Publications by authors named "Lei Xie"

375 Publications

Perpetual atmospheric dry deposition exacerbates the unbalance of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters: A case study on a mariculture site in North China.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 3;172:112866. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

CAS Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China.

The monthly magnitudes of dissolvable nutrients through atmospheric dry deposition (ADD) and their ecological effects to the coastal waters around the Yangma Island, North Yellow Sea, were investigated for one year. The results indicated that anthropogenic activities were the major sources of dissolvable inorganic and organic nitrogen (DIN and DON); dust events were the major sources of inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and silicate (DSi); however, organic phosphorus (DOP) could be originated from marine biological activities. The annual ADD fluxes of DIN, DON, DIP, DOP and DSi were 21.8, 2.7, 0.10, 0.30 and 0.73 mmol m yr, respectively. Overall, the new production supported by the bioavailable nitrogen through ADD in winter was up to 9.14 mg C m d. Notably, the annual molar ratio of DIN/DIP through ADD was 216 ± 123, which was much higher than that of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphorus in seawater and might exacerbate their unbalance in some coastal waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112866DOI Listing
September 2021

Surgical Precision and Efficiency of a Novel Electromagnetic System Compared to a Robot-Assisted System in Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Placement of Endo-LIF.

Global Spine J 2021 Sep 14:21925682211025501. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Shanghai Key Lab of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, iChEM Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Study Design: Retrospective database study.

Objectives: To compare the accuracy and safety of 2 types of a computer-assisted navigation system for percutaneous pedicle screw placement during endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion.

Methods: From May 2019 to January 2020, data of 56 patients who underwent Endo-LIF with a robot-assisted system and with an electromagnetic navigation system were compared. The pedicles in all patients were subjected to postoperative CT scan to assess screw correction by measuring the perpendicular distance between the pedicle cortical wall and the screw surface. The registration and matching time, guide-wire insertion time, the entire surgery time, and X-ray exposure time were recorded.

Results: In the robot-assisted group, 25 cases with 100 percutaneous pedicle screws were included, and the excellent and good rate was 95%. In the electromagnetic navigation group, 31 cases with 124 screws were included, and the excellent rate was 97.6%. There was no statistical difference between the two groups ( > 0.05). The registration time and the total time for the surgery also showed no statistical differences ( > 0.05). The main difference between the two groups was the guide-wire insertion time and the X-ray exposure time ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Both electromagnetic navigation and robot-assisted are safe and efficient for percutaneous pedicle screw placement. Electromagnetic navigation system has obvious advantages over robot-assisted in terms of faster guide-wire placement and less X-ray exposure. Robot-assisted for percutaneous pedicle screw placement offers a preoperative planning system and a stable registration system, with obvious drawbacks of a strict training curve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211025501DOI Listing
September 2021

Toxic mechanisms and pharmacological properties of euptox A, a toxic monomer from A. adenophora.

Fitoterapia 2021 Sep 10;155:105032. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Environmental Hazards of Sichuan Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

A. adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob. is as invasive plant known to cause toxicity in humans and animals. The plant's toxic activities have been associated with some toxic phytochemicals present in the plant. One of the major phytochemicals that have been reported to induce toxicity in various organs is euptox A (9-oxo-10, 11-dehydroageraphorone). Previous studies have reported that the main target organs of euptox A are the liver and spleen. Although, many studies have reported on euptox A toxicity in rats and mice, the mechanism of action and the beneficial uses of this toxin as well as it potential uses have not been fully established in literatures. Therefore, this review firstly, aims at elaborating on the toxic effects and mechanism of action of euptox A to give basic knowledge to researchers to help in the development of strategies that will reduce its toxicity to the environment. Secondly, this paper will also report on some beneficial uses of euptox A in recent years as well as suggest some future potential applications of this toxin to help in the utilization of this plant resource.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2021.105032DOI Listing
September 2021

The role of miR-199b-3p in regulating Nrf2 pathway by dihydromyricetin to alleviate septic acute kidney injury.

Free Radic Res 2021 Sep 7:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

The pathophysiology of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is very complex and the fatality is high. Nrf2 is crucial for septic AKI, and dihydromyricetin (DMY) has a protective effect on LPS-induced AKI. We aimed to explore whether DMY could affect Nrf2 pathway by regulating miR-199b-3p and played a protective role in septic AKI. The mouse model was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the cell model was stimulated by LPS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to examine MDA, SOD, LDH, GSH, TNF-α, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and IL-6 levels. The pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The targeted relationship between miR-199b-3p and Nrf2 was verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Levels of SOD, GSH, NQO-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 were decreased, MDA, LDH, TNF-α, IL-6, and KIM-1, and miR-199b-3p were increased in the CLP group and LPS-induced HK-2 cells, while the effect was reversed after DMY treatment. There existed renal tubule cell edema and necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration in the CLP group, the situation was partially improved by DMY. MiR-199b-3p bound to Nrf2. Nrf2 levels were increased, TNF-α, IL-6, and KIM-1 were decreased after transfected with miR-199b-3p inhibitor, these effects were reversed when co-transfected with si-Nrf2. TNF-α, IL-6, KIM-1, and miR-199b-3p levels were increased; Nrf2, NQO-1, and HO-1 levels were decreased in the LPS + DMY + mimics-miR group. MiR-199b-3p was increased in septic AKI models, DMY might alleviate septic AKI by regulating miR-199b-3p to affect the Nrf2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2021.1962008DOI Listing
September 2021

The protective effects and mechanisms of modified Lvdou Gancao decoction on acute alcohol intoxication in mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 1;282:114593. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Science and Technology Innovation Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) is a ubiquitous emergency worldwide, whereas the searching for both effective and safe drugs is still a task to be completed. Modified Lvdou Gancao decoction (MLG), a traditional Chinese medicine decoction, has been confirmed to be valid to alcohol-induced symptoms and hepatotoxicity clinically, whereas its protective mechanisms have not been determined.

