Publications by authors named "Lei Sun"

1,420 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

VvSNAT1 overexpression enhances melatonin production and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 16;166:485-494. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450009, China. Electronic address:

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays important roles in the regulation of development and the response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) functions as a key catalytic enzyme involved in melatonin biosynthesis. In this study, the candidate gene VvSNAT1 (SNAT isogene) was isolated from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot). Tissue-specific expression and external treatment revealed that VvSNAT1 is a salt-inducible gene that is highly expressed in leaves. Subcellular localisation results revealed that VvSNAT1 was located in the chloroplasts, which is similar to other plant SNAT proteins. Ectopic overexpression of VvSNAT1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased melatonin production and salt tolerance. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing VvSNAT1 exhibited enhanced growth and physiological performance, including a lower degree of leaf wilting, higher germination rate, higher fresh weight, and longer root length under salt stress. Moreover, overexpression of VvSNAT1 in Arabidopsis protected cells from oxidative damage by reducing the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (HO). These results indicate that VvSNAT1 positively responds to salt stress. Our results provide a novel perspective for VvSNAT1 to improve salt tolerance, mediated by melatonin accumulation, plant growth promotion and oxidative damage reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.06.025DOI Listing
June 2021

Health-related quality of life in men with osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endocrine 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.

Purpose: The increased social and economic burdens make osteoporosis in men an emerging public health issue. However, the quality of life among men with osteoporosis is still unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among men with osteoporosis or osteoporotic fracture.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database were systematically searched from inception to May 2021. Studies were included if they used validated questionnaires to measure HRQoL among osteoporotic men. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model to calculate the standard mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidential interval (95% CI).

Results: 14 studies involving 6338 male participants were chosen for systematic review, of which 10 were included in the meta-analysis. Men with osteoporosis had poorer global HRQoL and multiple dimensions of HRQoL than men without osteoporosis. Hip fracture, vertebral fractures, or wrist fractures dramatically impaired HRQoL of men, and physical function was declined even before hip fracture (SMD = -0.60, 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.39). Femoral and lumbar BMD was positively correlated with HRQoL, and a number of fragility fractures and time since fracture had negative effects on HRQoL. Effective anti-osteoporotic drugs could improve HRQoL of men.

Conclusion: The health-related life quality of men was significantly impaired by osteoporosis and fracture of the hip, vertebral, or wrist. We should pay more attention to the diagnosis and treatment of male osteoporosis to improve the life quality of men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-021-02792-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Multiple Dirac cones and Lifshitz transition in a two-dimensional Cairo lattice as a Hawking evaporation analogue.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Shan Da Nan Lu 27, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Jinan, Shandong, 250100, CHINA.

The linear energy-momentum dispersion of Dirac cones offers a unique platform for mimicking the fantastical phenomena in high energy physics, such as Dirac fermions and black hole (BH) horizons. Three types of Dirac cones (I, III, and II) with different tilts have been proposed individually in specific materials but lack of integral lattice model. Here, we demonstrated the three types of Dirac cones inherited in a -conjugated Cairo lattice of double-degenerate and orbitals by means of tight-binding (TB) approach, which paves a way for the design of two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials. From first-principles calculations, we predicted a candidate material, penta-NiSb2 monolayer, to achieve these multiple Dirac cones and the Lifshitz transition between different Dirac cones driven by external biaxial strain. The coexistence of the three types of Dirac cones renders penta-NiSb2 monolayer a promising 2D fermionic analogue to simulate the event-horizon evaporation with a high Hawking temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac0dd4DOI Listing
June 2021

Molecular diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaics in fetal amniotic cells.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26331

Qinzhou Key Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology on Endemic Diseases, Qinzhou, Guangxi.

Abstract: Mosaicism can be observed in karyotype analyses of amniotic fluid cells. Differentiating between true mosaicism and pseudomosaicism and determining mosaic proportions can help avoid misjudgments by doctors and effectively reduce mental and physical harm to pregnant women. However, the detection of mosaicism and mosaic proportions via karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is extremely complex. We have developed a novel approach, "segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent PCR" (SD-QF-PCR), to detect mosaicism and mosaic proportions.In this study, twenty control samples and fourteen mosaic samples were tested by first-line karyotype analysis; by second-line karyotype analysis, SD-QF-PCR and FISH were used to reassess fetal sex chromosome mosaicism and mosaic proportions.Detection of the 20 control samples by second-line karyotype analysis via FISH and SD-QF-PCR showed normal and consistent results. Among the 14 mosaic samples, the numbers of samples showing true mosaicism and pseudomosaicism detected by the three methods were 6 and 8, respectively.Our study demonstrates that SD-QF-PCR can be used as a complementary method to traditional cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid mosaics and has clinical application value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026331DOI Listing
June 2021

Decreased Nucleus Accumbens Connectivity at Rest in Medication-Free Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Neural Plast 2021 1;2021:9966378. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006, China.

Background: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience deficiencies in reward processing. The investigation of the reward circuit and its essential connectivity may further clarify the pathogenesis of OCD.

