Publications by authors named "Lei Su"

424 Publications

GhADF6-mediated actin reorganization is associated with defence against Verticillium dahliae infection in cotton.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Several studies have revealed that actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) participate in plant defence responses; however, the functional mechanisms appear intricate and need further exploration. In this study, we identified an ADF6 gene in upland cotton (designated as GhADF6) that is evidently involved in cotton's response to the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. GhADF6 binds to actin filaments and possesses actin severing and depolymerizing activities in vitro and in vivo. When cotton root (the site of the fungus invasion) was inoculated with the pathogen, the expression of GhADF6 was markedly down-regulated in the epidermal cells. By virus-induced gene silencing analysis, the down-regulation of GhADF6 expression rendered the cotton plants tolerant to V. dahliae infection. Accordingly, the abundance of actin filaments and bundles in the root cells was significantly higher than that in the control plant, which phenocopied that of the V. dahliae-challenged wild-type cotton plant. Altogether, our results provide evidence that an increase in filament actin (F-actin) abundance as well as dynamic actin remodelling are required for plant defence against the invading pathogen, which are likely to be fulfilled by the coordinated expressional regulation of the actin-binding proteins, including ADF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13137DOI Listing
September 2021

Serum nitrite and nitrate: A potential biomarker for post-covid-19 complications?

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Aug 30;175:216-225. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardiovascular and immune systems. Quantification of blood nitrite and nitrate, two relatively stable metabolites of NO (generally as NO), has been acknowledged, in part, representing NO bioactivity. Dysregulation of NO had been reported in SARS-CoV-2 infected populations, but whether patients recovered from COVID-19 disease present with restored NO is unknown. In this study, serum NO and NO were quantified and analyzed among 109 recovered adults in comparison to a control group of 166 uninfected adults. Nitrite or nitrate levels were not significantly different among mild-, common-, severe- and critical-type patients. However, these recovered patients had dramatically lower NO and NO/NO than the uninfected group (p < 0.0001), with significantly higher NO levels (p = 0.0023) than the uninfected group. Nitrate and nitrite/nitrate were positively and negatively correlated with patient age, respectively, with age 65 being a turning point among recovered patients. These results indicate that low NO, low NO/NO and high NO may be potential biomarkers of long-term poor or irreversible outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection. It suggests that NO metabolites might serve as a predictor to track the health status of recovered COVID-19 patients, highlighting the need to elucidate the role of NO after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.08.237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404395PMC
August 2021

Semi-HIC: A novel semi-supervised deep learning method for histopathological image classification.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Aug 21;137:104788. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

School of Information Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 443 Huangshan Road, Hefei, 230027, China; Research Centers for Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, 443 Huangshan Road, Hefei, 230027, China. Electronic address:

Histopathological images provide a gold standard for cancer recognition and diagnosis. Existing approaches for histopathological image classification are supervised learning methods that demand a large amount of labeled data to obtain satisfying performance, which have to face the challenge of limited data annotation due to prohibitive time cost. To circumvent this shortage, a promising strategy is to design semi-supervised learning methods. Recently, a novel semi-supervised approach called Learning by Association (LA) is proposed, which achieves promising performance in nature image classification. However, there are still great challenges in its application to histopathological image classification due to the wide inter-class similarity and intra-class heterogeneity in histopathological images. To address these issues, we propose a novel semi-supervised deep learning method called Semi-HIC for histopathological image classification. Particularly, we introduce a new semi-supervised loss function combining an association cycle consistency (ACC) loss and a maximal conditional association (MCA) loss, which can take advantage of a large number of unlabeled patches and address the problems of inter-class similarity and intra-class variation in histopathological images, and thereby remarkably improve classification performance for histopathological images. Besides, we employ an efficient network architecture with cascaded Inception blocks (CIBs) to learn rich and discriminative embeddings from patches. Experimental results on both the Bioimaging 2015 challenge dataset and the BACH dataset demonstrate our Semi-HIC method compares favorably with existing deep learning methods for histopathological image classification and consistently outperforms the semi-supervised LA method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104788DOI Listing
August 2021

Strongly phosphorescent and water-soluble gold(I)-silver(I)-cysteine nanoplatelets via versatile small biomolecule cysteine-assisted synthesis for intracellular hypochlorite detection.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Aug 18;193:113571. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518060, PR China.

