diet supplemented with 3% K, ENaC currents increased modestly in the CNTe but strongly in the CNTas, while ROMK currents tripled in both segments. The enhanced secretion of K+ by the CNTe and the recruitment of secretion by the CNTas account for the additional transport required for K balance. Therefore, adaptation to increased K+ intake involves the extension of robust K+ secretion to more distal parts of the nephron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.202112902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217949PMC
August 2021

Geniposide ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depression-like behavior through inhibition of ceramide-PP2A signaling via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β axis.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neurosurgery & Neurocritical Care, Huashan Hospital Affiliated To Fudan University, 958 Jinguang Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Background: Depression is a severe mental disorder. Unfortunately, more than half of patients with major depression disorder cannot achieve remission after initial treatment with an antidepressant. Geniposide, a bioactive iridoid glycoside isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is still not very clear.

Methods: The pharmacological methods including ELISA, immunofluorescence, and Western blot were used to investigate the role of geniposide on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression mice.

Results: In this study, we found that geniposide could inhibit CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. Geniposide is able to reduce the levels of ceramide and lower the activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) in hippocampus; besides, ASM inhibitor (amitriptyline) can decrease the concentration of ceramide and ameliorate depressive-like behaviors of mice. Moreover, geniposide can also alleviate CUMS-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and increase the phosphorylated form of PI3K, Akt, and GSK3β. Additionally, PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) can also abolish the neuroprotective effect of geniposide on hippocampal neurons in vitro.

Conclusions: These results indicate that geniposide exert a potential antidepressant-like effect on CUMS mice, and its effect might be associated with activated PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling, reduced the level of ceramide and hippocampal neuron apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05895-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Strontium-calcium phosphate hybrid cement with enhanced osteogenic and angiogenic properties for vascularised bone regeneration.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Institute of Orthopedics and Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, No. 708 Renmin Road, Suzhou 215006, P. R. China and Center for Health Science and Engineering (CHSE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, No. 8 Guangrong Road, Tianjin 300130, P. R. China.

Vascularized bone tissue engineering is regarded as one of the optimal treatment options for large bone defects. The lack of angiogenic properties and unsatisfactory physicochemical performance restricts calcium phosphate cement (CPC) from application in vascularized bone tissue engineering. Our previous studies have developed a starch and BaSO4 incorporated calcium phosphate hybrid cement (CPHC) with improved mechanical strength and handling properties. However, the bioactivity-especially the angiogenic ability-is still absent and requires further improvement. Herein, based on the reported CPHC and the osteogenic and angiogenic properties of strontium (Sr) ions, a strontium-enhanced calcium phosphate hybrid cement (Sr-CPHC) was developed to improve both biological and physicochemical properties of CPC. Compared to CPC, the initial setting time of Sr-CPHC was prolonged from 2.2 min to 20.7 min. The compressive strength of Sr-CPHC improved from 11.21 MPa to 45.52 MPa compared with CPC as well. Sr-CPHC was biocompatible and showed promotion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium nodule formation and osteogenic relative gene expression, suggesting high osteogenic-inductivity. Sr-CPHC also facilitated the migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and up-regulated the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). In vivo evaluation showed marked new bone formation in a rat calvarial defect model with Sr-CPHC implanted. Sr-CPHC also exhibited enhancement of neovascularization in subcutaneous connective tissue in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. Thus, the Sr-CPHC with the dual effects of osteogenesis and angiogenesis shows great potential for clinical applications such as the repair of ischemic osteonecrosis and critical-size bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00439eDOI Listing
June 2021

Electron-Induced Perpendicular Graphene Sheets Embedded Porous Carbon Film for Flexible Touch Sensors.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Jun 25;12(1):136. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, People's Republic of China.