Methods: The current research was designed to analyze the nucleus accumbens (NAc) functional connectivity at rest in medicine-free patients with OCD. Forty medication-free patients and 38 gender-, education-, and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) was used to analyze the data. LIBSVM (library for support vector machines) was designed to identify whether altered FC could be applied to differentiate OCD.

Results: Patients with OCD showed remarkably decreased FC values between the left NAc and the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and between the right NAc and the left OFC at rest in the reward circuit. Moreover, decreased left NAc-bilateral MPFC connectivity can be deemed as a potential biomarker to differentiate OCD from HCs with a sensitivity of 80.00% and a specificity of 76.32%.

Conclusion: The current results emphasize the importance of the reward circuit in the pathogenesis of OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9966378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187042PMC
June 2021

Adipsin promotes bone marrow adiposity by priming mesenchymal stem cells.

Elife 2021 Jun 22;10. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Naomi Berrie Diabetes Cente, Columbia University, New York, United States.

Background: Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has been shown to be vital for regulating metabolism and maintaining skeletal homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) niche. As a reflection of BM remodeling, MAT is highly responsive to nutrient fluctuations, hormonal changes, and metabolic disturbances such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Expansion of MAT has also been strongly associated with bone loss in mice and humans. However, the regulation of BM plasticity remains poorly understood, as does the mechanism that links changes in marrow adiposity with bone remodeling.

Methods: We studied deletion of Adipsin, and its downstream effector, C3, in C57BL/6 mice as well as the bone-protected PPARγ constitutive deacetylation 2KR mice to assess BM plasticity. The mice were challenged with thiazolidinedione treatment, calorie restriction, or aging to induce bone loss and MAT expansion. Analysis of bone mineral density and marrow adiposity was performed using a μCT scanner and by RNA analysis to assess adipocyte and osteoblast markers. For studies, primary bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and subjected to osteoblastogenic or adipogenic differentiation or chemical treatment followed by morphological and molecular analyses. Clinical data was obtained from samples of a previous clinical trial of fasting and high-calorie diet in healthy human volunteers.

Results: We show that Adipsin is the most upregulated adipokine during MAT expansion in mice and humans in a PPARγ acetylation-dependent manner. Genetic ablation of Adipsin in mice specifically inhibited MAT expansion but not peripheral adipose depots, and improved bone mass during calorie restriction, thiazolidinedione treatment, and aging. These effects were mediated through its downstream effector, complement component C3, to prime common progenitor cells toward adipogenesis rather than osteoblastogenesis through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Conclusions: Adipsin promotes new adipocyte formation and affects skeletal remodeling in the BM niche. Our study reveals a novel mechanism whereby the BM sustains its own plasticity through paracrine and endocrine actions of a unique adipokine.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health T32DK007328 (NA), F31DK124926 (NA), R01DK121140 (JCL), R01AR068970 (BZ), R01AR071463 (BZ), R01DK112943 (LQ), R24DK092759 (CJR), and P01HL087123 (LQ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.69209DOI Listing
June 2021

The role of HMGB1 on TDI-induced NLPR3 inflammasome activation via ROS/NF-κB pathway in HBE cells.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 18;98:107859. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

To explore the potential role of HMGB1 on TDI-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, HBE cells were treated with TDI-HSA conjugate to observe the changes of HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB, Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome related proteins expressions, ROS release and MMP. NAC, TPCA-1 and Resatorvid pre-treatments were applied to explore the effects of ROS, NF-κB and TLR4 on TDI-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to construct HMGB1 gene knockout HBE cell line and then to explore the role of HMGB1 on TDI-HSA induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. GL pre-treatment was applied to further confirm the role of HMGB1. Results showed that TDI increased HMGB1, TLR4, P-p65, Nrf2 proteins expressions and ROS release, decreased MMP level and activated NLRP3 inflammasome in HBE cells in a dose dependent manner. NAC, TPCA-1 and Resatorvid pre-treatments decreased the expression of P-p65 and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Inhibition of HMGB1 decreased Nrf2 expression and ROS release, improved MMP level and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. GL ameliorated NLRP3 inflammasome activation via inhibiting HMGB1 regulated ROS/NF-κB pathway. These results indicated that HMGB1 was involved in TDI-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation as a positive regulatory mechanism. The study provided a potential target for early prevention and treatment of TDI-OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107859DOI Listing
June 2021

A Combination of Olanzapine and Samidorphan in Adults with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder: Overview of Clinical Data.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):170

Alkermes Pharma Ireland Limited, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: Olanzapine effectively treats schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD-I); however, its use is hindered by significant weight gain. A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain through opioid-receptor blockade. Here, we summarize OLZ/SAM clinical data.

Methods: The OLZ/SAM development program consists of 18 phase 1-3 clinical studies evaluating antipsychotic and weight mitigation efficacy of OLZ/SAM, along with pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability. Safety evaluation also included metabolic laboratory assessments.