In biological systems, abnormal levels of hypochlorite (ClO) could result in cell dysfunctions. Herein, we report a facile, one-step and green approach based on the versatile small biomolecule cysteine both serving as reducing agent and ligand for synthesizing the strongly photoluminencent and water-soluble Au(I)-Ag(I)-cysteine complexes nanoplatelets (Au(I)-Ag(I)-Cys nanoplatelets) for intracellular hypochlorite detection. Multiple spectroscopic and microscopical tools have been used to characterize the resultant Au(I)-Ag(I)-Cys nanoplatelets. It was found that with the cysteine-assisted synthesis approach, the Ag(I) doping to the Au(I) complexes could form the supramolecular organometallic nanoplatelets. Inside, the Au(I)-Ag(I) metallophilic interactions showing an Au to Ag charge transfer property were formed, thereby enhancing the photoluminescence (PL) intensity via the charge transfer from the bioligand's S to the metal-metal center. The quantum yield (QY) was measured to show a maximum 16-fold enhancement (i.e., from 0.85 to 13.8%). Interestingly, in the presence of ClO, the metal-thiolate ligand structure of the as-synthesized Au(I)-Ag(I)-Cys nanoplatelets could be oxidatively damaged, causing the PL quenching, thereby producing the effect of biorecognition towards ClO anions. The ClO-induced PL quenching produced two linear regions at ClO concentrations of 0.01-5.0 μM and 5.0-1000 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.0 nM (S/N = 3). The ClO-induced PL quenching was specific over the other typical reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the potential interfering substances in biological samples. In addition, the Au(I)-Ag(I)-Cys nanoplatelets had good biocompatibility. Thus, they could be further developed as a biosensor for detecting endogenous ClO anions in living cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113571DOI Listing
August 2021

Radiation Effects in the Crystalline-Amorphous SiOC Polymer-Derived Ceramics: Insights from Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 12;13(33):40106-40117. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Molecular Sciences and Center for Materials of the Universe, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, United States.

Radiation-tolerant materials are in great demand for safe operation and advancement of nuclear and aerospace systems. Nanostructuring is a key strategy to improve the radiation tolerance of materials. SiOC polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) are unique synthetic nanocomposites consisting of β-SiC nanocrystals and turbostratic graphite distributed in amorphous SiOC matrix, which are "all-rounder" materials for many advanced structural and functional applications. Radiation effects in the crystalline-amorphous system have been investigated in detail by experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that the amorphous SiOC structure retains amorphous accompanied by redistribution of the Si-containing tetrahedra. The graphite is shown to amorphize more easily than β-SiC nanocrystals under the same irradiation condition. The sample richer in oxygen, namely, containing more amorphous SiOC, shows less disordering of graphite, resulting from greater mitigation of radiation damage by the amorphous phase as efficient sinks. This study provides details of the microstructure evolution of SiOC PDCs under ion irradiation, as well as insights for the design and development of advanced ion damage-resistant materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c10917DOI Listing
August 2021

Extract of Cynomorium songaricum ameliorates mitochondrial ultrastructure impairments and dysfunction in two different in vitro models of Alzheimer's disease.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Aug 9;21(1):206. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

School of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, but there is still no effective way to stop or slow its progression. Our previous studies demonstrated that extract of Cynomorium songaricum (ECS), a Chinese herbal medicine, had neuroprotective effects in AD models in vivo. However, the pharmacological mechanism of ECS in AD is still unclear.

Methods: To study the mechanisms of action of the effects of ECS on AD, we used Aβ and HO-exposed HT22 cells to mimic specific stages of AD in vitro. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular ATP, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression levels of mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins in each group were examined. Furthermore, we explored the mechanisms by which ECS reduces the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637 and the changes in the concentrations of intracellular calcium ions in the two models after FK506 intervention.

Results: The results showed that ECS significantly enhanced the MMP (P < 0.05), increased intracellular ATP levels (P < 0.05) and decreased intracellular ROS levels in the Aβ- and HO-induced cell models (P < 0.05). Additionally, ECS regulated the expression levels of mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins by reducing the phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser637 (P < 0.05) and decreasing the expression of Fis1 in the HO-induced models (P < 0.05). Further study indicated that ECS reduced the overload of intracellular calcium (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study results suggest that ECS protects the mitochondrial ultrastructure, ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintains mitochondrial dynamics in AD models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03375-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351341PMC
August 2021

Prognostic value of plasma exosomal levels of histone H3 protein in patients with heat stroke.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 30;22(3):922. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital of The Southern Theatre Command of The People's Liberation Army, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510010, P.R. China.

Heat stroke (HS) is a condition that can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death; however, there is no reliable method for stratifying mortality risk in HS. The abundance of exosomes in the circulation and their contents may be used as potential biomarkers of HS. The present study aimed to examine whether histone H3 levels in plasma exosomes could be used to determine HS prognosis. Blood samples were collected from patients with HS (36 survivors and 8 non-survivors) at admission to the intensive care unit and 4 days after admission. Blood samples were additionally collected from 15 healthy volunteers. Plasma exosomes were isolated using high-speed differential centrifugation. Correlation between histone H3 level and organ function and disease severity was examined. The results suggested differential expression and enrichment of histone H3 in the plasma exosomes of patients with HS (survivors, 249.3±04.6; non-survivors, 500.4±216.8; healthy controls, 161.1±52.49 pg/100 µg; P<0.05). The increased expression of histone H3 was associated with increased disease severity and duration. Plasma exosomal levels of histone H3 were significantly correlated with both organ dysfunction and disease severity (P<0.0001) and were significantly different between non-survivors and survivors (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.9668). A cutoff value of 307 pg/100 µg demonstrated optimized sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91.67%) for predicting mortality risk, suggesting that histone H3 levels in plasma exosomes may be a reliable biomarker for HS prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290468PMC
September 2021