Graphene-based materials on wearable electronics and bendable displays have received considerable attention for the mechanical flexibility, superior electrical conductivity, and high surface area, which are proved to be one of the most promising candidates of stretching and wearable sensors. However, polarized electric charges need to overcome the barrier of graphene sheets to cross over flakes to penetrate into the electrode, as the graphene planes are usually parallel to the electrode surface. By introducing electron-induced perpendicular graphene (EIPG) electrodes incorporated with a stretchable dielectric layer, a flexible and stretchable touch sensor with "in-sheet-charges-transportation" is developed to lower the resistance of carrier movement. The electrode was fabricated with porous nanostructured architecture design to enable wider variety of dielectric constants of only 50-μm-thick Ecoflex layer, leading to fast response time of only 66 ms, as well as high sensitivities of 0.13 kPa below 0.1 kPa and 4.41 MPa above 10 kPa, respectively. Moreover, the capacitance-decrease phenomenon of capacitive sensor is explored to exhibit an object recognition function in one pixel without any other integrated sensor. This not only suggests promising applications of the EIPG electrode in flexible touch sensors but also provides a strategy for internet of things security functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00480-8DOI Listing
June 2020

[Effect of rehabilitation treatment based on the ICF-CY Core Sets on activities of daily living in children with cerebral palsy: a prospective randomized controlled study].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;23(6):608-612

Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To study the effect of rehabilitation treatment based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) Core Sets on activities of daily living in children with cerebral palsy.

Methods: The children with cerebral palsy were divided into an observation group (=63) and a control group (=59) using a random number table. The children in the observation group were evaluated using the brief ICF-CY Core Sets for children under 6 years to identify intervention targets and develop rehabilitation plans and goals, and then specific methods were selected for rehabilitation treatment. The children in the control group were evaluated and treated with the traditional rehabilitation mode. The scores of the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) and the Infants-Junior Middle School Students' Social-Life Abilities Scale were assessed for both groups before treatment and after three courses of treatment. The intervention of environmental factors was compared between the two groups.

Results: There was no significant difference in the scores of the WeeFIM and Social-Life Abilities scales between the two groups before treatment ( > 0.05). After treatment, both groups had significant increases in the scores of the WeeFIM and Social-Life Abilities scales ( < 0.001). The observation group had significantly higher scores of WeeFIM and Social-Life Abilities scales than the control group after treatment ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the use rate of orthosis between the two groups ( > 0.05), but the use rate of assistive devices for self-help, transfer and communication, the rate of facility renovation, and the rate of family rehabilitation guidance in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The rehabilitation treatment regimen for cerebral palsy based on the CF-CY Core Sets pays more attention to the influence of environmental factors in the process of rehabilitation and can effectively improve the activities of daily living of children with cerebral palsy.
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June 2021

Sensitivity enhancement in photothermal interferometry by balanced detection of the complex response to moving excitation.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2976-2979

The sensitivity of photothermal detection relies on both the magnitude of the response of a sample to excitation and the way the response is sensed. We propose a highly sensitive photothermal interferometry by addressing the above two issues. One is the use of moving excitation to enable a different manner in sample heating and cooling, which results in a strong thermoelastic response of the sample. The other is the use of a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a defocused probe beam to sense the complex response induced by the phase delays taking place at the sample surface and in the surrounding air. The method was verified experimentally with a Nd-doped glass to have 68-fold sensitivity enhancement over the classical photothermal common-path interferometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.426225DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy and safety of acupuncture in treating acute low back pain: a systematic review and bayesian network meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, China.

Background: Acute low back pain (ALBP) is common and acupuncture therapy is a treatment option. The comparative efficacy and safety of different acupuncture therapies are still unclear. The aim of this network meta-analysis (NMA) was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of different acupuncture therapies for ALBP.

Methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Database, Wanfang Database, and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM). The outcome indicators measured were visual analog scale (VAS) score, lumbar range of motion (ROM) score, and adverse events. The risk of bias among included studies was assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. WinBUGS 1.4 was used for the NMA.