Results: OLZ/SAM significantly improved psychotic symptoms (measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale); improvements were similar to that observed with olanzapine vs placebo. OLZ/SAM resulted in significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. Additionally, 2 long-term phase 3 extension studies confirmed the durability of antipsychotic effect, as well as stabilization of weight and metabolic parameters in those continuing treatment. Supporting the potential use of OLZ/SAM in BD-I, OLZ/SAM or olanzapine resulted in bioequivalent olanzapine plasma concentrations, and OLZ/SAM did not affect lithium or valproate pharmacokinetics. OLZ/SAM treatment had no clinically relevant effects on ECG parameters (including QTc interval). OLZ/SAM and olanzapine safety were similar, except for reduced weight gain with OLZ/SAM; no additional safety risks were identified.

Conclusion: Data across 18 OLZ/SAM studies in >1600 subjects support an antipsychotic efficacy and safety profile for OLZ/SAM that is similar to olanzapine, with significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. OLZ/SAM is a potential new treatment for schizophrenia and BD-I patients needing efficacious long-term treatment with reduced risk of weight gain.

Funding: Alkermes, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852920002771DOI Listing
April 2021

The Role of Neuroinflammation in Post-traumatic Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 28;12:646152. Epub 2021 May 28.

Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the consequences after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which increases the morbidity and mortality of survivors. About 20% of patients with TBI will develop PTE, and at least one-third of them are resistant to conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Therefore, it is of utmost importance to explore the mechanisms underlying PTE from a new perspective. More recently, neuroinflammation has been proposed to play a significant role in epileptogenesis. This review focuses particularly on glial cells activation, peripheral leukocytes infiltration, inflammatory cytokines release and chronic neuroinflammation occurrence post-TBI. Although the immune response to TBI appears to be primarily pro-epileptogenic, further research is needed to clarify the causal relationships. A better understanding of how neuroinflammation contributes to the development of PTE is of vital importance. Novel prevention and treatment strategies based on the neuroinflammatory mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis are evidently needed.

Search Strategy: Search MeSH Terms in pubmed: "["Epilepsy"(Mesh)] AND "Brain Injuries, Traumatic"[Mesh]". Published in last 30 years. 160 results were founded. Full text available:145 results. Record screened manually related to Neuroinflammation and Post-traumatic epilepsy. Then finally 123 records were included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.646152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194282PMC
May 2021

Fabrication of polyethylenimine functionalized magnetic cellulose nanofibers for the sorption of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) in single-component and multi-component systems.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 10;184:68-78. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology, 230009 Hefei, PR China. Electronic address:

Novel polyethyleneimine functionalized cellulose nanofiber magnetic composites ([email protected]) were prepared using banana peels as the raw materials for the sorption of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) in single-component and multi-component systems. The batch experiments, spectral analyses and model fittings were used to reveal the sorption properties. The sorption of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on [email protected] all conformed to the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. And the maximum sorption capacities of [email protected] towards Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) were 134.38, 93.71 and 173.56 mg g, respectively. The main sorption mechanism of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on [email protected] is the strong surface complexation of the amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions. Especially, the introduction of PEI contributed to the improvement in the sorption capacities of [email protected] towards the heavy metals. Besides, the size of the ionic radius and the strength of the surface complexing ability with [email protected] are the reasons for the difference in the sorption capacities of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) (Cd(II) > Ni(II) > Cu(II)). In conclusion, [email protected] has shown the advantages of low cost, simple preparation, easy magnetic separation, environmental friendliness and high sorption capacity, thus having a broad application prospect in the treatment of multi-heavy metals polluted water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.041DOI Listing
June 2021

Elastic Properties and Energy Dissipation Related to the Disorder-Order Ferroelectric Transition in a Multiferroic Metal-Organic Framework [(CH)NH][Fe(HCOO)] with a Perovskite-Like Structure.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 5;14(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

The elastic properties and the coupling of ferroelasticity with ferromagnetism and ferroelectricy are crucial for the development of multiferroic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with strong magnetoelectric coupling. Elastic properties and energy dissipation related to the disorder-order ferroelectric transition in [(CH)NH][Fe(HCOO)] were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), low temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). DSC result indicated the transition near 164 K. XRD showed the first-order structural transition from rhombohedral 3-c to monoclinic c at ~145 K, accompanied by the disorder-order transition of proton ordering in the N-H…O hydrogen bonds in [(CH)NH] as well as the distortion of the framework. For single crystals, the storage modulus was ~1.1 GPa and the loss modulus was ~0.02 GPa at 298 K. DMA of single crystals showed quick drop of storage modulus and peaks of loss modulus and loss factor near the ferroelectric transition temperature ~164 K. DMA of pellets showed the minimum of the normalized storage modulus and the peaks of loss factor at ~164 K with weak frequency dependences. The normalized loss modulus reached the maximum near 145 K, with higher peak temperature at higher frequency. The elastic anomalies and energy dissipation near the ferroelectric transition temperature are caused by the coupling of the movements of dimethylammonium cations and twin walls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125427PMC
May 2021

Reduced serum miR-202 may promote the progression of Alzheimer's disease patients via targeting amyloid precursor protein.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Rizhao People's Hospital, Rizhao City, Shandong Province, China.

