Publications by authors named "Lei Xu"

2,661 Publications

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Operando Quantified Lithium Plating Determination Enabled by Dynamic Capacitance Measurement in Working Li-Ion Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Tsinghua University, Department of Chemical Engineering, No.1, Tsinghua Road, 100084, Beijing, CHINA.

The access to full performance of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is hindered by the mysterious lithium plating behavior. A rapid quantified lithium plating determination method compatible with actual working conditions is an urgent necessity for safe working LIBs. In this contribution, the relationship between electrical double layer (EDL) capacitance and electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of graphite anodes during the Li-ion intercalation and Li plating processes is unveiled. We propose an operando lithium plating determination method based on the dynamic capacitance measurement (DCM) test. Reasonable selection of alternating current (AC) frequency protects the anodic responses from the interference of cathodic responses, which allows DCM to be applied in practical LIBs. The onset of lithium plating can be quantitatively traced, demonstrating the promise for real-time operando determination for lithium plating in a working battery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202210365DOI Listing
August 2022

Social Exclusion and Depression among undergraduate students: the mediating roles of rejection sensitivity and social self-efficacy.

Curr Psychol 2022 Aug 3:1-10. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

School of Education, Jianghan University, 430056 Wuhan, China.

Nowadays, depression has been a prominent mental health problem throughout the world. A common but negative social experience, social exclusion (also known as ostracism) is a great risk factor for individuals' health and adaptation. Undergraduate students are in a development period of challenges and transitions, so they are vulnerable to suffering from depression and negative social experiences. Against this background, the present study aimed to examine the association between social exclusion and undergraduate students' depression as well as the underlying mechanism - the mediating roles of rejection sensitivity and social self-efficacy. Seven hundred sixty-two undergraduate students were recruited to participate in this study, who were asked to complete a set of questionnaires measuring social exclusion, depression, rejection sensitivity, and social self-efficacy. After controlling for gender, social exclusion was positively associated with undergraduate students' depression. And rejection sensitivity and social self-efficacy could significantly mediate this relation through three mediating paths - the separate mediating effects of rejection sensitivity and social self-efficacy, as well as the serial mediating effect of rejection sensitivity and social self-efficacy. These results could not only deepen our understanding of this theme, but also have several practical implications for the intervention of depression, for example, relevant social skill training and cognitive therapy could be adopted to intervene the rejection sensitivity and social self-efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03318-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9345737PMC
August 2022

The Relationship Between Vitamin D and Activity of Daily Living in the Elderly.

Int J Gen Med 2022 1;15:6357-6364. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To analyze the association between vitamin D and the performance of activity of daily living in the elderly.

Methods: A total of 94 patients over the age of 65 were eligible to participate if they had undergone a bone mineral density test and if they were in a stable health condition. Subjects were further divided into two groups according to activity of daily living (ADL): the score over 40 of the patients as the high ADL group and the below as the low ADL group.

Results: According to univariate analysis, the mean of total hip T score, serum creatinine/cystatin C ratio (CCR), and vitamin D were significantly different between the two groups (=0.024, 0.008, 0.010). Multivariate ORs showed that the CCR (OR: 0.948; 95%CI: 0.910-0.989; =0.013) and vitamin D (OR: 865; 95%CI: 0.752-0.994; =0.047) were inversely associated with having low ADL. Furthermore, on multiple linear regression analysis, the Barthel ADL index was related to geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), CCR and vitamin D but independent of patients' age with the slope of 0.732, 0.539, and 0.689 separately, reflected the stronger relative within the variables.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that there is a negative correlation of CCR and vitamin D with having low ADL in elderly population. Monitoring the trend of serum vitamin D and CCR, may have a role in the early detection of low ADL with loss of muscle mass and strength in the population of the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S366203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355018PMC
August 2022

Neurovascular compression syndrome:Trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, vestibular paroxysmia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, four case reports and review of literature.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2022 Jul 28;221:107401. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033, China. Electronic address:

Neurovascular compression syndrome is caused by vessels touching a cranial nerve, resulting in clinical manifestations of abnormal sensory or motor symptoms. The most common manifestations are trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. However, neurovascular compression of the vestibular nerve or glossopharyngeal nerve are rare. In this article, we describe four typical cases of neurovascular compression syndrome. In addition, we analyze the main features of the etiology, neuroimaging, and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107401DOI Listing
July 2022

[Clinical study of awake prone positioning treatment in patients with common coronavirus disease 2019 caused by Omicron variant].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2022 Jun;34(6):576-580

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Third Central Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Artificial Cell Engineering Technology Research Center of Public Health Ministry, Tianjin 300170, China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of awake prone positioning (APP) for common coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Omicron variant.