Materials And Methods: AAI mice model was established by alcohol gavage (13.25 mL/kg) and MLG (5, 10, 20 g/kg BW) was administered to mice 2 h before and 30 min after the alcohol exposure. Assay kits for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamine transferase (GGT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as histopathology were used to explore the effects of MLG on acute alcohol-induced intoxication and hepatotoxicity. Mechanisms of MLG on oxidative stress and inflammatory were evaluated with RT-qPCR and Western Blot.

Results: MLG remarkably decreased the drunkenness rate, prolonged the tolerance time and shortened the sober-up time of AAI mice. After acute alcohol exposure, MLG treatment induced significant increment of ADH, ALDH, T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver, while serum ALT, AST, GGT and NO levels as well as hepatic MDA activity were reduced, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to the model group, the mRNA expression of TNFα, IL-1β and NF-κB in the MLG treated groups had a downward trend while the Nrf-2 showed an upward trend simultaneously. Furthermore, the protein levels of p65, p-p65, p-IκBα in the MLG treated groups were considerably diminished, with HO-1 and Nrf2 elevated. To sum up, our results suggested that MLG could efficaciously ameliorate AAI via accelerating the metabolism of alcohol, alleviating acute hepatotoxicity, and weakening the oxidative stress coupled with inflammation response, which might be attributed to the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway and the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Conclusions: Taken together, our present study verified the protective effect and mechanisms of MLG to AAI mice, and we further conclude that MLG may be a potent and reliable candidate for the prevention and treatment of AAI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114593DOI Listing
September 2021

Mg/Cu-doped TiO nanotube array: A novel dual-function system with self-antibacterial activity and excellent cell compatibility.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Sep 15;128:112322. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials of Zhangjiakou, Zhangjiakou 075000, China. Electronic address:

Many studies were conducted to change the surface morphology and chemical composition of Ti implants for the improvement of antibacterial ability and osseointegration between medical Ti and surrounding bone tissue. In this study, we successfully prepared a novel dual-function coating on pure Ti surface, i.e. Cu and Mg-co-doped TiO nanotube (TN) coating, by combining anodisation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), which could act as a delivery platform for the sustained release of Cu and Mg ions. Results showed that the amounts of Cu and Mg were about 5.43 wt%-6.55 wt% and 0.69 wt%-0.73 wt%, respectively. In addition, the surface morphology of Cu and Mg-co-doped TN (CuMTN) coatings transformed into nanoneedles after HT for 1 h. Compared with TN, CuMTN had no change in roughness and remarkable improved hydrophilicity. Antibacterial tests revealed that CuMTN had an antibacterial rate of more than 93% against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, thereby showing excellent antibacterial properties. In addition, CuMTN could induce the formation of apatite well after being immersed in simulated body fluid, showing good biological activity. Preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cultured on CuMTN-coated Ti demonstrated better proliferation and osteogenic differentiation than pristine and as-anodised specimens. To the best of our best knowledge, this study had successfully attempted to combine anodisation and HT, introduce Cu/Mg elements and functionalise Ti-based implant surfaces with enhanced hydrophilicity, osteogenesis and antimicrobial properties that can meet clinical needs for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112322DOI Listing
September 2021

Retrospective study of effect of whole-body vibration training on balance and walking function in stroke patients.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Aug;9(22):6268-6277

Department of Rehabilitation, Chongqing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Chongqing 400021, China.

Background: Dysfunction in stroke patients has been a problem that we committed to solve and explore. Physical therapy has some effect to regain strength, balance, and coordination. However, it is not a complete cure, so we are trying to find more effective treatments.

Aim: To observe the effect of whole-body vibration training (WVT) on the recovery of balance and walking function in stroke patients, which could provide us some useful evidence for planning rehabilitation.

Methods: The clinical data of 130 stroke participants who underwent conventional rehabilitation treatment in our hospital from January 2019 to August 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The participants were divided into whole-body vibration training (WVT) group and non-WVT (NWVT) group according to whether they were given WVT. In the WVT group, routine rehabilitation therapy was combined with WVT by the Galileo Med L Plus vibration trainer at a frequency of 20 Hz and a vibration amplitude of 0+ACY-plusmn+ADs-5.2 mm, and in the NWVT group, routine rehabilitation therapy only was provided. The treatment course of the two groups was 4 wk. Before and after treatment, the Berg balance scale (BBS), 3 m timed up-and-go test (TUGT), the maximum walking speed test (MWS), and upper limb functional reaching (FR) test were performed.

Results: After 4 wk training, in both groups, the BBS score and the FR distance respectively increased to a certain amount (WVT = 46.08 ± 3.41 NWVT = 40.22 ± 3.75; WVT = 20.48 ± 2.23 NWVT = 16.60 ± 2.82), with < 0.05. Furthermore, in the WVT group, both BBS score and FR distance (BBS: 18.32 ± 2.18; FR: 10.00 ± 0.92) increased more than that in the NWVT group (BBS: 13.29 ± 1.66; FR: 6.16 ± 0.95), with < 0.05. Meanwhile, in both groups, the TUGT and the MWS were improved after training (WVT = 32.64 ± 3.81 NWVT = 39.56 ± 3.68; WVT = 12.73 ± 2.26 NWVT = 15.04 ± 2.27, respectively), with < 0.05. The change in the WVT group (TUGT: 17.49 ± 1.88; MWS: 6.79 ± 0.81) was greater than that in the NWVT group (TUGT: 10.76 ± 1.42; MWS: 4.84 ± 0.58), with < 0.05.