The current study investigated whether the expression of miR-202 was abnormal in the serum of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and evaluated the potential clinical significance, thereby shedding light on the diagnosis of AD. Here, our data showed that the level of miR-202 decreased significantly in the serum of AD patients (n = 121) compared with that of healthy controls (n = 86). Further analysis showed that the level of serum miR-202 was gradually decreased in the mild AD group (n = 31), moderate AD group (n = 52) and severe AD group (n = 38) compared with the healthy control group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that serum miR-202 could differentiate AD patients from healthy controls, with an AUC of 0.892. Spearman correlation analysis showed that serum miR-202 was positively correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Based on TargetScan, a conserved binding site was identified in the 3'UTR of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The dual luciferase assay showed that miR-202 suppressed the relative luciferase activity of pmirGLO-APP-3'UTR. Western blot assays indicated that overexpression of miR-202 suppressed the expression of APP, while the expression of APP was enhanced after inhibition of miR-202 in PC12 cells, indicating that APP was a possible target gene of miR-202. Moreover, the cell apoptosis induced by transfection of miR-202 inhibitor was abolished by silencing APP. In summary, we showed novel data that downregulation of serum miR-202 may be used as a potential biomarker for AD and may promote the development of AD by targeting APP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/kjm2.12391DOI Listing
May 2021

The situation and influencing factors of outpatient satisfaction in large hospitals: Evidence from Henan province, China.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 25;21(1):500. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: The level of outpatient satisfaction plays a significant role in improving the quality and utilization of healthcare services. Patient satisfaction gives providers insights into various aspects of services including the effectiveness of care and level of empathy. This study aimed to evaluate the level of patient satisfaction in the outpatient department and to explore its influencing factors in large hospitals (accommodating over 1000 beds) of Henan province, China.

Methods: We analyzed data from Henan Large Hospitals Patient Satisfaction Survey conducted in the year 2018 and included 630 outpatients. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to explore the relationship among evaluation indicators of outpatient satisfaction levels. We used Dynamic Matter-Element Analysis (DMA) to evaluate the status of outpatient satisfaction. Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) was adopted to estimate the impact of personal characteristics towards outpatient satisfaction.

Results: The overall score for outpatient satisfaction in large hospitals was 66.28±14.73. The mean outpatient satisfaction scores for normal-large, medium-large, and extra-large hospitals were 63.33±12.12, 70.11±16.10, 65.41±14.67, respectively, and were significantly different (F = 11.953, P < 0.001). Waiting time, doctor-patient communication, professional services, and accessibility for treatment information were shown to have directly positive correlations with outpatient satisfaction (r = 0.42, 0.47, 0.55, 0.46, all P < 0.05). Results from BLR analysis revealed that patients' age and frequency of hospital visits were the main characteristics influencing outpatient satisfaction (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The outpatient satisfaction of large hospitals is moderately low. Hospital managers could shorten the waiting time for outpatients and improve the access to treatment information to improve the satisfaction of outpatients. It is also necessary to enhance service provision for outpatients under the age of 18 as well as the first-time patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06520-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145824PMC
May 2021

Population Pharmacokinetics of Olanzapine and Samidorphan When Administered in Combination in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Schizophrenia.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Alkermes, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA.

A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development for treatment of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models for olanzapine and samidorphan were developed using data from 11 clinical studies in healthy subjects or patients with schizophrenia. A 2-compartment disposition model with first-order absorption and elimination and a lag time for absorption adequately described concentration-time profiles of both olanzapine and samidorphan. Age, sex, race, smoking status, and body weight were identified as covariates that impacted the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine. A moderate effect of body weight on samidorphan pharmacokinetics was identified by the model but was not considered clinically meaningful. The effects of food, hepatic or renal impairment, and coadministration with rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine and samidorphan, as estimated by the PopPK analysis, were consistent with findings from dedicated clinical studies designed to evaluate these specific covariates of interest. Food intake did not have a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine or samidorphan. Consistent with the known metabolic pathways for olanzapine (primarily via uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase [UGT]-mediated direct glucuronidation and cytochrome P450 [CYP]-mediated oxidation) and for samidorphan (predominately mediated by CYP3A4), coadministration of OLZ/SAM with rifampin, a strong inducer of CYP3A4 and an inducer of UGT enzymes, significantly decreased the systemic exposure of both olanzapine and samidorphan. Severe renal impairment or moderate hepatic impairment resulted in modest increase in olanzapine and samidorphan exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1911DOI Listing
May 2021

Induction of cyclophilin A by influenza A virus infection facilitates group A Streptococcus coinfection.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(7):109159

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Savaid Medical School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

During influenza A epidemics, bacterial coinfection is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality. However, the roles of host factors in regulating influenza A virus (IAV)-triggered bacterial coinfection remain elusive. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an important regulator of infection and immunity. Here, we show that IAV-induced CypA expression facilitates group A Streptococcus (GAS) coinfection both in vitro and in vivo. Upon IAV infection, CypA interacts with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and inhibited E3 ligase cCbl-mediated, K48-linked ubiquitination of FAK, which positively regulates integrin α5 expression and actin rearrangement via the FAK/Akt signaling pathway to facilitate GAS colonization and invasion. Notably, CypA deficiency or inhibition by cyclosporine A significantly inhibits IAV-triggered GAS coinfection in mice. Collectively, these findings reveal that CypA is critical for GAS infection, and induction of CypA expression is another way for IAV to promote bacterial coinfection, suggesting that CypA is a promising therapeutic target for the secondary bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109159DOI Listing
May 2021

Naringin-inlaid silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite scaffold enhances human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell-based bone regeneration.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 19:e13043. Epub 2021 May 19.