Results: In total, nineteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comprising 1427 participants were included. Results of NMA showed the following: (I) compared with placebo, motion style acupuncture (MSA) (SMD: -2.21; 95% CI, -3.33 to -1.08), manual acupuncture (MA) (SMD: -1.14; 95% CI, -2.01 to -0.27), and electroacupuncture (EA) (SMD: -1.57; 95% CI, -2.98 to -0.15) were found to be more effective for decreasing VAS score; (II) compared with pharmacotherapy, MSA (SMD: -1.00; 95% CI, -1.47 to -0.54) and MA (SMD: -0.60; 95% CI, -1.15 to -0.05) were found to be more effective in reducing ROM score. Results of the surface under the cumulative ranking curve indicated that all acupuncture types were superior to placebo or pharmacotherapy in lowering VAS and ROM score. It was noted that MSA was the most effective treatment.

Conclusions: This study indicated that acupuncture therapy achieved good therapeutic effects in the treatment of ALBP, especially MSA therapy. Nevertheless, due to the low quality of the included trials, the credibility of our conclusions is low. Further well-designed RCTs with high quality and large samples are still needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for ALBP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-551DOI Listing
May 2021

Correlation between the prognosis of chronic hepatitis B treated with interferon and the gene polymorphism of CGRP and its receptor.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jun 9:104968. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Hebei Medical University, Hebei Key Laboratory of Environment and Human health, Shi Jiazhuang, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the relationship of the polymorphism of two gene loci (CGRP rs155209 and RAMP1 rs3754701) with the prognosis of interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) by case-control study.

Materials And Methods: 317 CHB patients using interferon for the first time alone were collected in northern China and peripheral blood samples were obtained, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CGRP rs155209 and RAMP1 rs3754701 were genotyped by MALDI-TOF-MS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to assess the correlation between the prognosis of CHB treated with interferon and the gene polymorphism of CGRP rs155209 and RAMP1 rs3754701.

Results: The study clearly demonstrated the relevance of the polymorphism CGRP rs155209 and RAMP1 rs3754701 with DNA response and ALT response. The CHB patients with CGRP rs155209C were less prone to develop DNA response (CT vs TT: OR = 0.157, 95% CI = 0.085-0.291, P < 0.001; CC vs TT: OR = 0.132, 95% CI = 0.060-0.289, P < 0.001), and they also were less likely to develop ALT response (CT vs TT: OR = 0.530, 95% CI = 0.323-0.869, P = 0.012). Moreover, the CHB patients with RAMP1 rs3754701T allele were more prone to develop DNA response (AT vs AA:OR = 2.061, 95%CI = 1.237-3.435, P = 0.006; TT vs AA: OR = 5.676, 95% CI = 1.247-25.837, P = 0.025), and they also more likely to develop ALT response (AT vs AA: OR = 1.766, 95% CI = 1.098-2.840, P = 0.019).

Conclusion: Our study revealed that the polymorphisms of CGRP rs155209 and RAMP1 rs3754701 were associated with the prognosis of interferon therapy for CHB in the Han Chinese population, and RAMP1 rs3754701T was a protective factor for ALT response and DNA response, but CGRP rs155209C carriers were less prone to DNA and ALT responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104968DOI Listing
June 2021

High-resolution in vivo imaging of rhesus cerebral cortex with ultrafast portable photoacoustic microscopy.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 9;238:118260. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Revealing the structural and functional change of microvasculature is essential to match vascular response with neuronal activities in the investigation of neurovascular coupling. The increasing use of rhesus models in fundamental and clinical studies of neurovascular coupling presents an emerging need for a new imaging modality. Here we report a structural and functional cerebral vascular study of rhesus monkeys using an ultrafast, portable, and high resolution photoacoustic microscopic system with a long working distance and a special scanning mechanism to eliminate the relative displacement between the imaging interface and samples. We derived the structural and functional response of the cerebral vasculature to the alternating normoxic and hypoxic conditions by calculating the vascular diameter and functional connectivity. Both vasodilatation and vasoconstriction were observed in hypoxia. In addition to the change of vascular diameter, the decrease of functional connectivity is also an important phenomenon induced by the reduction of oxygen ventilatory. These results suggest that photoacoustic microscopy is a promising method to study the neurovascular coupling and cerebral vascular diseases due to the advanced features of high spatiotemporal resolution, excellent sensitivity to hemoglobin, and label-free imaging capability of observing hemodynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118260DOI Listing
June 2021

Highly Efficient MicroRNA Delivery Using Functionalized Carbon Dots for Enhanced Conversion of Fibroblasts to Cardiomyocytes.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 1;16:3741-3754. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200127, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The reprogramming of induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) is of particular significance in regenerative medicine; however, it remains a great challenge to fabricate an efficient and safe gene delivery system to induce reprogramming of iCMs for therapeutic applications in heart injury. Here, we report branched polyethyleneimine (BP) coated nitrogen-enriched carbon dots (BP-NCDs) as highly efficient nanocarriers loaded with microRNAs-combo (BP-NCDs/MC) for cardiac reprogramming.