Conclusion: The WVT could effectively improve the balance and walking function in stroke patients, which may be good for improving their quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i22.6268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362547PMC
August 2021

Large-scale and high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics profiling defines molecular subtypes of esophageal cancer for therapeutic targeting.

Nat Commun 2021 08 16;12(1):4961. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Immunopathology, the Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for High Cancer Incidence Coastal Chaoshan Area, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China.

Esophageal cancer (EC) is a type of aggressive cancer without clinically relevant molecular subtypes, hindering the development of effective strategies for treatment. To define molecular subtypes of EC, we perform mass spectrometry-based proteomic and phosphoproteomics profiling of EC tumors and adjacent non-tumor tissues, revealing a catalog of proteins and phosphosites that are dysregulated in ECs. The EC cohort is stratified into two molecular subtypes-S1 and S2-based on proteomic analysis, with the S2 subtype characterized by the upregulation of spliceosomal and ribosomal proteins, and being more aggressive. Moreover, we identify a subtype signature composed of ELOA and SCAF4, and construct a subtype diagnostic and prognostic model. Potential drugs are predicted for treating patients of S2 subtype, and three candidate drugs are validated to inhibit EC. Taken together, our proteomic analysis define molecular subtypes of EC, thus providing a potential therapeutic outlook for improving disease outcomes in patients with EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25202-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368010PMC
August 2021

A Cross-Level Information Transmission Network for Hierarchical Omics Data Integration and Phenotype Prediction from a New Genotype.

Authors:
Di He Lei Xie

Bioinformatics 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

PhD program in Computer Science, Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York City, 10016, USA.

Motivation: An unsolved fundamental problem in biology is to predict phenotypes from a new genotype under environmental perturbations. The emergence of multiple omics data provides new opportunities but imposes great challenges in the predictive modeling of genotype-phenotype associations. Firstly, the high-dimensionality of genomics data and the lack of coherent labeled data often make the existing supervised learning techniques less successful. Secondly, it is challenging to integrate heterogeneous omics data from different resources. Finally, few works have explicitly modeled the information transmission from DNA to phenotype, which involves multiple intermediate molecular types. Higher-level features (e.g., gene expression) usually have stronger discriminative and interpretable power than lower-level features (e.g., somatic mutation).

Results: We propose a novel Cross-LEvel Information Transmission network (CLEIT) framework to address the above issues. CLEIT aims to represent the asymmetrical multi-level organization of the biological system by integrating multiple incoherent omics data and to improve the prediction power of low-level features. CLEIT first learns the latent representation of the high-level domain then uses it as ground-truth embedding to improve the representation learning of the low-level domain in the form of contrastive loss. Besides, CLEIT can leverage the unlabeled heterogeneous omics data to improve the generalizability of the predictive model. We demonstrate the effectiveness and significant performance boost of CLEIT in predicting anti-cancer drug sensitivity from somatic mutations via the assistance of gene expressions when compared with state-of-the-art methods. CLEIT provides a general framework to model information transmissions and integrate multi-modal data in a multi-level system.

Availability: The source code is freely available at https://github.com/XieResearchGroup/CLEIT.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btab580DOI Listing
August 2021

An imputed whole-genome sequence-based GWAS approach pinpoints causal mutations for complex traits in a specific swine population.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory for Pig Genetic Improvement and Production Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, China.

Sequencing-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have facilitated the identification of causal associations between genetic variants and traits in diverse species. However, it is cost-prohibitive for the majority of research groups to sequence a large number of samples. Here, we carried out genotype imputation to increase the density of single nucleotide polymorphisms in a large-scale Swine F population using a reference panel including 117 individuals, followed by a series of GWAS analyses. The imputation accuracies reached 0.89 and 0.86 for allelic concordance and correlation, respectively. A quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) affecting the chest vertebrate was detected directly, while the investigation of another QTN affecting the residual glucose failed due to the presence of similar haplotypes carrying wild-type and mutant allelesin the reference panel used in this study. A high imputation accuracy was confirmed by Sanger sequencing technology for the most significant loci. Two candidate genes, CPNE5 and MYH3, affecting meat-related traits were proposed. Collectively, we illustrated four scenarios in imputation-based GWAS that may be encountered by researchers, and our results will provide an extensive reference for future genotype imputation-based GWAS analyses in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1960-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Corrigendum: Exploring the Mechanism of Total Flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma to Improve Large Bone Defects by Network Pharmacology and Experimental Assessment.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:739503. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.603734.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.739503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8343127PMC
July 2021

Surface interaction mechanisms in mineral flotation: Fundamentals, measurements, and perspectives.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 21;295:102491. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9, Canada. Electronic address:

As non-renewable natural resources, minerals are essential in a broad range of biological and technological applications. The surface interactions of mineral particles with other objects (e.g., solids, bubbles, reagents) in aqueous suspensions play a critical role in mediating many interfacial phenomena involved in mineral flotation. In this work, we have reviewed the fundamentals of surface forces and quantitative surface property-force relationship of minerals, and the advances in the quantitative measurements of interaction forces of mineral-mineral, bubble-mineral and mineral-reagent using nanomechanical tools such as surface forces apparatus (SFA) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The quantitative correlation between surface properties of minerals at the solid/water interface and their surface interaction mechanisms with other objects in complex aqueous media at the nanoscale has been established. The existing challenges in mineral flotation such as characterization of anisotropic crystal plane or heterogeneous surface, low recovery of fine particle flotation, and in-situ electrochemical characterization of collectorless flotation as well as the future work to resolve the challenges based on the understanding and modulation of surface forces of minerals have also been discussed. This review provides useful insights into the fundamental understanding of the intermolecular and surface interaction mechanisms involved in mineral processing, with implications for precisely modulating related interfacial interactions towards the development of highly efficient industrial processes and chemical additives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2021.102491DOI Listing
September 2021

An updated phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis based on genome skimming data reveals convergent evolution of shrubby habit in Clematis in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Jul 23;164:107259. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, PR China.

Convergent evolution, often viewed as the inevitable outcome of natural selection, has received special attention since the time of Darwin. Clematis is well known for its climbing habit, but it has some shrubby species, known as sect. Fruticella s.l. The shrubby Clematis species are distributed in the dry habitats of Central Asia and adjacent areas showing possible convergent evolution. In this study, we assembled the complete plastome and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences of 56 Clematis species, representing most sections and covering most of the shrubby species, to reconstruct their evolutionary histories. Using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, the plastome and nrDNA datasets generated similar, but not identical, phylogenetic relationships, which are better resolved than in previous studies. Then, molecular dating, historical range reconstruction, and character optimization analyses were conducted based on this updated phylogenetic framework. All the morphological characters widely used for taxonomy were shown to have evolved multiple times. Molecular dating inferred that Clematis diverged from its sister in the mid Miocene, and all six major clades of Clematis originated during the late Miocene, with a species radiation during the Pliocene to Pleistocene. The results clearly showed that the shrubby habit evolved independently in four lineages of Clematis in Asia. We also revealed that the shrubby lineages have emerged since the very beginning of Pliocene. Asian monsoon variation in the Pliocene and glacial period fluctuation in the Pleistocene may be the driving forces for the origin and diversification of the shrubby Clematis in Central Asia and adjacent dry areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107259DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of miR-202-5p silencing PIK3CA gene expression on proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer SiHa cells through inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 89 Donggang Road, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang City, 050031, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China.

To explore the mechanism of miR-202-5p targeting the expression of PIK3CA and mediating the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway on the proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cervical cancer. The objects of study were 105 cases of cervical cancer and their corresponding normal tissues. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-202-5p and PIK3CA in adjacent normal tissue and cervical cancer tissue. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-202-5p and PIK3CA gene. Human cervical cancer cell lines HPV-16E6, SiHa, HeLa, and CaSki were purchased for our cell experiments. The expression levels of PIK3CA in the cells were detected by qRT-PCR. The cell line with higher expression levels was selected to complete the follow-up experiment. The cultured cells were transfected and divided into the miR-202-5p mimic NC group, miR-202-5p mimic group, miR-202-5p inhibitor NC group, miR-202-5p inhibitor group, siRNA-PIK3CA NC group, siRNA-PIK3CA group, miR-202-5p inhibitor NC + siRNA-PIK3CA NC group, miR-202-5p inhibitor + siRNA-PIK3CA NC group, and miR-202-5p inhibitor + siRNA-PIK3CA group. QRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-202-5p. Western blot and qRT-PCR were applied to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of related pathway proteins (PIK3CA, PI3K, PTEN, p-Akt1, and p-mTOR) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related factors (N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and vimentin). Cell proliferation was detected by plate colony formation assay. Transwell assay was used to detect the invasion ability of each group. When compared with the adjacent tissues, PIK3CA mRNA expression level was significantly increased and miR-202-5p expression level was significantly decreased in cervical cancer tissues (all P < 0.05). PIK3CA was a target gene of miR-202-5p. The mRNA expression level of PIK3CA in SiHa cervical cancer cells was significantly higher than that in CaSki, HeLa, and HPV-16E6 cells (all P < 0.05), and SiHa cervical cancer cells were selected to complete the follow-up experiments. When compared with the corresponding NC group, the expression of miR-202-5p in miR-202-5p mimic group was increased. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of E-cadherin and PTEN in miR-202-5p mimic and siRNA-PIK3CA groups were increased, and the protein expression of p-Akt1 and p-mTOR was decreased, and also, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PIK3CA, PI3K, N-cadherin, and vimentin were decreased (all P < 0.05); in miR-202-5p inhibitor group, the expression levels of miR-202-5p, E-cadherin, and PTEN decreased, the protein expression of p-Akt1 and p-mTOR increased, and the mRNA and protein expression of PIK3CA, PI3K, N-cadherin, and vimentin increased in miR-202-5p inhibitor group (all P < 0.05); in miR-202-5p inhibitor + siRNA-PIK3CA group, the expression of miR-202-5p decreased (P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of PIK3CA, PI3K, p-Akt1, p-mTOR, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and vimentin had no significant changes (all P > 0.05). When compared with the corresponding NC group, the number of cell clones in miR-202-5p mimic group and siRNA-PIK3CA group was decreased, and the invasion ability of miR-202-5p inhibitor group was increased, and the invasion ability was enhanced (all P < 0.05); miR-202-5p inhibitor + siRNA-PIK3CA group showed no significant change in the number of cell clones and the rate of invasion (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the overexpression of miR-202-5p can suppress PIK3CA gene expression and the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway to suppress the proliferation, invasion, and EMT of cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04211-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Neutrophil extracellular traps in cattle health and disease.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Oct 25;139:4-10. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