Methods: Retrospectively analyze the clinical data of patients with COVID-19 caused by Omicron variant admitted by medical team of Tianjin Third Central Hospital during the period of supporting Tianjin COVID-19 designated hospital from January 8 to February 20, 2022. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for common COVID-19 and had risk factors for developing severe disease or had pulse oxygen saturation (SpO) ≤ 0.93 after exercise without supplementary oxygen were enrolled. Patients were divided into APP group and control group according to whether they completed the daily 12-hours APP in the first three days after enrollment. Demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, COVID-19 vaccination status, laboratory examination, disease progression (progression to severe), time to nucleic acid negative conversion, length of hospital stay, and adverse reactions and tolerability [visual analog scale (VAS) score (the higher the score, the worse the tolerability] during APP were evaluated in two groups. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), SpO/inhaled oxygen concentration (FiO) ratio and ROX index (ROXI) were compared between two groups at enrollment, 3rd and 7th day after enrollment.

Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, vaccination rates of COVID-19 and laboratory tests between the two groups. There were no statistically significant differences in IL-6, CRP, SpO/FiO ratio and ROXI between two groups at the time of enrollment. Compared with the group at the time of enrollment, SpO/FiO ratio and ROXI in APP group increased significantly at the 3rd day after enrollment [SpO/FiO ratio: 461.90 (457.10, 466.70) vs. 446.67 (437.14, 457.10), ROXI: 25.40 (23.33, 25.93) vs. 22.57 (21.86, 24.40), all P < 0.05], and the levels of IL-6 and CRP in control group were significantly increased [IL-6 (ng/L): 18.30 (6.50, 37.75) vs. 7.40 (5.10, 11.15), CRP (mg/L): 11.46 (2.11, 17.96) vs. 4.11 (1.72, 9.05), all P < 0.05]. At the 3rd day of enrollment, the levels of IL-6 and CRP in APP group were significantly lower than those in control group [IL-6 (ng/L): 7.35 (4.35, 12.80) vs. 18.30 (6.50, 37.75), CRP (mg/L): 4.52 (1.98, 9.66) vs. 11.46 (2.11, 17.96), all P < 0.05], while SpO/FiO ratio and ROXI were significantly higher than those in control group [SpO/FiO ratio: 461.90 (457.10, 466.70) vs. 446.67 (441.90, 459.52), ROXI: 25.40 (23.33, 25.93) vs. 23.31 (22.10, 24.66), all P < 0.05]. At the 7th day of enrollment,there were no significant differences in IL-6, CRP, SpO/FiO ratio and ROXI between two groups. There were no severe cases in both groups. The time of nucleic acid negative conversion and length of hospital stay in APP group were significantly shorter than those in control group [10.0 (8.0, 12.0) days vs. 11.0 (9.0, 13.0) days, 12.0 (10.0, 14.0) days vs. 14.0 (12.0,16.0) days, respectively, all P < 0.05]. The main adverse reaction during APP was back pain, and the incidence in APP group was slightly lower than that in control group, but the difference was not statistically significant [17.9% (17/95) vs. 26.5% (27/102), P = 0.149]. VAS score in control group was significantly higher than that in APP group [score: 2.5 (2.0, 4.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0, 3.0), P = 0.004].

Conclusions: In common COVID-19 patients caused by Omicron variant with high risk factors for progression to severe disease or decreased oxygen reserve capacity, early APP can shorten the time of nucleic acid negative conversion and the length of hospital stay, but its effect on preventing disease progression cannot be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20220418-00384DOI Listing
June 2022

Strategies to Improve the Biosynthesis of β-Lactam Antibiotics by Penicillin G Acylase: Progress and Prospects.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 18;10:936487. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Cardiology, Central Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

β-Lactam antibiotics are widely used anti-infection drugs that are traditionally synthesized via a chemical process. In recent years, with the growing demand for green alternatives, scientists have turned to enzymatic synthesis. Penicillin G acylase (PGA) is the second most commercially used enzyme worldwide with both hydrolytic and synthetic activities toward antibiotics, which has been used to manufacture the key antibiotic nucleus on an industrial level. However, the large-scale application of PGA-catalyzed antibiotics biosynthesis is still in the experimental stage because of some key limitations, such as low substrate concentration, unsatisfactory yield, and lack of superior biocatalysts. This paper systematically reviews the strategies adopted to improve the biosynthesis of β-lactam antibiotics by adjusting the enzymatic property and manipulating the reaction system in recent 20 years, including mining of enzymes, protein engineering, solvent engineering, product removal, and one-pot reaction cascade. These advances will provide important guidelines for the future use of enzymatic synthesis in the industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.936487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9340067PMC
July 2022