Tianjin Institute of Orthopedics in Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Objectives: Large bone defects are a common, debilitating clinical condition that have substantial global health and economic burden. Bone tissue engineering technology has become one of the most promising approaches for regenerating defective bones. In this study, we fabricated a naringin-inlaid composite silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (NG/SF/HAp) scaffold to repair bone defects.

Materials And Methods: The salt-leaching technology was used to fabricate the NG/SF/HAp scaffold. The cytocompatibility of the NG/SF/HAp scaffold was assessed using scanning electron microscopy, live/dead cell staining and phalloidin staining. The osteogenic and angiogenic properties were assessed in vitro and in vivo.

Results: The porous NG/SF/HAp scaffold had a well-designed biomimetic porous structure with osteoinductive and angiogenic activities. A gene microarray identified 854 differentially expressed genes between human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) cultured on SF-nHAp scaffolds and cells cultured on NG/SF/HAp scaffolds. The underlying osteoblastic mechanism was investigated using hUCMSCs in vitro. Naringin facilitated hUCMSC ingrowth into the SF/HAp scaffold and promoted osteogenic differentiation. The osteogenic and angiogenic capabilities of cells cultured in the NG/SF/HAp scaffold were superior to those of cells cultured in the SF/HAp scaffold.

Conclusions: The data indicate the potential of the SF/HAp composite scaffold incorporating naringin for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13043DOI Listing
May 2021

SLFN2 protection of tRNAs from stress-induced cleavage is essential for T cell-mediated immunity.

Science 2021 05;372(6543)

Center for the Genetics of Host Defense, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase in activated T cells because of metabolic activity induced to support T cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that these ROS trigger an oxidative stress response that leads to translation repression. This response is countered by Schlafen 2 (SLFN2), which directly binds transfer RNAs (tRNAs) to protect them from cleavage by the ribonuclease angiogenin. T cell-specific SLFN2 deficiency results in the accumulation of tRNA fragments, which inhibit translation and promote stress-granule formation. Interleukin-2 receptor β (IL-2Rβ) and IL-2Rγ fail to be translationally up-regulated after T cell receptor stimulation, rendering SLFN2-deficient T cells insensitive to interleukin-2's mitogenic effects. SLFN2 confers resistance against the ROS-mediated translation-inhibitory effects of oxidative stress normally induced by T cell activation, permitting the robust protein synthesis necessary for T cell expansion and immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aba4220DOI Listing
May 2021

The relationship between crosslinking structure and silk fibroin scaffold performance for soft tissue engineering.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 10;182:1268-1277. Epub 2021 May 10.

International Research Center for Advanced Structural and Biomaterials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Biologically active scaffolds with tunable mechano- and bio-performance remain desirable for soft tissue engineering. Previously, highly elastic and robust silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds were prepared via cryogelation. In order to get more insight into the role of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) on the structure and properties of SF scaffolds, we investigated the fate of SF scaffolds with different usages of the crosslinking agent in vitro and in vivo. Although SF scaffolds with varied EGDE contents showed similar micro-morphology, increasing EGDE from 1 mmol/g to 5 mmol/g resulted in firstly increased and later decreased content of β-sheet conformation, and linearly increased tensile modulus and decreased elasticity. The dual-crosslinked SF scaffolds with EGDE up to 5 mmol/g did not show in vitro cytotoxicity for NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In vivo subcutaneous implantation of SF scaffolds with <3 mmol/g EGDE displayed excellent degradation behavior and tissue ingrowth after 28 days of implantation. However, with ≥3 mmol/g EGDE, SF scaffolds exhibited obvious post-implantation foreign body reactions, probably associated with slow degradation due to excess chemical crosslinks and less mechanical compatibility. These results suggest that an appropriate dosage of crosslinking agent was critical to achieve balanced mechanical properties, degradability in vivo and immuno-properties of the SF scaffold platform for soft tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.058DOI Listing
May 2021

Regulatory T Cells and Diabetes Mellitus.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese Ministry of Health and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Immune system dysfunction causes dysregulation of immune homeostasis, which in turn leads to autoimmune diseases. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specialized T cell subpopulation that maintain peripheral tolerance and immune homeostasis. Diabetic patients are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases; thus, in terms of coronary risk, diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered coronary heart disease equivalent. Accumulating evidence indicates that Tregs play an important role in protecting against the development of various cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of Tregs in the pathogenesis of DM, including type 1 DM, type 2 DM, latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, and gestational DM. In addition, we discuss the role of Tregs in diabetic complications, including cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Tregs play a beneficial role in the pathogenesis of DM and diabetic complications, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of Tregs against DM are still obscure. Collectively, modification of Tregs may provide a promising and novel future strategy for the prevention and therapy of DM and diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2021.024DOI Listing
June 2021

Integration of Ni Doping and a MoC/MoC Heterojunction for Hydrogen Evolution in Acidic and Alkaline Conditions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11;13(19):22646-22654. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164, China.