Neutrophils largely contribute to the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens. They kill pathogens basically by the following mechanisms: phagocytosis and proteolytic degradation, the release of enzymes with bactericidal activities, and the production of fibers to entrap pathogens, also known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs capture pathogens as a mechanism of immune protection and have been studied in-depth in various fields of human medicine. However, research about NETs in cattle is relatively scarce. The present article reviews the generation mechanisms, structural composition, signal pathways, advantages (and disadvantages) of NETs, and summarizes the latest findings of NETs in cattle health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.06.019DOI Listing
October 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of (Cleomaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 14;6(7):1909-1910. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

(L.) Briquet is a monoecious herb species in the family Cleomaceae. It is an important commercial crop with medicinal and nutritional values. Here, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed the complete chloroplast genome of . The circular genome is 158,152 bp in size, consisting of two copies of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,181 bp, one large single-copy (LSC) region of 87,242 bp, and one small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,548 bp. The overall GC content was 35.81%. A total of 131 genes were annotated, including 37 tRNA genes, 87 protein-coding genes, and seven rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 10 chloroplast genome sequences indicated that was more closely related to
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1935339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204997PMC
June 2021

Probing the Interactions between Pickering Emulsion Droplets Stabilized with pH-Responsive Nanoparticles.

J Phys Chem B 2021 07 24;125(26):7320-7331. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9, Canada.

The presence and adsorption of particles at the oil/water interface play a critical role in stabilizing Pickering emulsions and affecting their bulk behavior. For water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions with pH-responsive nanoparticles, their interaction forces and stabilization mechanisms at the nanoscale have not been reported. Herein, the Pickering emulsions formed by oil/water mixtures under different pH values with bilayer oleic acid-coated FeO nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) were characterized using microscopy imaging and zeta potential and interfacial tension (IFT) measurements. The interaction forces between formed emulsion droplets were quantified using an atomic force microscope (AFM) drop probe technique. A W/O emulsion formed at pH 2 and 4 is mainly stabilized by the steric barrier formation of confined particle layers (with [email protected] NPs and aggregates). At pH 9 and 11, an O/W emulsion is formed, and its stabilization mechanism is mainly due to relatively low IFT, strong electrostatic repulsion due to carboxyl groups, and steric repulsion from confined nanoparticles and aggregates, leading to a stable confined thin water film. Increasing the maximum loading force and dwelling time enhances the confinement of [email protected] particles and aggregates at the oil/water interface. This work provides useful insights into the interaction and stabilization mechanisms of Pickering emulsions with stimuli-responsive interface-active particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.1c03852DOI Listing
July 2021

Effective and direct control of neural TTS prosody by removing interactions between different attributes.

Neural Netw 2021 Jun 11;143:250-260. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Audio, Speech and Language Processing Group ([email protected]), School of Computer Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

End-to-end TTS advancement has shown that synthesized speech prosody can be controlled by conditioning the decoder with speech prosody attribute labels. However, to annotate quantitatively the prosody patterns of a large set of training data is both time consuming and expensive. To use unannotated data, variational autoencoder (VAE) has been proposed to model individual prosody attribute as a random variable in the latent space. The VAE is an unsupervised approach and the corresponding latent variables are in general correlated with each other. For more effective and direct control of speech prosody along each attribute dimension, it is highly desirable to disentangle the correlated latent variables. Additionally, being able to interpret the disentangled attributes as speech perceptual cues is useful for designing more efficient prosody control of TTS. In this paper, we propose two attribute separation schemes: (1) using 3 separate VAEs to model the real-valued, different prosodic features, i.e., F, energy and duration; (2) minimizing mutual information between different prosody attributes to remove their mutual correlations, for facilitating more direct prosody control. Experimental results confirm that the two proposed schemes can indeed make individual prosody attributes more interpretable and direct TTS prosody control more effective. The improvements are measured objectively by F Frame Error (FFE) and subjectively with MOS and A/B comparison listening tests, respectively. The scatter diagrams of t-SNE also demonstrate the correlations between prosody attributes, which are well disentangled by minimizing their mutual information. Synthesized TTS samples can be found at https://xiaochunan.github.io/prosody/index.html.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Exploring the Mechanism of Total Flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma to Improve Large Bone Defects by Network Pharmacology and Experimental Assessment.

Front Pharmacol 2021 31;12:603734. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Drynariae Rhizoma (DR) has been demonstrated to be effective in promoting fracture healing in clinical use. In the study, we tried to predicate potential signaling pathways and active ingredients of DR network pharmacology, uncover its regulation mechanism to improve large bone defects by and experiment. We total discovered 18 potential active ingredients such as flavonoids and 81 corresponding targets, in which mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway has the highest correlation with bone defects in pathway and functional enrichment analysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that flavonoids in DR improve large bone defects by activating MAPK signaling pathway. Animal experiments were carried out and all rats randomly divided into TFDR low, medium, and high dosage group, model group and control group. 12 weeks after treatment, according to X-ray and Micro-CT, TFDR medium dosage group significantly promote new bone mineralization compared with other groups. The results of HE and Masson staining and in vitro ALP level of BMSC also demonstrated the formation of bone matrix and mineralization in the TFDR groups. Also, angiographic imaging suggested that flavonoids in DR promoting angiogenesis in the defect area. Consistently, TFDR significantly enhanced the expression of BMP-2, RUNX-2, VEGF, HIF-1 in large bone defect rats based on ELISA and Real-Time PCR. Overall, we not only discover the active ingredients of DR in this study, but also explained how flavonoids in DR regulating MAPK signaling pathway to improve large bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.603734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210422PMC
May 2021

[Effect of root development on the root and periodontal absorptions of maxillary impacted anterior teeth after orthodontic traction].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2021 Apr;30(2):162-166

Department of Orthodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Southwest Medical University. Luzhou 646000, Sichuan Province, China.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of root development on root and periodontal tissues of maxillary impacted anterior teeth after orthodontic traction based on cone-beam CT (CBCT).