An intranasal ASO therapeutic targeting SARS-CoV-2.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 3;13(1):4503. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Nutritional Sciences & Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic is exacting an increasing toll worldwide, with new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerging that exhibit higher infectivity rates and that may partially evade vaccine and antibody immunity. Rapid deployment of non-invasive therapeutic avenues capable of preventing infection by all SARS-CoV-2 variants could complement current vaccination efforts and help turn the tide on the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we describe a novel therapeutic strategy targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RNA using locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides (LNA ASOs). We identify an LNA ASO binding to the 5' leader sequence of SARS-CoV-2 that disrupts a highly conserved stem-loop structure with nanomolar efficacy in preventing viral replication in human cells. Daily intranasal administration of this LNA ASO in the COVID-19 mouse model potently suppresses viral replication (>80-fold) in the lungs of infected mice. We find that the LNA ASO is efficacious in countering all SARS-CoV-2 "variants of concern" tested both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, inhaled LNA ASOs targeting SARS-CoV-2 represents a promising therapeutic approach to reduce or prevent transmission and decrease severity of COVID-19 in infected individuals. LNA ASOs are chemically stable and can be flexibly modified to target different viral RNA sequences and could be stockpiled for future coronavirus pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32216-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349213PMC
August 2022

Lysine-Tethered Stable Bicyclic Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Combats Bacterial Infection in Vivo.

J Med Chem 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, People's Republic of China.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted great attention as next generation antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. Poor proteolytic stability has however undermined clinical applications of AMPs. A novel peptide cyclization approach is described to enhance the antibacterial activity of AMPs. Bicyclic antimicrobial peptides were synthesized by cross-linking the ε-amino groups of three lysine residues with a 1,3,5-trimethylene benzene spacer. In a proof of principal study, four bicyclic peptides were synthesized from the cationic AMP OH-CM6. One bicyclic peptide retained strong antimicrobial activity and low toxicity but exhibited a prolonged half-life in serum. Antibacterial activity was consequently improved without renal or hepato-toxicity. The novel peptide cyclization approach represents an important tool for enhancing AMP proteolytic stability for improved treatment of bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00661DOI Listing
August 2022

Boosting Protein-Ligand Binding Pose Prediction and Virtual Screening Based on Residue-Atom Distance Likelihood Potential and Graph Transformer.

J Med Chem 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Innovation Institute for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine of Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

The past few years have witnessed enormous progress toward applying machine learning approaches to the development of protein-ligand scoring functions. However, the robust performance and wide applicability of scoring functions remain a big challenge for increasing the success rate of docking-based virtual screening. Herein, a novel scoring function named RTMScore was developed by introducing a tailored residue-based graph representation strategy and several graph transformer layers for the learning of protein and ligand representations, followed by a mixture density network to obtain residue-atom distance likelihood potential. Our approach was resolutely validated on the CASF-2016 benchmark, and the results indicate that RTMScore can outperform almost all of the other state-of-the-art methods in terms of both the docking and screening powers. Further evaluation confirms the robustness of our approach that can not only retain its docking power on cross-docked poses but also achieve improved performance as a rescoring tool in larger-scale virtual screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.2c00991DOI Listing
August 2022

HAlign 3: fast multiple alignment of ultra-large numbers of similar DNA/RNA sequences.

Mol Biol Evol 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Quzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Quzhou, Zhejiang, China.

HAlign is a cross-platform program that performs multiple sequence alignments based on the center star strategy. Here we present two major updates of HAlign 3, which helped improve the time efficiency and the alignment quality, and made HAlign 3 a specialized program to process ultra-large numbers of similar DNA/RNA sequences, such as closely related viral or prokaryotic genomes. HAlign 3 can be easily installed via the Anaconda and Java release package on macOS, Linux, Windows subsystem for Linux, and Windows systems, and the source code is available on GitHub (https://github.com/malabz/HAlign-3).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msac166DOI Listing
August 2022

Vapor-Assisted In Situ Recrystallization for Efficient Tin-Based Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 29:e2203180. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211816, China.