Methods: The BP-NCDs nanocarriers were prepared and characterized by several analytical techniques.

Results: The BP-NCDs nanocarriers showed good microRNAs-combo binding affinity, negligible cytotoxicity, and long-term microRNAs expression. Importantly, BP-NCDs/MC nanocomplexes led to the efficient direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into iCMs without genomic integration and resulting in effective recovery of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI).

Conclusion: This study offers a novel strategy to provide safe and effective microRNAs-delivery nanoplatforms based on carbon dots for promising cardiac regeneration and disease therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S304873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186278PMC
June 2021

Investigating the hemostatic effect of medicinal plant Arnebia euchroma (Royle) I.M.Johnst extract in a mouse model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 8;278:114306. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases, School of Medicine, Huanghuai University, Henan Province, 463000, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Arnebia euchroma (Royle) I.M.Johnst (AE) has been reported to be a potentially useful medicinal herb for the treatment of several circulatory diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. It shows effects such as "cooling of the blood," promotion of blood circulation, detoxification, and rash clearance.

Aim Of The Study: To explore the hemostatic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of AE in mice.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we explored the effects of AE on bleeding time, blood coagulation time, platelet count, and blood coagulation parameters in normal Kunming mice. Different doses of the AE extract (5, 10, and 20 g kg·day) were administered to mice for 14 days. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na at 0.5%) and Yunnan Baiyao (0.8 g kg·day) were administered as negative and positive control treatments, respectively. Bleeding time, blood coagulation time, platelet count, blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF-4) secretions from blood platelets, and blood coagulation parameters including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen (FIB) levels were measured on day 15 of administration.

Results: Bleeding and blood coagulation time were significantly lower and TT was shorter in the AE extract-treated groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, FIB levels and platelet count were higher, whereas blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, and PF-4 secretion from blood platelets were more obvious in the AE extract-treated groups than in the control group. However, no significant differences were detected for PT and aPTT between the extract-treated and control groups.

Conclusions: The ethyl acetate extract of AE showed potential hemostasis effects in mice by shortening the bleeding and coagulation time. In addition, the extract increased platelet count and induced blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, PF-4 secretion from blood platelets, and FIB level, while it shortened TT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114306DOI Listing
June 2021

Degradation of Janus kinases in CRLF2-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

CRLF2-rearranged (CRLF2r) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) comprises over half of Philadelphia chromosome-like (Ph-like) ALL, is associated with poor outcome in children and adults. Overexpression of CRLF2 results in activation of JAK-STAT and parallel signaling pathways in experimental models, but existing small molecule inhibitors of Janus kinases show variable and limited efficacy. Here we evaluated the efficacy of proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) directed against Janus kinases. Solving the structure of type I JAK inhibitors ruxolitinib and baricitinib bound to the JAK2 tyrosine kinase domain enabled the rational design and optimization of multiple series of cereblon (CRBN)-directed JAK PROTACs utilizing derivatives of JAK inhibitors, linkers and CRBN-specific molecular glues. The resulting JAK PROTACs were evaluated for target degradation, and activity tested in a panel of leukemia/lymphoma cell lines and xenograft models of kinase-driven ALL. Multiple PROTACs were developed that degraded Janus kinases and potently killed CRLF2--rearranged cell lines, the most active of which also degraded the known CRBN neosubstrate GSPT1, and suppressed proliferation of CRLF2-rearranged ALL in vivo. While dual JAK/GSPT1-degrading PROTACs were most potent, development and evaluation of multiple PROTACs in an extended panel of xenografts identified a potent JAK2-degrading GSPT1-sparing PROTAC that demonstrated efficacy in the majority of the kinase-driven xenografts which were otherwise unresponsive to type I JAK inhibitors. Together, these data show the potential of JAK-directed protein degradation as a therapeutic approach in JAK-STAT-driven ALL, and highlight the interplay of Janus kinase and GSPT1 degradation activity in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006846DOI Listing
June 2021

A Robust Photocatalytic Hybrid Material Composed of Metal-Organic Cages and TiO for Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution.