Luminescent wearable biosensors based on gold nanocluster networks for "turn-on" detection of Uric acid, glucose and alcohol in sweat.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Nov 24;192:113530. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Research Center for Biosensor and Nanotheranostic, School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Guangdong, 518060, PR China. Electronic address:

From the difficulty of awareness of abnormal concentrations of biochemical indexes in people's daily life come wearable sensing technologies. Recently, luminescent wearable biosensors are emerging with simple fabrication, easy use, cost-effectivity and reliability. But several challenges should be taken up, such as availability of varied analytes, high sensitivity, stability of enzymes, photostability, low signal noises and recyclability of sensors. Here, the Luminescent Wearable Sweat Tape (LWST) biosensor is developed via embedding multi-component nanoprobes onto microwell-patterned paper substrates of hollowed-out double-side tapes. The nanoprobes consist of responsive luminophores, enzyme-loaded gold nanocluster (AuNCs) nano-networks, which are wrapped by the switch, MnO nanosheets. The responsive luminophores are constructed by 3 substitutable components: enzymes (uricase, GOx and alcohol dehydrogenase) for molecular target recognition, glutathione-protected AuNCs (yellow, red and green) for luminescent signal output and polycations PAH for integration. MnO NSs as the switch can quench the emission of the AuNCs but degraded by the reductive product of incorporated enzymes. Thus, targeting analysts (uric acid, glucose and alcohol) can be dose-dependently detected through "turn-on" luminescence approach. After incorporating the nanoprobes into hollow-out tapes, the formed LWST biosensors can detect uric acid, glucose and alcohol in sweat with the help of a smartphone. Subsequently, we primarily apply them into human daily life scenario, sampling from dine parties, and the positive relationships of analyte intakes and the increase of analytes in sweat are significant with individual difference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113530DOI Listing
November 2021

Recognition of Flexion and Extension Imagery Involving the Right and Left Arms Based on Deep Belief Network and Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

J Healthc Eng 2021 29;2021:5533565. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Brain Cognition and Brain-Computer Intelligence Integration Group, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

Brain-computer interaction based on motor imagery (MI) is an important brain-computer interface (BCI). Most methods for MI classification are based on electroencephalogram (EEG), and few studies have investigated signal processing based on MI-Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). In addition, there is a need to improve the classification accuracy for MI fNIRS methods. In this study, a deep belief network (DBN) based on a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) was used to classify fNIRS signals of flexion and extension imagery involving the left and right arms. fNIRS signals from 16 channels covering the motor cortex area were recorded for each of 10 subjects executing or imagining flexion and extension involving the left and right arms. Oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration was used as a feature to train two RBMs that were subsequently stacked with an additional softmax regression output layer to construct DBN. We also explored the DBN model classification accuracy for the test dataset from one subject using training dataset from other subjects. The average DBN classification accuracy for flexion and extension movement and imagery involving the left and right arms was 84.35 ± 3.86% and 78.19 ± 3.73%, respectively. For a given DBN model, better classification results are obtained for test datasets for a given subject when the model is trained using dataset from the same subject than when the model is trained using datasets from other subjects. The results show that the DBN algorithm can effectively identify flexion and extension imagery involving the right and left arms using fNIRS. This study is expected to serve as a reference for constructing online MI-BCI systems based on DBN and fNIRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5533565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263279PMC
June 2021

Fish Ingest Microplastics Unintentionally.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 08 23;55(15):10471-10479. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.

Microplastics (size of plastic debris <5 mm) occur in various environments worldwide these days and cause detrimental effects on biota. However, the behavioral responses of fish to microplastics in feeding processes are not well understood. In the present study, juveniles from four fish species and two common shapes of microplastics were used to explore fish feeding responses. We found swallowing-feeding fish ingested more pellets than filtering- and sucking-feeding fish. With high-definition and high-speed observational experiments, we found that all species did not actively capture microfibers; instead, they passively sucked in microfibers while breathing. Surprisingly, fish showed a rejective behavior, which was spontaneously coughing up microfibers mixed with mucus. Nevertheless, some of the microfibers were still found in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills of fish, while abundances of ingested microfibers were increased in the presence of food. Our findings reveal a common phenomenon that fish ingest microplastics inadvertently rather than intentionally. We also provide insights into the pathways via which microplastics enter fish and potential strategies to assess future ecological risk and food safety related to microplastics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01753DOI Listing
August 2021

Decoding of Motor Coordination Imagery Involving the Lower Limbs by the EEG-Based Brain Network.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 23;2021:5565824. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Brain Cognition and Brain-computer Intelligence Integration Group, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