Methods: Thirty-four patients (34 teeth) requiring orthodontic traction for maxillary impacted anterior teeth in Southwest Medical University Affiliated Stomatological Hospital from July 2018 to March 2019 were selected. The patients were divided into incomplete development group and complete development group according to root development, each with 17 cases. All patients received orthodontic traction treatment. Root length, thickness of root canal wall, pulp vitality, width of the attachment ridge, bone mineral density around root and orthodontic traction time were compared between the two groups. Statistic analysis was completed by SPSS 20.0 software package.

Results: Root length of complete development group was significantly longer than that of incomplete development group before treatment(P<0.05). After treatment, the root length of incomplete development group was significantly longer than that of the complete development group(P<0.05). The thickness of root canal wall was significantly greater in complete development group than in incomplete development group before treatment (P<0.05), which had no significant difference between groups after treatment(P>0.05). The pulp vitality and width of the attachment ridge had no significant difference between two groups after treatment(P>0.05). Bone mineral density around root was significantly decreased in both groups after treatment(P<0.05), and was lower in complete development group than in incomplete development group(P<0.05). The orthodontic traction time in the complete development group was significantly longer than that in incomplete development group(P<0.05).

Conclusions: In orthodontic traction treatment, the impacted anterior teeth with undeveloped roots have advantages of mild root absorption, rapid periodontal tissue reconstruction, short orthodontic traction time with the root, thickness of root canal wall and pulp vitality in the normal range.
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April 2021

Development of an efficient transient expression system for Siraitia grosvenorii fruit and functional characterization of two NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductases.

Phytochemistry 2021 Sep 6;189:112824. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Siraitia grosvenorii (Luo hanguo or monk fruit) is a valuable medicinal herb for which the market demand has increased dramatically worldwide. As promising natural sweeteners, mogrosides have received much attention from researchers because of their extremely high sweetness and lack of calories. Nevertheless, owing to the absence of genetic transformation methods, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of mogroside biosynthesis have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, an effective method for gene function analysis needs to be developed for S. grosvenorii fruit. As a powerful approach, transient expression has become a versatile method to elucidate the biological functions of genes and proteins in various plant species. In this study, PBI121 with a β-glucuronidase (GUS) marker and tobacco rattle virus (TRV) were used as vectors for overexpression and silencing, respectively, of the SgCPR1 and SgCPR2 genes in S. grosvenorii fruit. The effectiveness of transient expression was validated by GUS staining in S. grosvenorii fruit, and the expression levels of SgCPR1 and SgCPR2 increased significantly after infiltration for 36 h. In addition, TRV-induced gene silencing suppressed the expression of SgCPR1 and SgCPR2 in S. grosvenorii fruit. More importantly, the production of the major secondary metabolites mogrol, mogroside IIE (MIIE) and mogroside III (MIII) was activated by the overexpression of SgCPR1 and SgCPR2 in S. grosvenorii fruit, with levels 1-2 times those in the control group. Moreover, the accumulation of mogrol, MIIE and MIII was decreased in the SgCPR1 and SgCPR2 gene silencing assays. Therefore, this transient expression approach was available for S. grosvenorii fruit, providing insight into the expression of the SgCPR1 and SgCPR2 genes involved in the mogroside biosynthesis pathway. Our study also suggests that this method has potential applications in the exploration of the molecular mechanisms, biochemical hypotheses and functional characteristics of S. grosvenorii genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112824DOI Listing
September 2021

The diagnostic value of a non-contrast computed tomography scan-based radiomics model for acute aortic dissection.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26212

Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.

Abstract: To investigate the diagnostic value of a computed tomography (CT) scan-based radiomics model for acute aortic dissection.For the dissection group, we retrospectively selected 50 patients clinically diagnosed with acute aortic dissection between October 2018 and November 2019, for whom non-contrast CT and CT angiography images were available. Fifty individuals with available non-contrast CT and CT angiography images for other causes were selected for inclusion in the non-dissection group. Based on the aortic dissection locations on the CT angiography images, we marked the corresponding regions-of-interest on the non-contrast CT images of both groups. We collected 1203 characteristic parameters from these regions by extracting radiomics features. Subsequently, we used a random number table to include 70 individuals in the training group and 30 in the validation group. Finally, we used the Lasso regression for dimension reduction and predictive model construction. The diagnostic performance of the model was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.Fourteen characteristic parameters with non-zero coefficients were selected after dimension reduction. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of the prediction model for the training group were 94.3% (66/70), 91.2% (31/34), 97.2% (35/36), and 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.970-0.998), respectively. The respective values for the validation group were 90.0% (27/30), 94.1% (16/17), 84.6% (11/13), and 0.952 (95% CI: 0.883-0.986).Our non-contrast CT scan-based radiomics model accurately facilitated acute aortic dissection diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183783PMC
June 2021

Needle tract seeding of papillary thyroid carcinoma after fine-needle capillary biopsy: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 May;9(15):3662-3667

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310016, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Fine-needle biopsy is an accurate and cost-efficient tool for the assessment of thyroid nodules. It includes two primary methods: Fine-needle capillary biopsy (FNCB) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Needle tract seeding (NTS) is a rare complication of thyroid fine-needle biopsy mainly caused by fine-needle aspiration biopsy rather than FNCB. Here, we present an extremely rare case of a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patient with FNCB-derived NTS.