Chem Asian J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, P. R. China.

The design of photochemical molecular devices (PMDs) for photocatalytic H production from water is a meaningful but challenging subject currently. Herein, a Pd L type metal-organic cage (denoted as MOC-Q2) is designed as a PMD, which consists of two catalytic centers (Pd ) and four photosensitive ligands (L-2) with four pyridine anchoring groups. Subsequently, the MOC-Q2 is combined with TiO to form TiO -MOC-Q2 hybrid materials with different MOC-Q2 contents by a facile sol-gel method, which have micro/mesoporous structures and large surface areas. The optimized TiO -MOC-Q2 (6.5 wt%) exhibits high H production activity (7.9 mmol g  h within 5 h) and excellent durability, giving a TON value of 23477 or 11739 (based on MOC-Q2 or Pd moles) after recycling for 7 rounds. By contrast, the pure MOC-Q2 only shows an ordinary photocatalytic H production rate (0.84 mmol g  h within 5 h) in the homogeneous system. It can be deduced that TiO drives the photocatalysis and simultaneously acts as the structure promoter. This study presents a meaningful and distinctive attempt of a new approach for the design and development of MOC-based heterogeneous photocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100469DOI Listing
June 2021

The Measurement of the Inclination Angle of the Hamate and Analysis of the Inclination Angle for the Rotation Deformity of the Little Finger in the Fixation of the Carpometacarpal Joint.

Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: Complex base fractures of the fifth metacarpal bone and dislocation of the fifth carpometacarpal joint are more prone to internal rotation deformity of the little finger sequence after fixation with a transarticular plate. In the past, we have neglected that there is actually a certain angle of external rotation in the hamate surface of transarticular fixation. This study measured the inclination angle of the hamate surface relative to the fifth metacarpal surface for clinical reference.

Methods: In a prospective single-center study, we investigated the tilt angle of 60 normal hamates. The study included thin-layer computed tomography (CT) data from 60 patients from the orthopaedic clinic and inpatient unit from January 2017 to March 2020, including 34 men and 26 women who were 15~59 years old, average 35 years old. The CT data of 60 cases in Dicom format of the hand was input into Mimics and 3-Matics software for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and measuring the angle α between hamate surface and the fifth metacarpal surface. According to the possible placement of the transarticular plate on the fifth metacarpal surface, we measured the angle β between the hamate surface 1 and the fifth metacarpal surface and the angle γ between the hamate surface 2 and the fifth metacarpal surface.

Results: The average angle between the hamate surface and the fifth metacarpal surface was 11.66°. The hamate surfaces 1 and 2 have an external rotation angle of 7.30° and 7.51° on average with respect to the fifth metacarpal surface, respectively. There is no statistically significant difference in the angles between the two groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: The horizontal angle of the dorsal side of the hamate is different from the back of the fifth metacarpal surface, and the hamate has a certain external rotation angle with respect to the fifth metacarpal surface. No matter how the transarticular plate is placed, the plate always has a certain external rotation angle relative to the fifth metacarpal surface. When the fixation is across the fifth carpometacarpal joint, if the plate does not twist and shape, it will inevitably cause internal rotation of the fifth metacarpal, resulting in internal rotation deformity of the little finger sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.13028DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of Molecular Characteristics and New Prognostic Targets for Thymoma by Multiomics Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 19;2021:5587441. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China.

Background: Thymoma is a heterogeneous tumor originated from thymic epithelial cells. The molecular mechanism of thymoma remains unclear.