Compared with the efficacy of traditional physical therapy, a new therapy utilizing motor imagery can induce brain plasticity and allows partial recovery of motor ability in patients with hemiplegia after stroke. Here, we proposed an updated paradigm utilizing motor coordination imagery involving the lower limbs (normal gait imagery and hemiplegic gait imagery after stroke) and decoded such imagery via an electroencephalogram- (EEG-) based brain network. Thirty subjects were recruited to collect EEGs during motor coordination imagery involving the lower limbs. Time-domain analysis, power spectrum analysis, time-frequency analysis, brain network analysis, and statistical analysis were used to explore the neural mechanisms of motor coordination imagery involving the lower limbs. Then, EEG-based brain network features were extracted, and a support vector machine was used for decoding. The results showed that the two employed motor coordination imageries mainly activated sensorimotor areas; the frequency band power was mainly concentrated within theta and alpha bands, and brain functional connections mainly occurred in the right forehead. The combination of the network attributes of the EEG-based brain network and the spatial features of the adjacency matrix had good separability for the two kinds of gait imagery ( < 0.05), and the average classification accuracy of the combination feature was 92.96% ± 7.54%. Taken together, our findings suggest that brain network features can be used to identify normal gait imagery and hemiplegic gait imagery after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5565824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245246PMC
July 2021

Exosomes Derived From Heat Stroke Cases Carry miRNAs Associated With Inflammation and Coagulation Cascade.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:624753. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, General Hospital of Southern Theatre Command of PLA, Guangzhou, China.

The pathological mechanism underlying heat stroke (HS) is associated with the dysbalanced inflammation and coagulation cascade. Cell-derived circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), as a novel pathway mediating intercellular communication, are associated with the immune response and inflammation in critical inflammatory syndromes, such as sepsis. Although these vesicles contain genetic material correlated with their biological function, their molecular cargo during HS remains unknown. In this study, we evaluate the presence of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) associated with inflammatory responses and coagulation cascade in exosomes of patients with HS. Blood samples were collected from three patients with HS at the time of admission to the intensive care unit; three healthy volunteers were selected as control. Exosomes were isolated using ultracentrifugation, and their miRNA content was profiled using next-generation sequencing; mRNA content was evaluated using qPCR array. Compared with those from healthy volunteers, exosomes from patients with HS showed substantial changes in the expression of 202 exosomal miRNAs (154 upregulated and 48 downregulated miRNAs). The most upregulated miRNAs included miR-511-3p, miR-122-5p, miR-155-3p, miR-1290, and let7-5p, whereas the most downregulated ones included miR-150-3p, 146a-5p, and 151a-3p. Gene ontology enrichment of the miRNAs of patients with HS compared with control subjects were associated mostly with inflammatory response, including T cell activation, B cell receptor signaling, dendritic cell chemotaxis and leukocyte migration, and platelet activation and blood coagulation. The identified miRNAs were primarily enriched to the signal transduction pathways namely, T cell receptor signaling, Ras signaling, chemokine signaling, platelet activation, and leukocyte transendothelial migration, all of which are associated with inflammation and hemostasis. Multiple targeted mRNAs associated with the inflammatory response, blood coagulation, and platelet activation were further verified in serum exosomes. Exosomes from patients with HS convey miRNAs and mRNAs associated with pathogenic pathways, including inflammatory response and coagulation cascade. Exosomes may represent a novel mechanism for intercellular communication during HS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.624753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259592PMC
September 2021

Amplified antitumor efficacy by a targeted drug retention and chemosensitization strategy-based "combo" nanoagent together with PD-L1 blockade in reversing multidrug resistance.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jul 5;19(1):200. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Ultrasound, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, People's Republic of China.

Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical factor in the low efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. The main mechanism of MDR arises from the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which actively enhances drug efflux and limits the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents.

Results: In this study, we fabricated a "combo" nanoagent equipping with triple synergistic strategies for enhancing antitumor efficacy against MDR cells. Tumor homing-penetrating peptide endows the nanosystem with targeting and penetrating capabilities in the first stage of tumor internalization. The abundant amine groups of polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified nanoparticles then trigger a proton sponge effect to promote endo/lysosomal escape, which enhances the intracellular accumulation and retention of anticancer drugs. Furthermore, copper tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (CuTCPP) encapsulated in the nanosystem, effectively scavenges endogenous glutathione (GSH) to reduce the detoxification mediated by GSH and sensitize the cancer cells to drugs, while simultaneously serving as a photoacoustic imaging (PAI) contrast agent for image visualization. Moreover, we also verify that these versatile nanoparticles in combination with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapy can not only activate immunological responses but also inhibit P-gp expression to obliterate primary and metastatic tumors.

Conclusion: This work shows a significant enhancement in therapeutic efficacy against MDR cells and syngeneic tumors by using multiple MDR reversing strategies compared to an equivalent dose of free paclitaxel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00947-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256488PMC
July 2021

Radiomics Score Combined with ACR TI-RADS in Discriminating Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules Based on Ultrasound Images: A Retrospective Study.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jun 1;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, China.