Although nonprecious metal catalysts based on earth-abundant 3d transition metals (TMs) are regarded as promising substitutes for a noble metal electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), their large-scale application is still inhibited by their inadequate activity and durability. Here, a facile method for nonprecious metal catalysts has been developed to prepare molybdenum carbide on nitrogen-doped carbon. By optimizing the Ni doping ratio, the [email protected]/NC exhibits the lowest overpotential for 10 mA cm and superior stability in both acidic and alkaline media for HER application, outperforming most of the reported HER electrocatalysts. In addition, a theoretical simulation has also confirmed the possible mechanism for the synergistic effect with the regulative adsorption energy of hydrogen species with Ni doping and formation of a MoC/MoC heterojunction in the [email protected]/NC electrocatalyst. Therefore, this work provides a new avenue for designing two-dimensional nanostructures with an optimized electronic structure for promising TM HER electrocatalysts in a wide pH range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04989DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhanced degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B by photocatalysis integrated with micro-electrolysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

The microwave electrodeless lamp UV photocatalysis (MWUV) integrated with iron carbon micro-electrolysis (ME) was applied to degrade reactive brilliant red X-3B. In the present study, the removal rate of X-3B by MWUV/ME was 95%, which was significantly higher than 56% of MWUV and 62% of ME system. The experiment results demonstrated a synergistic effect in MWUV/ME system, wherein the ME system played an important role in color removal and the formation of ·OH in photocatalysis contributed most for the mineralization of X-3B and its intermediates. The removal efficiency of TOC was 32%, 7.5%, and 59.5% under MWUV, ME, and MWUV/ME processes at the end of the reaction, respectively. The Fe existed in the system was an enhancer of producing ·OH via self-generation of ·OH by UV irradiation or improving the separation of electron-hole in photocatalysis by capturing the electrons. Therefore, the combined treatment of MWUV and ME system has the potential of synergistic effect compared to the separate process. Lowering the initial solution pH and increasing the iron filing dosage and dissolved oxygen were beneficial for the enhancement of degradation efficiency. The inorganic anions showed a diversity influencing the degradation of X-3B. NO, CO, and SO (at higher concentration) promoted the degradation reaction, while Cl had non-significant effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14205-wDOI Listing
May 2021

CYLD deficiency causes auditory neuropathy due to reduced neurite outgrowth.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jun 2;35(6):e23783. Epub 2021 May 2.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Auditory neuropathy is a cause of hearing loss that has been studied in a number of animal models. Signal transmission from hair cells to spiral ganglion neurons plays an important role in normal hearing. CYLD is a microtubule-binding protein, and deubiquitinase involved in the regulation of various cellular processes. In this study, we used Cyld knockout (KO) mice and nerve cell lines to examine whether CYLD is associated with auditory neuropathy.

Methods: Hearing of Cyld KO mice was studied using the TDT RZ6 auditory physiology workstation. The expression and localization of CYLD in mouse cochlea and cell lines were examined by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence. CYLD expression was knocked down in SH-SY5Y cells by shRNAs and in PC12 and N2A cells by siRNAs. Nerve growth factor and retinoic acid were used to induce neurite outgrowth, and the occurrence and length of neurites were statistically analyzed between knockdown and control groups.

Results: Cyld KO mice had mild hearing impairment. Moreover, CYLD was widely expressed in mouse cochlear tissues and different nerve cell lines. Knocking down CYLD significantly reduced the length and proportion of neurites growing from nerve cells.

Conclusions: The abnormal hearing of Cyld KO mice might be caused by a decrease in the length and number of neurites growing from auditory nerve cells in the cochlea, suggesting that CYLD is a key protein affecting hearing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183908PMC
June 2021

MGA Mutation as a Novel Biomarker for Immune Checkpoint Therapies in Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:625593. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pathology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the treatment landscape for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, only a small proportion of patients experience clinical benefit from ICIs. Thus, the discovery of predictive biomarkers is urgently warranted. Evidence have shown that genetic aberrations in cancer cells can modulate the tumor immune milieu. We therefore explored the association between oncogenic mutations and efficacy to ICIs in non-squamous NSCLC. We curated genomic and clinical data of 314 non-squamous NSCLC patients receiving ICIs from four independent studies for the discovery cohort. For external validation, 305 patients from an ICI-treated cohort and 1,027 patients from two non-ICI-treated cohorts were used. Relations between oncogenic mutations and outcomes of immunotherapy were examined. Multivariate Cox regression models were applied to adjust confounding factors. Further investigation on tumor antigenicity and antitumor immunity was performed in The Cancer Genome Atlas lung adenocarcinoma cohort. A total of 82 oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes according to the Oncology Knowledge base database with a frequency greater than 3% were identified and investigated in the discovery cohort. Within these genes, MGA mutations were enriched in patients with durable clinical benefit ( = 0.001, false discovery rate < 0.05). The objective response rate was also significantly higher in patients with MGA mutation (2.63-fold, < 0.001, FDR < 0.05). Longer progression-free survival was found in MGA-mutated patients (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.23-0.73; = 0.003), and the association remained significant after controlling for tumor mutational burden (TMB), programmed cell death ligand-1 expression, and treatment regimens. In the validation cohort, significant improvement in overall survival was found in patients harboring MGA mutation (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.88; = 0.02). Furthermore, the survival difference was not detected in non-ICI-treated cohorts. We also demonstrated that MGA mutation correlate with higher TMB, elevated neoantigen load and DNA damage repair deficiency. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that gene sets regarding activated immune responses were enriched in MGA-mutated tumors. Our work provides evidence that MGA mutation can be used as a novel predictive biomarker for ICI response in non-squamous NSCLC and merits further clinical and preclinical validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.625593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076956PMC
April 2021