Methods: The expression profile, methylation, and mutation data of thymoma were obtained from TCGA database. The coexpression network was constructed using the variance of gene expression through WGCNA. Enrichment analysis using clusterProfiler R package and overall survival (OS) analysis by Kaplan-Meier method were carried out for the intersection of differential expression genes (DEGs) screened by limma R package and important module genes. PPI network was constructed based on STRING database for genes with significant impact on survival. The impact of key genes on the prognosis of thymoma was evaluated by ROC curve and Cox regression model. Finally, the immune cell infiltration, methylation modification, and gene mutation were calculated.

Results: We obtained eleven coexpression modules, and three of them were higher positively correlated with thymoma. DEGs in these three modules mainly involved in MAPK cascade and PPAR pathway. LIPE, MYH6, ACTG2, KLF4, SULT4A1, and TF were identified as key genes through the PPI network. AUC values of LIPE were the highest. Cox regression analysis showed that low expression of LIPE was a prognostic risk factor for thymoma. In addition, there was a high correlation between LIPE and T cells. Importantly, the expression of LIPE was modified by methylation. Among all the mutated genes, GTF2I had the highest mutation frequency.

Conclusion: These results suggested that the molecular mechanism of thymoma may be related to immune inflammation. LIPE may be the key genes affecting prognosis of thymoma. Our findings will help to elucidate the pathogenesis and therapeutic targets of thymoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5587441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159640PMC
May 2021

Fully Automated Segmentation of Brain Tumor from Multiparametric MRI Using 3D Context Deep Supervised U-Net.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Purpose: Owing to histologic complexities of brain tumors, its diagnosis requires the use of multi-modalities to obtain valuable structural information so that brain tumor subregions can be properly delineated. In current clinical workflow, physicians typically perform slice by slice delineation of brain tumor subregions, which is a time-consuming process and also more susceptible to intra- and inter-rater variabilities possibly leading to misclassification. To deal with this issue, this study aims to develop an automatic segmentation of brain tumor in MR images using deep learning.

Method: In this study, we develop a context deep-supervised U-Net to segment brain tumor subregions. A context block which aggregates multiscale contextual information for dense segmentation was proposed. This approach enlarges the effective receptive field of convolutional neural networks, which, in turn, improves the segmentation accuracy of brain tumor subregions. We performed the 5-fold cross-validation on the Brain Tumor Segmentation Challenge (BraTS) 2020 training dataset. The BraTS 2020 testing datasets were obtained via BraTS online website as a hold-out test. For BraTS, the evaluation system divides the tumor into three regions: whole tumor (WT), tumor core (TC) and enhancing tumor (ET). The performance of our proposed method was compared against two state-of-the-arts CNN networks in terms of segmentation accuracy via Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff distance (HD). The tumor volumes generated by our proposed method were compared with manually contoured volumes via Bland-Altman plots and Pearson analysis.

Results: The proposed method achieved the segmentation results with a DSC of 0.923 ± 0.047, 0.893 ± 0.176, and 0.846 ± 0.165 and a 95% HD95 of 3.946 ± 7.041 mm, 3.981 ± 6.670 mm, and 10.128 ± 51.136 mm on WT, TC and ET, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieved comparable to significantly (P < 0.05) better segmentation accuracies than other two state-of-the-arts CNN networks. Pearson correlation analysis showed a high positive correlation between the tumor volumes generated by proposed method and manual contour.

Conclusion: Overall qualitative and quantitative results of this work demonstrate the potential of translating proposed technique into clinical practice for segmenting brain tumor subregions, and further facilitate brain tumor radiotherapy workflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15032DOI Listing
June 2021