This study aimed to explore the ability of combination model of ultrasound radiomics score (Rad-score) and the thyroid imaging, reporting and data system by the American College of Radiology (ACR TI-RADS) in predicting benign and malignant thyroid nodules (TNs). Up to 286 radiomics features were extracted from ultrasound images of TNs. By using the lowest probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE + ACC) and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), we finally selected four features to establish Rad-score (Vertl-RLNonUni, Vertl-GLevNonU, WavEnLH-s4 and WavEnHL-s5). DeLong's test and decision curve analysis (DCA) showed that the method of combining Rad-score and ACR TI-RADS had the best performance (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.913 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.881-0.939) and 0.899 (95%CI, 0.840-0.942) in the training group and verification group, respectively), followed by ACR TI-RADS (AUC = 0.898 (95%CI, 0.863-0.926) and 0.870 (95%CI, 0.806-0.919) in the training group and verification group, respectively), and followed by Rad-score (AUC = 0.750 (95%CI, 0.704-0.792) and 0.750 (95%CI, 0.672-0.817) in the training group and verification group, respectively). We concluded that the ability of ultrasound Rad-score to distinguish benign and malignant TNs was not as good as that of ACR TI-RADS, and the ability of the combination model of Rad-score and ACR TI-RADS to discriminate benign and malignant TNs was better than ACR TI-RADS or Rad-score alone. Ultrasound Rad-score might play a potential role in improving the differentiation of malignant TNs from benign TNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11061011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229428PMC
June 2021

Structural and Functional Alterations in Visual Pathway After Optic Neuritis in MOG Antibody Disease: A Comparative Study With AQP4 Seropositive NMOSD.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:673472. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Neuroinflammation, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Optic neuritis (ON) is an important clinical manifestation of neuromyelitis optic spectrum disease (NMOSD). Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-related and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody-related ON show different disease patterns. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in structure and function of the visual pathway in patients with ON associated with MOG and AQP4 antibodies. In this prospective study, we recruited 52 subjects at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, including 11 with MOG Ig+ ON (MOG-ON), 13 with AQP4 Ig+ ON (AQP4-ON), and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) of optic radiation (OR), primary visual cortex volume (V1), brain volume, and visual acuity (VA) were compared among groups. A multiple linear regression was used to explore associations between VA and predicted factors. In addition, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to examine thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and retinal ganglion cell complex (GCC) in a separate cohort consisting of 15 patients with ON (8 MOG-ON and 7 AQP4-ON) and 28 HCs. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that the FA of OR was lower than controls in patients with AQP4-ON ( = 0.001) but not those with MOG-ON ( = 0.329) and was significantly different between the latter two groups ( = 0.005), while V1 was similar in patients with MOG-ON and AQP4-ON ( = 0.122), but was lower than controls in AQP4-ON ( = 0.002) but not those with MOG-ON ( = 0.210). The VA outcomes were better in MOG-ON than AQP4-ON, and linear regression analysis revealed that VA in MOG-ON and AQP4-ON was both predicted by the FA of OR (standard β = -0.467 and -0.521, = 0.036 and 0.034). Both patients of MOG-ON and AQP4-ON showed neuroaxonal damage in the form of pRNFL and GCC thinning but showed no statistically significant difference ( = 0.556, 0.817). The structural integrity of OR in patients with MOG-ON, which is different from the imaging manifestations of AQP4-ON, may be a reason for the better visual outcomes of patients with MOG-ON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.673472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220215PMC
June 2021

Expression status and prognostic value of the perilipin family of genes in breast cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):4450-4463. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Oncology, Liuzhou People's Hospital Liuzhou 545001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

Background: The Perilipin (PLIN) family of genes were previously shown to be involved in the formation and degradation of Lipid Droplets (LDs). In addition, they may play important roles in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, the prognostic value of PLIN family members in breast cancer patients remains unclear.

Methods: Mutations and copy number alterations of PLIN family genes in breast cancer were examined using the cBioportal for Cancer Genomics. In addition, the expression patterns of PLIN family genes were explored using the UCSC Xena online tool. Finally, the Kaplan-Meier Plotter was used to investigate the prognostic value of PLIN family genes in breast cancer.

Results: The findings revealed a low frequency of genetic alterations and amplification was the most frequent change in the PLIN family genes. Additionally, there was an increase in the expression of Perilipin 3 (PLIN3) in breast cancer tissues compared to normal breast tissues. However, expression of the other genes in the PLIN family was significantly lower in breast cancer tissues compared to normal breast tissues. Moreover, there was an increase in the expression levels of Perilipin 1 (PLIN1), PLIN3, Perilipin 4 (PLIN4) and Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) in the luminal A and luminal B subgroups. On the other hand, the expression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) was elevated in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive and basal-like subgroups. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier Plotter analysis demonstrated that high expression of PLIN1 might predict a longer Overall Survival (OS) in patients with breast cancer while overexpression of PLIN2 indicated poor OS of breast cancer patients.

Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that genes in the PLIN family were aberrantly expressed in breast cancer and may serve as novel therapeutic targets as well as prognostic biomarkers for the disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205812PMC
May 2021

Stretchable and Compressible Si N Nanofiber Sponge with Aligned Microstructure for Highly Efficient Particulate Matter Filtration under High-Velocity Airflow.

Small 2021 07 3;17(26):e2100556. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, P. R. China.

Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most severe air pollutants and poses a threat to human health. Air filters with high filtration efficiency applied to the source of PM are an effective way to reduce pollution. However, many of the present filtration materials usually fail because of their high pressure drop under high-velocity airflow and poor thermal stability at high temperatures. Herein, a highly porous Si N nanofiber sponge (Si N NFS) assembled by aligned and well-interconnected Si N nanofibers is designed and fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The resulting ultralight Si N NFS (2.69 mg cm ) processes temperature-invariant reversible strechability (10% strain) and compressibility (50% strain), which enables its mechanical robustness under high-velocity airflow. The highly porous and aligned microstructure result in a Si N NFS with high filtration efficiency for PM (99.97%) and simultaneous low pressure drop (340 Pa, only <0.33% of atmospheric pressure) even under a high gas flow velocity (8.72 m s ) at a high temperature (1000 °C). Furthermore, the Si N NFS air filter exhibits good long-term service ability and recyclability. Such Si N NFS with aligned microstructures for highly efficient gas filters provides new perspectives for the design and preparation of high-performance filtration materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100556DOI Listing
July 2021

[Human factors engineering of brain-computer interface and its applications: Human-centered brain-computer interface design and evaluation methodology].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(2):210-223

School of Information Engineering and Automation, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, P.R.China.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a revolutionizing human-computer Interaction, which is developing towards the direction of intelligent brain-computer interaction and brain-computer intelligent integration. However, the practical application of BCI is facing great challenges. The maturity of BCI technology has not yet reached the needs of users. The traditional design method of BCI needs to be improved. It is necessary to pay attention to BCI human factors engineering, which plays an important role in narrowing the gap between research and practical application, but it has not attracted enough attention and has not been specifically discussed in depth. Aiming at BCI human factors engineering, this article expounds the design requirements (from users), design ideas, objectives and methods, as well as evaluation indexes of BCI with the human-centred-design. BCI human factors engineering is expected to make BCI system design under different use conditions more in line with human characteristics, abilities and needs, improve the user satisfaction of BCI system, enhance the user experience of BCI system, improve the intelligence of BCI, and make BCI move towards practical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202101093DOI Listing
April 2021

A novel mutation of WFS1 gene leading to increase ER stress and cell apoptosis is associated an autosomal dominant form of Wolfram syndrome type 1.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Apr 21;21(1):76. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, P. R. China.

Background: Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness. Mutations in Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene may cause dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and cell apoptosis, contributing to WS symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of a case of WS and to explore the functional consequence of the mutant WFS1 gene in vitro.

Methods: A 27 years-old Chinese man was diagnosed as wolfram syndrome type 1 based on clinical data and laboratory data. DNA sequencing of WFS1 gene and mitochondrial m.3337G > A, m.3243A > G mutations were performed in the patient and his 4 family members. Functional analysis was performed to assessed the in vitro effect of the newly identified mutant. ER stress were evaluated by ER stress response element (ERSE)-luciferase assay. Cell apoptosis were performed by CCK-8, TUNEL staining and flow cytometric analysis.

Results: A novel heterozygous 10-base deletion (c. 2067_2076 del10, p.W690fsX706) was identified in the patient. In vitro studies showed that mutant p.W690fsX706 increased ERSE reporter activity in the presence or absence of thapsigargin instead of wild type WFS1. Knockdown of WFS1 activated the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and increased the cell apoptosis, which could not be restored by transfection with WFS1 mutant (p.W690fsX706) comparable to the wild type WFS1.

Conclusions: A novel heterozygous mutation of WFS1 detected in the patient resulted in loss-of-function of wolframin, thereby inducing dysregulated ER stress signaling and cell apoptosis. These findings increase the spectrum of WFS1 gene mutations and broaden our insights into the roles of mutant WFS1 in the pathogenesis of WS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00748-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059287PMC
April 2021

Impact of the gut microbiota on heat stroke rat mediated by Xuebijing metabolism.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 20;155:104861. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The First Clinical Medical College, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Critical Care Medicine, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome and serum metabolites in Xuebijing (XBJ)-injected rats after heat stroke using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics. Eighteen rats were divided into the control group (CON), heat stroke group (HS), and XBJ group. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results revealed that the abundance of Bacteroidetes was overrepresented in the XBJ group compared to the HS group, while Actinobacteria was underrepresented. Metabolomic profiling showed that the pyrimidine metabolism pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway were upregulated in the XBJ group compared to the HS group. Taken together, these results demonstrated that heat stroke not only altered the gut microbiome community structure of rats but also greatly affected metabolic functions, leading to gut microbiome toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104861DOI Listing
June 2021

Time-Dependent Elastic Tensor of Cellulose Nanocrystal Probed by Hydrostatic Pressure and Uniaxial Stretching.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 15;12(15):3779-3785. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CERMAV, 38000 Grenoble, France.