Tin-based perovskites are promising candidates to replace their toxic lead-based counterparts in optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the development of tin perovskite LEDs is slow due to the challenge of obtaining high quality tin perovskite films. Here, a vapor-assisted spin-coating (VASC) method is developed to achieve high quality tin perovskites and high efficiency LEDs. It is revealed that solvent vapor can lead to in situ recrystallization of tin perovskites during the film formation process, thus significantly improving the crystalline quality with reduced defects. An antioxidant additive is further introduced to suppress the oxidation of Sn and increase the photoluminescence quantum efficiency up to ∼30%, which is an ∼4-fold enhancement in comparison with that of the control method. As a result, efficient tin perovskite LEDs are achieved with a peak external quantum efficiency of 5.3%, which is among the highest efficiency of lead-free perovskite LEDs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202203180DOI Listing
July 2022

Oxidative stress-induced premature senescence and aggravated denervated skeletal muscular atrophy by regulating progerin-p53 interaction.

Skelet Muscle 2022 Jul 29;12(1):19. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Progerin elevates atrophic gene expression and helps modify the nuclear membrane to cause severe muscle pathology, which is similar to muscle weakness in the elderly, to alter the development and function of the skeletal muscles. Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), a state of cell growth arrest owing to such stimuli as oxidation, can be caused by progerin. However, evidence for whether SIPS-induced progerin accumulation is connected to denervation-induced muscle atrophy is not sufficient.

Methods: Flow cytometry and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitors were used to assess the effect of oxidation on protein (p53), progerin, and nuclear progerin-p53 interaction in the denervated muscles of models of mice suffering from sciatic injury. Loss-of-function approach with the targeted deletion of p53 was used to assess connection among SIPS, denervated muscle atrophy, and fibrogenesis.

Results: The augmentation of ROS and iNOS-derived NO in the denervated muscles of models of mice suffering from sciatic injury upregulates p53 and progerin. The abnormal accumulation of progerin in the nuclear membrane as well as the activation of nuclear progerin-p53 interaction triggered premature senescence in the denervated muscle cells of mice. The p53-dependent SIPS in denervated muscles contributes to their atrophy and fibrogenesis.

Conclusion: Oxidative stress-triggered premature senescence via nuclear progerin-p53 interaction that promotes denervated skeletal muscular atrophy and fibrogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13395-022-00302-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335985PMC
July 2022

Spatially entangled photon pairs from lithium niobate nonlocal metasurfaces.

Sci Adv 2022 Jul 29;8(30):eabq4240. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Transformative Meta-Optical Systems (TMOS), Research School of Physics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

Metasurfaces consisting of nanoscale structures are underpinning new physical principles for the creation and shaping of quantum states of light. Multiphoton states that are entangled in spatial or angular domains are an essential resource for many quantum applications; however, their production traditionally relies on bulky nonlinear crystals. We predict and demonstrate experimentally the generation of spatially entangled photon pairs through spontaneous parametric down-conversion from a metasurface incorporating a nonlinear thin film of lithium niobate covered by a silica meta-grating. We measure the correlations of photon pairs and identify their spatial antibunching through violation of the classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, witnessing the presence of multimode entanglement. Simultaneously, the photon-pair rate is strongly enhanced by 450 times as compared to unpatterned films because of high-quality-factor resonances. These results pave the way to miniaturization of various quantum devices by incorporating ultrathin metasurfaces functioning as room temperature sources of quantum-entangled photons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abq4240DOI Listing
July 2022

Highly precise breakpoint detection of chromosome balanced translocation in chronic myelogenous leukaemia: Case series.

J Cell Mol Med 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.

Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) has a special phenomenon of chromosome translocation, which is called Philadelphia chromosome translocation. However, the detailed connection of this structure is troublesome and expensive to be identified. Low-coverage whole genome sequencing (LCWGS) could not only detect the previously unknown chromosomal translocation, but also provide the breakpoint candidate small region (with an accuracy of ±200 bases). Importantly, the sequencing cost of LCWGS is about US$300. Then, with the Sanger DNA sequencing, the precise breakpoint can be determined at a single base level. In our project, with LCWGS, BCR and ABL1 are successfully identified to be disrupted in three CML patients (at chr22:23,632,356 and chr9:133,590,450; chr22:23,633,748 and chr9:133,635,781; chr22: 23,631,831 and chr9:133,598,513, respectively). Due to the reconnection after chromosome breakage, classical fusion gene (BCR::ABL1) was found in bone marrow and peripheral blood. The precise breakpoints were helpful to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of CML and could better guide the classification of CML subtypes. This LCWGS method is universal and can be used to detect all diseases related to chromosome variation, such as solid tumours, liquid tumours and birth defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.17500DOI Listing
July 2022

Removal of Zn from Aqueous Solution Using Biomass Ash and Its Modified Product as Biosorbent.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 24;19(15). Epub 2022 Jul 24.

School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China.