Case Summary: We report a 32-year-old woman with PTC who showed subcutaneous NTS 1 year after FNCB and thyroidectomy. NTS was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, biochemistry indices, and imaging (computed tomography and ultrasound). Pathological identification of PTC metastases consistent with the puncture path is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical resection was the main method used to treat the disease. After surgery, thyroid function tests and ultrasound scans were performed every 3-6 mo. To date, no evidence of tumor recurrence has been observed.

Conclusion: FNCB is a safe procedure as NTS is rare, and can be easily removed surgically with no recurrence. Accordingly, NTS should not limit the usefulness of FNCB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i15.3662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130087PMC
May 2021

Super-Assembled Hierarchical CoO Nanosheets-Cu Foam Composites as Multi-Level Hosts for High-Performance Lithium Metal Anodes.

Small 2021 Jun 3;17(23):e2101301. Epub 2021 May 3.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China.

Achieving uniform lithium (Li) deposition is the key to tackle uncontrollable dendrite growth, which hinders the application of Li metal anodes. In this study, molten Li is thermally injected into a 3D framework by growing lithiophilic CoO nanosheets on Cu foam (CF). The CoO layer grown on the CF surface physically adsorbs molten Li, which makes it possible to spontaneously wet the framework. The morphology of CoO nanosheets does not change during the Li injection process and formed a multi-level structure with the CF, which is difficult to be achieved previously, as most lithiophilic oxides undergo serious chemical changes due to chemical reaction with Li and cannot provide a stable submicron structure for the subsequent Li stripping/plating process. The super-assembled multi-level structure provides abundant Li nucleation sites and electrolyte/electrode contact areas for rapid charge transfer in the composite anode. Therefore, the prolonged lifespan of symmetrical cells for 300 cycles at 10 and 10 mAh cm with lower polarization is achieved, which further renders the LiFePO and Li Ti O based full cells with improved capacity retention up to 87.3% and 80.1% after 500 cycles at 1 C. These results suggest that the composite anode has a great application prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101301DOI Listing
June 2021

Sequential Superassembly of Nanofiber Arrays to Carbonaceous Ordered Mesoporous Nanowires and Their Heterostructure Membranes for Osmotic Energy Conversion.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 30;143(18):6922-6932. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Lab of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P. R. China.

The capture of sustainable energy from a salinity gradient, in particular, using renewable biomass-derived functional materials, has attracted significant attention. In order to convert osmotic energy to electricity, many membrane materials with nanofluidic channels have been developed. However, the high cost, complex preparation process, and low output power density still restrict the practical application of traditional membranes. Herein, we report the synthesis of highly flexible and mechanically robust nanofiber-arrays-based carbonaceous ordered mesoporous nanowires (CMWs) through a simple and straightforward soft-templating hydrothermal carbonization approach. This sequential superassembly strategy shows a high yield and great versatility in controlling the dimensions of CMWs with the aspect ratio changes from about 3 to 39. Furthermore, these CMWs can be used as novel building blocks to construct functional hybrid membranes on macroporous alumina. This nanofluidic membrane with asymmetric geometry and charge polarity exhibits low resistance and high-performance energy conversion. This work opens a solution-based route for the one-pot preparation of CMWs and functional heterostructure membranes for various applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00547DOI Listing
May 2021

Nanomechanics of Lignin-Cellulase Interactions in Aqueous Solutions.

Biomacromolecules 2021 05 21;22(5):2033-2042. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4, Canada.

Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in lignocellulose to glucose is one of the most critical steps for the production of biofuels. The nonproductive adsorption of lignin to expensive cellulase highly impedes the development of biorefinery. Understanding the lignin-cellulase interaction mechanism serves as a vital basis for reducing such nonproductive adsorption in their practical applications. Yet, limited report is available on the direct characterization of the lignin-cellulase interactions. Herein, for the first time, the nanomechanics of the biomacromolecules including lignin, cellulase, and cellulose were systematically investigated by using a surface force apparatus (SFA) at the nanoscale in aqueous solutions. Interestingly, a cation-π interaction was discovered and demonstrated between lignin and cellulase molecules through SFA measurements with the addition of different cations (Na, K, etc.). The complementary adsorption tests and theoretical calculations further confirmed the validity of the force measurement results. This finding further inspired the investigation of the interaction between lignin and other noncatalytic-hydrolysis protein (i.e., soy protein). Soy protein was demonstrated as an effective, biocompatible, and inexpensive lignin-blocker based on the molecular force measurements through the combined effects of electrostatic, cation-π, and hydrophobic interactions, which significantly improved the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies of cellulose in pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Our results offer quantitative information on the fundamental understanding of the lignin-cellulase interaction mechanism. Such unraveled nanomechanics provides new insights into the development of advanced biotechnologies for addressing the nonproductive adsorption of lignin to cellulase, with great implications on improving the economics of lignocellulosic biorefinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00140DOI Listing
May 2021