The elastic properties of crystals are fundamental for structural material. However, in the absence of macroscopic single crystals, the experimental determination of the elastic tensor is challenging because the measurement depends on the transmission of stress inside the material. To avoid arbitrary hypotheses about stress transfer, we combine hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial-stretching experiments to investigate the elastic properties of cellulose I. Three orthogonal compressibilities are 50.0, 6.6, and 1.71 TPa. Combining Poisson's ratios from a uniaxial stretching experiment directly gives the Young's modulus along the chain direction (). However, Poisson's ratio depends on the deformation rate leading to apparent modulus = 113 GPa using a slow cycle (hours) and 161 GPa using a fast cycle (minutes). The lattice deformation along the chain is not time-dependent, so the off-diagonal elements are time-dependent on the scale of minutes to hours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00576DOI Listing
April 2021

Alternating Multilayered SiN/SiC Aerogels for Broadband and High-Temperature Electromagnetic Wave Absorption up to 1000 °C.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 2;13(14):16704-16712. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Lightweight electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers made of ceramics have sparked tremendous interest for applications in EM wave interference protection at high temperatures. However, EM wave absorption by pure ceramics still faces huge challenges due to the lack of efficient EM wave attenuation modes. Inspired by the energy dissipation mechanism during fracture of lobster shells with a soft and stiff multilayered structure, we fabricate a high-performance EM wave absorption ceramic aerogel composed of an alternating multilayered wave transparent SiN (N) layer and wave absorption SiC (C) layer by a simple restack method. The obtained N/C aerogel shows ultralow density (∼8 mg/cm), broad effective absorption bandwidth (8.4 GHz), strong reflection loss (-45 dB) at room temperature, and excellent EM wave absorption performance at high temperatures up to 1000 °C. The attenuation of EM wave mainly results from a "reflection-absorption-zigzag reflection" process caused by the alternating multilayered structure. The superior absorption performance, especially at high temperatures, makes the N/C aerogel promising for next-generation wave absorption devices served in high-temperature environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02906DOI Listing
April 2021

Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Vinylation of Chloro-hexahydropyrroloindoline Derivatives with Vinyl Triflates.

Org Lett 2021 04 18;23(7):2493-2497. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Center for Supramolecular Chemistry and Catalysis and Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

This work emphasizes facile construction of C-3a vinyl substituted hexahydropyrrolidinoindolines based upon Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of chloro-hexahydropyrroloindoline derivatives with a wide range of alkyl-decorated vinyl triflates. The remarkable compatibility of sterically hindered branched vinyl groups is highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00431DOI Listing
April 2021

[ARTICLE WITHDRAWN] UV-Assisted Room Temperature Gas Sensing with ZnO-Ag Heterostructure Nanocrystals Studied by Photoluminescence.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 09;21(9):4865-4869

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333403, China.

THIS ARTICLE WAS WITHDRAWN BY THE PUBLISHER IN APR 2021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19121DOI Listing
September 2021

Chemical sectioning fluorescence tomography: high-throughput, high-contrast, multicolor, whole-brain imaging at subcellular resolution.

Cell Rep 2021 02;34(5):108709

Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China; MoE Key Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics, School of Engineering Sciences, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China. Electronic address:

A thorough neuroanatomical study of the brain architecture is crucial for understanding its cellular compositions, connections, and working mechanisms. However, the fine- and multiscale features of neuron structures make it challenging for microscopic imaging, as it requires high contrast and high throughput simultaneously. Here, we propose chemical sectioning fluorescence tomography (CSFT) to solve this problem. By chemically switching OFF/ON the fluorescent state of the labeled proteins (FPs), we light only the top layer as thin as submicron for imaging without background interference. Combined with the wide-field fluorescence micro-optical sectioning tomography (fMOST) system, we have shown multicolor CSFT imaging. We also demonstrate mouse whole-brain imaging at the subcellular resolution, as well as the power for quantitative acquisition of synaptic-connection-related pyramidal dendritic spines and axon boutons on the brain-wide scale at the complete single-neuron level. We believe that the CSFT method would greatly facilitate our understanding of the brain-wide neuron networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108709DOI Listing
February 2021

Risk Factors for Postoperative Myasthenic Crisis After Thymectomy in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis.

J Surg Res 2021 06 30;262:1-5. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The objective of this study is to characterize postoperative myasthenic crisis (POMC), after extended thymectomy and discuss the treatment options for this condition.

Methods: Clinical data from patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) who underwent extended thymectomy at Xuanwu Hospital of the Capital Medical University from 2016 to 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups-POMC and non-POMC. Variables that could potentially predict POMC were analyzed. In the POMC group, the aforementioned variables were compared between patients with and without pneumonia.

Results: Ninety-seven patients were enrolled. Thirty-eight (39.2%) patients developed POMC. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), length of intensive care unit stay, and duration of hospital stay were significantly longer in the POMC group (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that disease severity, symptom duration longer than 12 mo, and transsternal thymectomy were independent risk factors for POMC. Postoperative pneumonia significantly prolonged the MV period (P = 0.012) and weaning from MV after intravenous immunoglobin (IVIg) treatment (P = 0.005) in POMC patients. Twenty-four (24.7%) POMC patients who received IVIg were successfully weaned from MV and were discharged.

Conclusions: Disease severity, symptom duration longer than 12 mo, and transsternal thymectomy were independent risk factors for POMC. Postoperative pneumonia worsens the prognosis of POMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.12.048DOI Listing
June 2021

Selective Separation of HNO and HCl by Extraction: The Investigation on the Noncovalent Interaction between Extractants and Acids by Density Functional Theory.