To study the removal effect of bottom ash of biomass power plants and its modified products on zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution, a series of indoor experiments is carried out. The aim of this work is to explore a method to improve the ability of biomass ash to remove Zn from aqueous solution and obtain its adsorption characteristics of Zn in aqueous solution; on this basis, the feasibility of its application in the treatment of Zn-contaminated wastewater is analyzed. The mesoporous siliceous material is used to modify the biomass, and the modified material is functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The results show that the specific surface area of modified biomass ash is nine times that of the material before modification. The adsorption capacity of Zn on the material increases with the increase of pH, and pH 6 is the optimum pH to remove Zn from the aqueous solution. The Langmuir model and Freundlich model can show better fits for biomass ash and the modified material, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis results show that the adsorption of Zn is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The adsorption of Zn onto biomass and modified biomass ash follow pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330103PMC
July 2022

Efficient hydrogenation of p-chlorophenol and Cr(VI) driven by hydrogen rich balls over Pd/C catalysts.

J Hazard Mater 2022 09 21;437:129434. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Catalytic hydrogenation can selectively destabilize and detoxify specific contaminants in water. Herein, to explore safer and more efficient hydrogen sources, hydrogen rich balls (HRBs) were researched and applied for hydrogenating p-chlorophenol and Cr(VI) over Pd/C catalyst. The results showed that HRBs can realize the sustained release of H by replacing the hydrogen in water, and generate the refined (micro/nano-sized) H bubble, which effectively improves the adsorption and activation effectively of H molecules on Pd/C catalyst, and the hydrogen atoms utilization efficiency during p-chlorophenol hydrodechlorination is as high as 3.5 %. Continuous flow experiments showed that rapid removal of p-chlorophenol with different concentrations could be achieved by adjusting the flow rate. Moreover, the high-toxic Cr(VI) was successfully reduced to the low-toxic Cr(III) in an appropriate pH range. This research is of far-reaching significance for realizing the detoxification of environmental pollutants and promoting the development of hydrogen economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129434DOI Listing
September 2022

Semiglobal Suboptimal Output Regulation for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems With Input Saturation via Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 Jul 27;PP. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

This article considers the semiglobal cooperative suboptimal output regulation problem of heterogeneous multi-agent systems with unknown agent dynamics in the presence of input saturation. To solve the problem, we develop distributed suboptimal control strategies from two perspectives, namely, model-based and data-driven. For the model-based case, we design a suboptimal control strategy by using the low-gain technique and output regulation theory. Moreover, when the agents' dynamics are unknown, we design a data-driven algorithm to solve the problem. We show that proposed control strategies ensure each agent's output gradually follows the reference signal and achieves interference suppression while guaranteeing closed-loop stability. The theoretical results are illustrated by a numerical simulation example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3191673DOI Listing
July 2022

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices toward COVID-19 and Vaccines among Chinese Small-Town Residents: A Cross-sectional Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Traditional Medicine, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

China has basically controlled the COVID-19 epidemic as a result of widespread vaccination and other containment strategies, despite localized outbreaks, as of September 2021. This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines among Chinese small-town residents to provide suggestions for public health policy. Residents who were vaccinated against COVID-19 were asked to complete a paper questionnaire on KAP in Xidian, Zhejiang. The knowledge questionnaire consisted of 12 questions regarding COVID-19 and 12 questions regarding COVID-19 vaccines. Attitude and practice evaluation included agreement on the eventual control of COVID-19 and having recently worn a mask outside. Of 405 survey responders, 52.3% were male, 71.4% had middle school education or less, and 59.0% engaged in physical labor as an occupation. The correct answer rates of the COVID-19 section and the vaccine section were 79.2% and 71.7%, respectively. Age groups of 18 to 29 years and > 50 years, occupations of physical labor and unemployment, and primary school education and less were associated with lower knowledge scores. The majority of participants (91.6%) believed that COVID-19 will eventually be controlled, whereas women, students, and patients with chronic held relatively negative attitudes toward epidemic control. Most participants (87.4%) wore masks outside recently. In conclusion, Chinese small-town residents have a medium level of knowledge regarding COVID-19 and vaccines, hold positive attitudes, and have appropriate practices. Health education should be provided to the target populations to enrich their knowledge of COVID-19 and vaccines, and to improve their attitudes toward epidemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.22-0031DOI Listing
July 2022

The Dynamic Characteristics of Myocardial Contractility and Extracellular Volume in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mice Investigated by 7.0T Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