Novel WS /Fe S Hierarchical Nanosphere as a Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266042, P. R. China.

Fe S with high reactivity and stability was incorporated into WS nanosheets via a one-step solvothermal method for the first time. The resulted hybrid catalyst has much higher catalytic activity than WS and Fe S alone, and the optimal WS /Fe S hybrid catalyst was found by adjusting the feed ratio. The addition of Fe S was proven to be able to enhance the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity of WS , and vice versa. At the same time, it was found that the catalytic effect of the hybrid catalyst was the best when the feed ratio was W : Fe=2 : 1. In other words, we confirmed that there is a synergistic effect between W- and Fe-based sulfide hybrid catalysts, and validated that the reason for the improved HER performance is the strong interaction between the two in the middle sulfur. WS /Fe S -2 hybrid catalyst leads to enhanced HER activity, which shows a low overpotential of ∼0.172 V at 10 mA cm , low Tafel slope of ∼53.47 mV/decade. This study supplies innovative synthesis of a highly active WS /Fe S hybrid catalyst for HER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202101182DOI Listing
April 2021

Fake and dishonest participant location scheme in secret image sharing.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 03;18(3):2473-2495

National University of Defense Technology, Hefei 230037, China.

A (k,n) threshold secret image sharing (SIS) scheme divides a secret image into n shadows. One can reconstruct the secret image only when holding k or more than k shadows but cannot know any information on the secret from fewer than k shadows. Based on this characteristic, SIS has been widely used in access control, information hiding, distributed storage and other areas. Verifiable SIS aims to prevent malicious behaviour by attackers through verifying the authenticity of shadows and previous works did not solve this problem well. Our contribution is that we proposed a verifiable SIS scheme which combined CRT-based SIS and (2,n+1) threshold visual secret sharing(VSS). Our scheme is applicable no matter whether there exists a third party dealer. And it is worth mentioning that when the dealer is involved, our scheme can not only detect fake participants, but also locate dishonest participants. In general, loose screening criterion and efficient encoding and decoding rate of CRT-based SIS guarantee high-efficiency shadows generation and low recovery computation complexity. The uncertainty of the bits used for screening prevents malicious behavior by dishonest participants. In addition, our scheme has the advantages of lossless recovery, no pixel expansion and precise detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021126DOI Listing
March 2021

High-throughput screening identifies established drugs as SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitors.

Protein Cell 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies and School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, 201210, China.

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (M), PLpro is responsible for processing the viral replicase polyprotein into functional units. Therefore, it is an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Here we discovered four compounds, YM155, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and GRL0617 that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 PLpro with IC values ranging from 1.39 to 5.63 μmol/L. These compounds also exhibit strong antiviral activities in cell-based assays. YM155, an anticancer drug candidate in clinical trials, has the most potent antiviral activity with an EC value of 170 nmol/L. In addition, we have determined the crystal structures of this enzyme and its complex with YM155, revealing a unique binding mode. YM155 simultaneously targets three "hot" spots on PLpro, including the substrate-binding pocket, the interferon stimulating gene product 15 (ISG15) binding site and zinc finger motif. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of this screening and repurposing strategy, which has led to the discovery of new drug leads with clinical potential for COVID-19 treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13238-021-00836-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052528PMC
April 2021

Meta-analysis of Association Studies of Selenoprotein Gene Polymorphism and Kashin-Beck Disease: an Updated Systematic Review.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Environment and Health Innovation Team, 100 Kexue Avenue, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, People's Republic of China.