J Phys Chem B 2021 02 26;125(4):1214-1226. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Engineering Research Center of Resources Process Engineering, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

There is a huge demand for the highly selective separation of HNO and HCl in many industries, and solvent extraction is considered a feasible method. In this article, DFT calculations were performed to investigate the interactions between acids and extractants including alcohols, ketones, phosphorus, and amines. One of the significant findings to emerge from this study is that amines bind to acids through ion association. Nevertheless, the interaction between acids and alcohols, ketones, and phosphorus with a (RO)P═O structure is mainly dominated by hydrogen bonds. The change of Gibbs free energy in the extraction process shows that the phosphorus ((RO)P═O) is superior to other types of extractants in the selective separation of HNO and HCl. Furthermore, after the alkoxyl group (RO-) in phosphorus ((RO)P═O) is replaced by RN- or R- with less electronegativity, the interaction between HCl and the substituted extractants transitions from a hydrogen bond to ion association, but there are still strong hydrogen bonds between them and HNO. That will lead to a decrease in the selectivity of phosphorus due to the change in interaction types. This new understanding should help the design and screening of efficient extractants for the separation of mineral acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c09562DOI Listing
February 2021

Research progress of heat stroke during 1989-2019: a bibliometric analysis.

Mil Med Res 2021 01 21;8(1). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Emergency, Changhai Hospital, the Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Background: Heat stroke (HS) is an acute physical disorder that is associated with a high risk of organ dysfunction and even death. HS patients are usually treated symptomatically and conservatively; however, there remains a lack of specific and effective drugs in clinical practice. An analysis of publication contributions from institutions, journals and authors in different countries/regions was used to study research progress and trends regarding HS.

Methods: We extracted all relevant publications on HS between 1989 and 2019 from Web of Science. Using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 24) and the software GraphPad Prism 8, graphs were generated and statistical analyses were performed, while VOSviewer software was employed to visualize the research trends in HS from the perspectives of co-occurring keywords.

Results: As of April 14, 2020, we identified 1443 publications with a citation frequency of 5216. The United States accounted for the largest number of publications (36.2%) and the highest number of citations (14,410), as well as the highest H-index at 74. Although the sum of publications from China ranked second, there was a contradiction between the quantity and quality of publications. Furthermore, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise published the most papers related to HS, with Lin MT publishing the most papers in this field (112), while the review by Knochel JP received the highest citation frequency at 969. The keyword heat-stress appeared most recently, with an average appearing year of 2015.5. In the clinical research cluster, exertional heat-stroke was determined to be the hotspot, while ambient-temperature and heat waves were the new trends in the epidemiological research cluster.

Conclusions: Corresponding to this important field, while the contributions of the publications from the United States were significant, the mismatch between the quantity and quality of publications from China must be examined. Moreover, it is hypothesized that clinical and epidemiological studies may become hotspots in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-021-00300-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818934PMC
January 2021

Rhabdomyolysis is Associated with In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with COVID-19.

Shock 2021 09;56(3):360-367

Department of Gastroenterology, 920th Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support Force, Kunming, China.

Purpose: Rhabdomyolysis (RM) has been associated with many viral infectious diseases, and associated with poor outcomes. We aim to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of RM in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Method: This was a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of 1,014 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, between February 17 and April 12, 2020.

Results: The overall incidence of RM was 2.2%. Compared with patients without RM, those with RM tended to have a higher risk of deterioration. Patients with RM also constituted a greater percentage of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (90.9% vs. 5.3%, P < 0.001) and a greater percentage of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (86.4% vs. 2.7% P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with RM had laboratory test abnormalities, including the presence of markers of inflammation, activation of coagulation, and kidney injury. Patients with RM also had a higher risk of in-hospital death (P < 0.001). Cox's proportional hazard regression model analysis confirmed that RM indicators, including peak creatine kinase levels > 1,000 IU/L (HR = 6.46, 95% CI: 3.02-13.86) and peak serum myoglobin concentrations > 1,000 ng/mL (HR = 9.85, 95% CI: 5.04-19.28), were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. Additionally, patients with COVID-19 that developed RM tended to have delayed viral clearance.

Conclusion: RM might be an important contributing factor to adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The early detection and effective intervention of RM may help reduce mortality among COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354485PMC
September 2021

The efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in the treatment of solid tumors: an up-to-date meta-analysis.

Future Oncol 2021 Feb 6;17(6):745-754. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Radiotherapy, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, 071000, China.

We performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in cancer patients. Databases were searched to identify relevant trials. Data were extracted to evaluate overall survival, progression-free survival, overall response rate and grade ≥3 adverse events. The pooled analysis demonstrated that lenvatinib significantly improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23-0.80; p = 0.008), overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75-0.97; p = 0.013) and overall response rate (relative risk: 6.89; 95% CI: 2.22-21.36; p = 0.001) compared with control therapy. However, the use of lenvatinib can increase the risk of severe infection. Lenvatinib-containing regimens are associated with better progression-free survival, overall survival and overall response rate, but can induce severe infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0327DOI Listing
February 2021
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