J Clin Med 2022 Jul 22;11(15). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung & Vascular Diseases, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100029, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. A potential contributing factor is the accelerated accumulation of diffuse myocardial fibrosis and stiffness. Novel cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging techniques can identify both myocardial fibrosis and contractility quantitatively. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the myocardial strain and altered extracellular volume (ECV) fraction as determined by 7.0 T CMR in T2DM mice. C57Bl/6J mice were randomly divided into T2DM (fed a high-fat diet) and control (fed a normal diet) groups. They were scanned on 7.0 T MRI every 4 weeks until the end of week 24. The CMR protocol included multi-slice cine imaging to assess left ventricle strain and strain rate, and pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping images to quantify ECV. The ECV in the T2DM mice was significantly higher ( < 0.05) than that in the control group since week 12 with significantly impaired myocardial strain ( < 0.05). A significant linear correlation was established between myocardial strain and ECV ( < 0.001) and left ventricular-ejection fraction and ECV ( = 0.003). The results suggested that CMR feature tracking-derived myocardial strain analysis can assess functional abnormalities that may be associated with ECM alterations in diabetic cardiomyopathy, contributing to the study of diabetic therapy effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332454PMC
July 2022

Localized Nanopore Fabrication via Controlled Breakdown.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jul 12;12(14). Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Advanced Optics and Photonics Laboratory, Department of Engineering, School of Science &Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK.

Nanopore sensors provide a unique platform to detect individual nucleic acids, proteins, and other biomolecules without the need for fluorescent labeling or chemical modifications. Solid-state nanopores offer the potential to integrate nanopore sensing with other technologies such as field-effect transistors (FETs), optics, plasmonics, and microfluidics, thereby attracting attention to the development of commercial instruments for diagnostics and healthcare applications. Stable nanopores with ideal dimensions are particularly critical for nanopore sensors to be integrated into other sensing devices and provide a high signal-to-noise ratio. Nanopore fabrication, although having benefited largely from the development of sophisticated nanofabrication techniques, remains a challenge in terms of cost, time consumption and accessibility. One of the latest developed methods-controlled breakdown (CBD)-has made the nanopore technique broadly accessible, boosting the use of nanopore sensing in both fundamental research and biomedical applications. Many works have been developed to improve the efficiency and robustness of pore formation by CBD. However, nanopores formed by traditional CBD are randomly positioned in the membrane. To expand nanopore sensing to a wider biomedical application, controlling the localization of nanopores formed by CBD is essential. This article reviews the recent strategies to control the location of nanopores formed by CBD. We discuss the fundamental mechanism and the efforts of different approaches to confine the region of nanopore formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12142384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323289PMC
July 2022

Effects of Different Extraction Methods in Pharmacopoeia on the Content and Structure Transformation of Ginsenosides.

Molecules 2022 Jul 6;27(14). Epub 2022 Jul 6.

School of Functional Food and Wine, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.

Ginseng ( C. A. Meyer), a perennial herb, possesses immunostimulatory, anticarcinogenic, antiemetic, and antioxidative biological activities. In recent years, more and more people have paid attention to the extraction methods and quality evaluation of ginseng. China, the United States, Europe, Japan, and Korea have all had the quality standards and content determination methods of ginseng. The different treatment methods are adopted before the determination of ginseng samples and the content limits of the index components, such as ginsenoside Rb, ginsenoside Rg, and ginsenoside Re exist differences. The similarities and differences of ginseng content detection methods in pharmacopoeias of different countries have been analyzed by a research group, but the comparison of the effects of different methods on the ginsenoside content and structural transformation has not been reported. In this paper, ginsenosides in ginseng were extracted according to four national pharmacopoeias and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS and HPLC-UV. It was illustrated that the pretreatment method has a significant influence on the content determination of ginseng. The yield of rare saponins was increased by heating concluded from both the qualitative and quantitative comparison. Finally, a simple and feasible extraction method was optimized by response surface method at room temperature. The analysis of the preparation method and process optimization of the four pharmacopoeias can provide important reference information for the revision of ginseng standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351678PMC
July 2022

Cool and hot chitosan/platelet-derived growth factor nanofibers for outdoors burns.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 22;218:409-419. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Nanomaterials & Devices, College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