Core-shell nanostructured [email protected] arrays for high-performance hybrid supercapacitors.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr 24;50(14):4923-4931. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Ecology and Health Institute, Hangzhou Vocational and Technical College, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Although zinc oxide (ZnO) with wide distribution is one of the most attractive energy storage materials, the low electronic conductivity and insufficient active sites of bulk ZnO increase the internal resistance and reduce the capacity of electrodes for supercapacitors. Herein, CoS nanosheets are coated on the surface of heterostructured ZnO/CoO nanowires to synthesize a core-shell [email protected] electrode by a three-step method. The built-in electric field formed between ZnO and CoO can enhance the conductivity of the composite electrode. The coating of amorphous CoS can also provide sufficient active sites and improve the chemical stability of ZnO/CoO nanowires. As a result, the as-prepared [email protected] electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 1190 C g, which is 7 times higher than that of the pristine ZnO electrode. Besides, a hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) with the [email protected] electrode exhibits a high energy density of 56.8 W h kg at a power density of 771.6 W kg. Furthermore, we assembled a solar-charging power system by combining the HSC and monocrystalline silicon plates to prove the practicability of the device, which can power a toy electric fan successfully. This study provides an effective idea and strategy for preparing Zn-based supercapacitor electrodes with low cost and deep discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00584gDOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment spermatogenic cell apoptosis and the transcript levels of metallothionein and p53 in Meretrix meretrix induced by cadmium.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 14;217:112230. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, 325035 Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) has been widely used in industry and can accumulate in the water, soil, and food. Meretrix meretrix is one of the marine shellfishes cultivated for economic purpose in China. The increasing Cd levels in coastal marine water could adversely affect the economic benefits of shellfish cultivation. In the present study, M. meretrix were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 mg L) for 5 d to evaluate the effects of Cd on spermatogenic cell. The Cd accumulation, survival rate and the indices of oxidative stress and apoptosis were determined in the spermatogenic cells of M. meretrix. The expression levels of p53 and metallothionein (MT) mRNA were also measured in the spermatogenic cells. Cd accumulation and the mortality rate of spermatogenic cells were found to increase in a dose-response manner with Cd concentrations. Histopathology changes, especially the damage of membranous structure, were more severe as the Cd levels in the testis became higher. The indexes of oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl derivates and DNA-protein crosslinks all increased after exposure to Cd. However, the total antioxidant capacity gradually decreased with the increasing Cd concentration. In addition, exposure to Cd increased the apoptotic rate and caspase-3 and 9 activities but decreased the level of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C oxidase in the spermatogenic cells. MT mRNA expression increased in lower Cd concentration treated groups whereas decreased in higher groups, while the p53 mRNA expression increased in a dose-response manner with Cd and was positively correlated with the oxidative damage indices. These results indicated that Cd caused oxidative stress and p53 induced apoptosis in the spermatogenic cells, and thus decreased the survival rate of sperm cells. This finding highlights that Cd can reduce the reproductive capacity of M. meretrix, thus threatening to wild shellfish populations and reducing the efficiency of shellfish farming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112230DOI Listing
July 2021

Ligand-Mediated Spatially Controllable Superassembly of Asymmetric Hollow Nanotadpoles with Fine-Tunable Cavity as Smart HO-Sensitive Nanoswimmers.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Lab of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, iChEM, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Ligand-mediated interface control has been broadly applied as a powerful tool in constructing sophisticated nanocomposites. However, the resultant morphologies are usually limited to solid structures. Now, a facile spatially controllable ligand-mediated superassembly strategy is explored to construct monodispersed, asymmetric, hollow, open Au-silica (SiO) nanotadpoles (AHOASTs). By manipulating the spatial density of ligands, the degree of diffusion of silica can be precisely modulated; thus the diameters of the cavity can be continuously tuned. Due to their highly anisotropic, hollow, open morphologies, we construct a multicompartment nanocontainer with enzymes held and isolated inside the cavity. Furthermore, the resulting enzyme-AHOASTs are used as biocompatible smart HO-sensitive nanoswimmers and demonstrate a higher diffusion coefficient than other nanoscaled swimmers. We believe that this strategy is critical not only in designing sophisticated hollow nanosystem but also in providing great opportunities for applications in nanomaterial assembly, catalysis, sensors, and nanoreactors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01159DOI Listing
April 2021

An Improved Equilibrium Optimizer with Application in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Path Planning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Aeronautics Engineering College, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an 710038, China.

The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) path planning problem is a type of complex multi-constraint optimization problem that requires a reasonable mathematical model and an efficient path planning algorithm. In this paper, the fitness function including fuel consumption cost, altitude cost, and threat cost is established. There are also four set constraints including maximum flight distance, minimum flight altitude, maximum turn angle, and maximum climb angle. The constrained optimization problem is transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem by using the penalty function introduced. To solve the model, a multiple population hybrid equilibrium optimizer (MHEO) is proposed. Firstly, the population is divided into three subpopulations based on fitness and different strategies are executed separately. Secondly, a Gaussian distribution estimation strategy is introduced to enhance the performance of MHEO by using the dominant information of the populations to guide the population evolution. The equilibrium pool is adjusted to enhance population diversity. Furthermore, the Lévy flight strategy and the inferior solution shift strategy are used to help the algorithm get rid of stagnation. The CEC2017 test suite was used to evaluate the performance of MHEO, and the results show that MHEO has a faster convergence speed and better convergence accuracy compared to the comparison algorithms. The path planning simulation experiments show that MHEO can steadily and efficiently plan flight paths that satisfy the constraints, proving the superiority of the MHEO algorithm while verifying the feasibility of the path planning model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21051814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961693PMC
March 2021
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