To evaluate the association between selenoprotein gene polymorphisms and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) susceptibility through a systematic review and updated meta-analysis. PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were electronically searched using the terms "selenoprotein" and "Kashin-Beck disease" or "KBD" with a search time from the establishment of the database to January 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used for methodological quality evaluation of the included studies. Stata 14.0 software was used to pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval. There were a total of eight included case-control studies covering 2025 KBD patients and 1962 controls. Meta-analysis results show that the pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for DIO2 (rs225014) were 0.69 (0.52, 0.91), 0.69 (0.50, 0.96), and 0.72 (0.52, 0.99) in the allele, heterozygote, and dominant models, respectively. The OR and 95%CI for SEPS1 (-105G>A) were 2.47 (1.85, 3.29), 9.36 (4.58, 19.12), 2.17 (1.53, 3.08), and 8.60 (4.25, 17.38) in the allele, homozygote, dominant, and recessive models, respectively. In addition, the OR and 95%CI for Sep15 (rs5859) were 2.05 (1.06, 3.96) in the allele model. These results illustrate that there was a significant association between DIO2 (rs225014), SEPS1 (-105G>A), Sep15 (rs5859), and KBD. For GPX1 (rs1050450, rs1800668, rs3811699), DIO2 (rs225014, rs1352815, rs1388382), TrxR2 (rs1139793, rs5746841), GPX4 (rs713041, rs4807542), and SEPP1 (rs7579, 25191g/a), there was no significant statistical difference between the KBD and control groups (P>0.05). We conclude that the DIO2 (rs225014), SEPS1 (-105G>A), and Sep15 (rs5859) gene polymorphism are associated with susceptibility to KBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02705-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Deployment of a bioabsorbable plate as the rigid buttress for skull base repair after endoscopic pituitary surgery.

Gland Surg 2021 Mar;10(3):1010-1017

Department of Neurosurgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Bioresorbable alloplastic implants have become desirable as a rigid buttress for reconstructing skull base defects. This study aimed to describe the use of a biodegradable plate (PolyMax RAPID) in skull base repair of endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery and to investigate the clinical outcome and safety of this novel method.

Methods: Between January 2019 and January 2020, 22 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent endoscopic skull base repair with a Polymax RAPID plate were included. After endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, a trimmed bioresorbable plate was placed in the position between the dura and the bone of the skull base to reconstruct the sellar floor and buttress the pituitary gland and sellar packing. The patient demographics, radiologic imaging, and postoperative outcomes were carefully reviewed. All patients were followed up by a routine nasal endoscopic assessment and radiologic examinations.

Results: The present study comprised 10 (45.5%) males and 12 (54.4%) females with an average age of 51.9 years. There were 7 (31.8%) growth hormone (GH) secreting adenomas, 2 (9.1%) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting adenomas, and 13 (59.1%) non-functioning adenomas. Enlarged sellar floor and paranasal sinusitis were seen in 13 (59.1%) and 11 (50.0%) cases shown by preoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. There were 6 (27.3%) grade-1 and 16 (72.7%) grade-0 cases by intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak grading. None of these patients received lumbar drains postoperatively and no postoperative CSF rhinorrhea was detected in our series. The PolyMax RAPID plates which could be clearly identified on postoperative CT or sagittal T1-weighted MRI were shown to provide an ideal rigid buttress for sellar repair.

Conclusions: The Polymax RAPID plate can be an optimal implant to achieve rigid repair of sellar floor defects after endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-20-642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033064PMC
March 2021

Efficacy and safety of moxibustion for menstrual irregularities: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25281

Jiangxi Province Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine.

Background: Menstrual irregularities (MI) is 1 of the most common clinical gynaecological diseases, with abnormal menstrual cycles, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal pain before or during menstruation as the main clinical manifestations. In modern medicine, abnormalities in the function of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and ovaries can affect menstruation. Currently, hormone levels in the body are mostly regulated by hormonal drugs, but these drugs can lead to hormonal imbalance, which can lead to adverse reactions. Many clinical studies have reported that moxibustion has a good effect on MI treatment, but there is no relevant systematic review. So the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion in treating MI.

Methods: The following 8 electronic databases will be searched, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Wanfang Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literatures Database from their inception to 1 December 2020 without any restrictions. Researchers retrieve the literature and extracted the data, evaluation of research methods, quality of literature. The outcomes will include total effective rate, incidence of any adverse events. We use the Cochrane Risk of a bias assessment tool to evaluate methodological qualities. Data synthesis will be completed by RevMan 5.3.0.

Results: We will show the results of this study in a peer-reviewed journal.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis will provide reliable evidence for treatment of menstrual irregularities.

Inplasy Registration Number: INPLASY2020120042.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036072PMC
April 2021

Fabrication of 2D silicon nano-mold by side etch lift-off method.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 20;32(28). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and Systems of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People's Republic of China.

Nano-imprint technology is a method of nano-pattern reproduction, has the characteristics of high resolution, high throughput, and low-cost. It can reduce the complexity and cost of the equipment while improving the resolution, which considered a promising industrial production technology. The key to nanoimprinting lies in the mold, and the quality of the mold directly determines the quality of the imprinted graphics. Here, a method for fabricating sub-100 nm concave 2D silicon nano-mold by side etch lift-off is proposed. The effects of different wet etching time and the metal deposition angle on the width of nanochannels were studied. The measurement result of dry etching shows that on the entire 4 inch silicon wafer, the width of the nanochannel varies by 4% and the depth by 2%. The width of the nanochannel between chips varies by 0.7%, and the depth variation is 1%. With this new method, high-precision and large-scale silicon nano-mold can be produced, which has great potential for realizing high-precision and low-cost manufacturing of nano devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abf50eDOI Listing
April 2021