Burns and scalds are thermal injuries caused by a large amount of heat accumulation in local tissues. The first cooling emergency is a key step. However, it is hard that in outdoors to find clean water to cool the scald tissue sites. Moreover, most dressings are concentrated on the treatment process today, neglecting the emergency treatment of temperature reduction. In this study, we imported refrigeration in the electrospinning process while using dirty water, rainwater and even urine of outdoors, so that the cooled sterile fibers were directly deposited on the burn and scald wounds, and the cooling emergency was achieved through the dual cooling mechanism. Since this fiber which is made up of cheap fish gelatin contains CuS adopting the green method, it can generate heat and effectively kill bacteria under the irradiation of an illumination lamp at the front end of a spinning device. As a result of the direct deposition, there is an excellent fit between the fibrous membrane and the skin, which reduces the air gap to achieve a better and quick cooling and heating effects. On the same Chitosan/Platelet-derived Growth Factor fiber membrane, this method of cooling first and heating second can shorten the recovery time from 30 days to 21 days. Thus, this treatment strategy has a great potential application prospect in the field of outdoor burn treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.126DOI Listing
July 2022

Uncovering the efficacy and mechanisms of Genkwa flos and bioactive ingredient genkwanin against L. monocytogenes infection.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jul 20;297:115571. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory for Zoonotic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Genkwa flos (yuanhua in Chinese), the dried flower buds of the plant Daphne genkwa Siebold & Zucc., as a traditional herb widely used for the treatment of inflammation-related symptoms and diseases, with the efficacies of diuretic, phlegm-resolving and cough suppressant.

Aim Of The Study: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is presumed to be of immense potential against pathogens infection. Whereas, the potential efficacy and mechanisms of Genkwa flos against L. monocytogenes infection has not been extensively explored. The present study aimed to identify the bioactive ingredients of Genkwa flos against L. monocytogenes infection and to delineate the underlying mechanisms of action.

Materials And Methods: Bioinformatics approach at protein network level was employed to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of Genkwa flos against L. monocytogenes infection. And hemolysis inhibition assay, cytoprotection test, western blotting, oligomerization assay and molecular docking analysis were applied to substantiate the multiple efficacies of Genkwa flos and the bioactive ingredient genkwanin. Histopathological analysis and biochemistry detection were conducted to evaluate the in vivo protective effect of genkwanin.

Results: Network pharmacology and experimental validation revealed that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Genkwa flos exhibited anti-L. monocytogenes potency and was found to inhibit the hemolytic activity of LLO. Bioactive ingredient genkwanin interfered with the pore-forming activity of LLO by engaging the active residues Tyr414, Tyr98, Asn473, Val100, Tyr440 and Val438, and thereby attenuated LLO-mediated cytotoxicity. Consistent with the bioinformatics prediction, exposed to genkwanin could upregulate the Nrf2 level and promote the translocation of Nrf2. In vivo, genkwanin oral administration (80 mg/kg) significantly protected against systemic L. monocytogenes infection, as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased mice survival rate by 30% and decreased pathogen colonization.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Genkwa flos is a potential anti-L. monocytogenes TCM, highlighted the therapeutic potential of Genkwa flos active ingredient genkwanin by targeting the pore-forming cytolysin LLO and acting as a promising antioxidative candidate against L. monocytogenes infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115571DOI Listing
July 2022

Sum-Frequency Generation in High-Q GaP Metasurfaces Driven by Leaky-Wave Guided Modes.

Nano Lett 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Transformative Meta-Optical Systems (TMOS), Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.

Resonant metasurfaces provide a unique platform for enhancing multiwave nonlinear interactions. However, the difficulties over mode matching and material transparency place significant challenges in the enhancement of these multiwave processes. Here we demonstrate efficient nonlinear sum-frequency generation (SFG) in multiresonant GaP metasurfaces based on guided-wave bound-state in the continuum resonances. The excitation of the metasurface by two near-infrared input beams generates strong SFG in the visible spectrum with a conversion efficiency of 2.5 × 10 W, 2 orders of magnitude higher than the one reported in Mie-type resonant metasurfaces. In addition, we demonstrate the nontrivial polarization dependence on the SFG process. In contrast to harmonic generation, the SFG process is enhanced when using nonparallel polarized input-beams. Importantly, by varying the input pump beam polarization it is possible to direct the SFG emission to different diffraction orders, thereby opening up new opportunities for nonlinear light sources and infrared to visible light conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01349DOI Listing
July 2022

ROS-activated CXCR2 neutrophils recruited by CXCL1 delay denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and undergo P53-mediated apoptosis.