Learning-based dose prediction for pancreatic stereotactic body radiation therapy using dual pyramid adversarial network.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jun 21;66(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Treatment planning for pancreatic cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is very challenging owing to vast spatial variations and close proximity of many organs-at-risk. Recently, deep learning (DL) based methods have been applied in dose prediction tasks of various treatment sites with the aim of relieving planning challenges. However, its effectiveness on pancreatic cancer SBRT is yet to be fully explored due to limited investigations in the literature. This study aims to further current knowledge in DL-based dose prediction tasks by implementing and demonstrating the feasibility of a new dual pyramid networks (DPNs) integrated DL model for predicting dose distributions of pancreatic SBRT. The proposed framework is composed of four parts: CT-only feature pyramid network (FPN), contour-only FPN, late fusion network and an adversarial network. During each phase of the network, combination of mean absolute error, gradient difference error, histogram matching, and adversarial loss is used for supervision. The performance of proposed model was demonstrated for pancreatic cancer SBRT plans with doses prescribed between 33 and 50 Gy across as many as three planning target volumes (PTVs) in five fractions. Five-fold cross validation was performed on 30 patients, and another 20 patients were used as holdout tests of trained model. Predicted plans were compared with clinically approved plans through dose volume parameters and two-paired t-test. For the same sets, our results were compared with three different DL architectures: 3D U-Net, 3D U-Net with adversarial learning, and DPN without adversarial learning. The proposed framework was able to predict 87% and 91% of clinically relevant dose parameters for cross validation sets and holdout sets, respectively, without any significant differences ( > 0.05). Dose distribution predicted by our framework was also able to predict the intentional hotspots as feature characteristics of SBRT plans. Our method achieved higher correlation coefficients with the ground truth in 22/26, 24/26 and 20/26 dose volume parameters compared to the network without adversarial learning, 3D U-Net, and 3D U-Net with adversarial learning, respectively. Overall, the proposed model was able to predict doses to cases with both single and multiple PTVs. In conclusion, the DPN integrated DL model was successfully implemented, and demonstrated good dose prediction accuracy and dosimetric characteristics for pancreatic cancer SBRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac0856DOI Listing
June 2021

Deep Scoring Neural Network Replacing the Scoring Function Components to Improve the Performance of Structure-Based Molecular Docking.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 06 3;12(12):2133-2142. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Accurate prediction of protein-ligand interactions can greatly promote drug development. Recently, a number of deep-learning-based methods have been proposed to predict protein-ligand binding affinities. However, these methods independently extract the feature representations of proteins and ligands but ignore the relative spatial positions and interaction pairs between them. Here, we propose a virtual screening method based on deep learning, called Deep Scoring, which directly extracts the relative position information and atomic attribute information on proteins and ligands from the docking poses. Furthermore, we use two Resnets to extract the features of ligand atoms and protein residues, respectively, and generate an atom-residue interaction matrix to learn the underlying principles of the interactions between proteins and ligands. This is then followed by a dual attention network (DAN) to generate the attention for two related entities (i.e., proteins and ligands) and to weigh the contributions of each atom and residue to binding affinity prediction. As a result, Deep Scoring outperforms other structure-based deep learning methods in terms of screening performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.901 for an unbiased DUD-E version), pose prediction (AUC of 0.935 for PDBbind test set), and generalization ability (AUC of 0.803 for the CHEMBL data set). Finally, Deep Scoring was used to select novel ERK2 inhibitor, and two compounds (D264-0698 and D483-1785) were obtained with potential inhibitory activity on ERK2 through the biological experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00110DOI Listing
June 2021

Mechanical Properties of a Chiral Cellular Structure with Semicircular Beams.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 27;14(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China.

Compliant cellular structures are good candidates for morphing applications. This paper proposes a novel chiral cellular structure composed of circular beams with great elastic properties and potential for morphing. The tensile and shear elastic properties of the structure are studied through theoretical derivations and then verified by finite element analysis. Results show that this novel chiral structure exhibits extremely low in-plane tensile and shear moduli, which are many orders of magnitude lower than that of the raw material. The structure also shows tensile-shear and shear-tensile coupling effects that cannot be ignored. The tensile and shear properties of the structure can provide a reference for employing this structure in engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14112887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198671PMC
May 2021

Gas assisted in situ biomimetic mineralization of bacterial cellulose/calcium carbonate bio composites by bacterial.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 28;182:1690-1696. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Chemicobiology and Functional Materials, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210094, China. Electronic address:

Biomineralization inspired process to produce polymer of desired need is a promising approach in the field of research. In the present work, the bacterial cellulose (BC) based nanocomposites with a 3D network were synthesized via a biological route by choosing the calcium salt of primary metabolites (calcium gluconate) as the carbon source. The BC based composites were characterized by employing with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). During the preparation of nanocomposites, the calcium ions embedded on the cellulose fibrils were served as the nucleation center and calcium carbonate was deposited into BC network in the assistance of CO. The uniform distribution of embedded objects on the cellulose nanofibers between internal and external was achieved. The exploitation of organisms for inorganic growth, shape and self-assembling explores new opportunities to the design of original nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.171DOI Listing
May 2021

Simultaneous detection of the spike and nucleocapsid proteins from SARS-CoV-2 based on ultrasensitive single molecule assays.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Chemistry, Green Catalysis Center, Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Green Construction of Functional Molecules and Their Bioanalytical Applications, Zhengzhou Key Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterial and Medical Theranostic, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Nucleic acid detection technology based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection based on immunochromatography still have many problems such as false negatives for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new techniques to improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19. We herein developed an ultrasensitive, rapid, and duplex digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dELISA) for simultaneous detection of spike (S-RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 based on a single molecule array. This assay effectively combines magnetic bead encoding technology and the ultrasensitive detection capability of a single molecule array. The detection strategies of S-RBD protein and N-protein exhibited wide response ranges of 0.34-1065 pg/mL and 0.183-338 pg/mL with detection limits of 20.6 fg/mL and 69.8 fg/mL, respectively. It is a highly specific method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein and has minimal interference from other blood proteins. Moreover, the spike assay showed a satisfactory and reproducible recovery rate for the detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein in serum samples. Overall, this work provides a highly sensitive method for the simultaneous detection of S-RBD protein and N-protein, which shows ultrasensitivity and high signal-to-noise ratio and contributes to improve the diagnosis accuracy of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03435-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166382PMC
May 2021

Gait Impairment and Upper Extremity Disturbance Are Associated With Total Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Burden.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 12;13:640844. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD)-including white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), lacunes, and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS)-is related to gait impairment. However, the association between the total magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cSVD burden and gait and upper extremity function remains insufficiently investigated. This study aimed to assess the correlation between the total MRI cSVD burden score and gait impairment as well as upper extremity impairment. A total of 224 participants underwent MRI scans, and the presence of lacunes, WMHs, CMBs, and EPVS was evaluated and recorded as a total MRI cSVD burden score (range 0-4). Gait was assessed by 4-m walkway, Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) tests. Upper extremity function was assessed by 10-repeat hand pronation-supination time, 10-repeat finger-tapping time, and 10-repeat hand opening and closing time. The mean age of the 224 participants was 60.6 ± 10.5 years, and 64.3% were men. Independent of age, sex, height, and vascular risk factors, multivariable linear regression analyses showed that a higher total MRI cSVD burden score was related to a shorter stride length, wider step width, higher cadence, and poorer performance on the Tinetti, TUG, and SPPB tests and upper extremity tests (all < 0.05). Total MRI cSVD burden was associated with gait impairment and upper extremity disturbances, suggesting that total MRI cSVD burden might contribute to motor function decline. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether there is a causal relationship between total MRI cSVD burden and motor function decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.640844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149961PMC
May 2021

Ambient noise Love wave attenuation tomography for the LASSIE array across the Los Angeles basin.

Sci Adv 2021 May 28;7(22). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

The Los Angeles basin is located within the North America-Pacific plate boundary and contains multiple earthquake faults that threaten greater Los Angeles. Seismic attenuation tomography has the potential to provide important constraints on wave propagation in the basin and to provide supplementary information on structure in the form of the distribution of anelastic properties. On the basis of the amplitude information from seismic interferometry from the linear LASSIE array in the Los Angeles basin, we apply station-triplet attenuation tomography to obtain a 2D depth profile for the attenuation structure of the uppermost 0.6 km. The array crosses four Quaternary faults, three of which are blind. The attenuation tomography resolves strong attenuation (shear attenuation ~ 20) for the fault zones and is consistent with sharp boundaries across them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe1030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163076PMC
May 2021