Exp Mol Med 2022 Jul 21;54(7):1011-1023. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Neutrophils are the earliest master inflammatory regulator cells recruited to target tissues after direct infection or injury. Although inflammatory factors are present in muscle that has been indirectly disturbed by peripheral nerve injury, whether neutrophils are present and play a role in the associated inflammatory process remains unclear. Here, intravital imaging analysis using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy was employed to dynamically identify neutrophils in denervated muscle. Slice digital scanning and 3D-view reconstruction analyses demonstrated that neutrophils escape from vessels and migrate into denervated muscle tissue. Analyses using reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors and flow cytometry demonstrated that enhanced ROS activate neutrophils after denervation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the vast majority of neutrophils in denervated muscle were of the CXCR2 subtype and were recruited by CXCL1. Most of these cells gradually disappeared within 1 week via P53-mediated apoptosis. Experiments using specific blockers confirmed that neutrophils slow the process of denervated muscle atrophy. Collectively, these results indicate that activated neutrophils are recruited via chemotaxis to muscle tissue that has been indirectly damaged by denervation, where they function in delaying atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-022-00805-0DOI Listing
July 2022

Resting-state functional connectome predicts individual differences in depression during COVID-19 pandemic.

Am Psychol 2022 Jul 21. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Faculty of Psychology.

Stressful life events are significant risk factors for depression, and increases in depressive symptoms have been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study is to explore the neural makers for individuals' depression during COVID-19, using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM). Then we tested whether these neural markers could be used to identify groups at high/low risk for depression with a longitudinal dataset. The results suggested that the high-risk group demonstrated a higher level and increment of depression during the pandemic, as compared to the low-risk group. Furthermore, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was used to discriminate major depression disorder patients and healthy controls, using neural features defined by CPM. The results confirmed the CPM's ability for capturing the depression-related patterns with individuals' resting-state functional connectivity signature. The exploration for the anatomy of these functional connectivity features emphasized the role of an emotion-regulation circuit and an interoception circuit in the neuropathology of depression. In summary, the present study augments current understanding of potential pathological mechanisms underlying depression during an acute and unpredictable life-threatening event and suggests that resting-state functional connectivity may provide potential effective neural markers for identifying susceptible populations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0001031DOI Listing
July 2022

S-1 and oxaliplatin combined with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

First Clinical Medical School, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000002003DOI Listing
July 2022

Patterns of Gray and White Matter Volume Alterations in Patients With Post-Traumatic Anosmia: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

Front Neurol 2022 4;13:690760. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: Traumatic brain injury is one of the major causes of human olfactory dysfunction and leads to brain structure alterations, mainly in the cortical olfactory regions. Our study aimed to investigate volume changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in patients with post-traumatic anosmia and then to explore the relationship between GM volume and olfactory function.

Methods: Ethics committee approved prospective studies which included 22 patients with post-traumatic anosmia and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Olfactory function was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks. High-resolution 3-dimensional T1 MRIs of the participants were acquired on a 3T scanner and the data were collected for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Furthermore, the GM and WM volumes of the whole brain regions were compared and correlated with olfactory function.

Results: The analysis revealed significant GM volume reduction in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), gyrus rectus (GR), olfactory cortex, insula, parahippocampal, temporal pole, and cerebellum (all < 0.001) in patients. Besides, WM volume loss was also found in the OFC, GR, and insula (all < 0.001) in patients. All WM atrophy areas were connected to areas of GM volume loss spatially. Correlation analysis showed the olfactory scores were significantly positively correlated with the GM volume of the occipital cortex ( < 0.001, and < 0.05), while no significant correlation was found between the Sniffin' Sticks test scores and the WM volume in patients.

Conclusion: The reduction of GM and WM volume in olfactory-related regions was responsible for olfactory dysfunction in post-traumatic patients. The occipital cortex may play a compensation mechanism to maintain the residual olfactory function. To our knowledge, we report here for the first time on white matter volume alterations specifically in post-traumatic patients with anosmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.690760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9289146PMC
July 2022

In silico prediction of boiling point, octanol-water partition coefficient, and retention time index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through machine learning.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou, China.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a special class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with two or more aromatic rings, have received extensive attention owing to their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) is powerful chemometric method to correlate structural descriptors of PAHs with their physicochemical properties. In this manuscript, a QSPR study of PAHs was performed to predict their boiling point (bp), octanol-water partition coefficient (LogK ), and retention time index (RI). In addition to traditional molecular descriptors, structural fingerprints play an important role in the correlation of the above properties. Three regression methods, partial least squares (PLS), multiple linear regression (MLR), and genetic function approximation (GFA), were used to establish QSPR models for each property of PAHs. The correlation coefficient (R ) and root mean square error (RMSE) of best model were 0.980 and 24.39% (PLS), 0.979 and 35.80% (GFA), 0.926 and 22.90% (MLR) for bp, LogK and RI, respectively. The model proposed here can be used to estimate physicochemical properties and inform toxicity prediction of environmental chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.14121DOI Listing
July 2022
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