Publications by authors named "Lei Liu"

4,702 Publications

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Surface Growth and Intergranular Separation of Polycrystalline Particles for Regeneration of Stable Single-Crystal Cathode Materials.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Faculty of Metallurgy and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China.

The direct regeneration technology has been developed because of its short-range, high efficiency, and green characteristics. However, the existing direct regeneration method is hardly applied in collaborative reconstruction of the damaged crystal and particle of spent polycrystalline layered materials. The single-crystal regeneration with restructuring the morphology and crystal structure was herein achieved for the first time by low-temperature lithium supplementation followed with high-temperature molten salt conversion, which could effectively solve the structural defects of spent polycrystalline layered materials. We found that the realization of single-crystal regeneration with the molten salt process is attributable to that the original crystal growth of primary particles in the polycrystal transfer to the subsequent division along the grain boundary. At the test conditions of 25 °C and 2.8-4.3 V, the capacity retention capacity of the regenerated single-crystal materials reach 83.3% after 200 cycles at 1 C, which is much higher than 20.0% for conventional direct lithiation regeneration and 61.6% for low-temperature molten salt regeneration. Interestingly, the regenerated single-crystal NCM622 in the graphite full-cell test displays a capacity retention rate of 85.24% after 800 cycles at a rate of 1 C at 2.5-4.35 V. This work opens up a new way for the direct regeneration of spent polycrystalline layered cathode materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06351DOI Listing
June 2022

Body Composition-Specific Asthma Phenotypes: Clinical Implications.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 17;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610044, China.

Background: Previous studies have indicated the limitations of body mass index for defining disease phenotypes. The description of asthma phenotypes based on body composition (BC) has not been largely reported.

Objective: To identify and characterize phenotypes based on BC parameters in patients with asthma.

Methods: A study with two prospective observational cohorts analyzing adult patients with stable asthma ( = 541 for training and = 179 for validation) was conducted. A body composition analysis was performed for the included patients. A cluster analysis was conducted by applying a 2-step process with stepwise discriminant analysis. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between identified phenotypes and asthma exacerbations (AEs). The same algorithm for cluster analysis in the independent validation set was used to perform an external validation.

Results: Three clusters had significantly different characteristics associated with asthma outcomes. An external validation identified the similarity of the participants in training and the validation set. In the training set, cluster Training (T) 1 (29.4%) was "patients with undernutrition", cluster T2 (18.9%) was "intermediate level of nutrition with psychological dysfunction", and cluster T3 (51.8%) was "patients with good nutrition". Cluster T3 had a decreased risk of moderate-to-severe and severe AEs in the following year compared with the other two clusters. The most important BC-specific factors contributing to being accurately assigned to one of these three clusters were skeletal muscle mass and visceral fat area.

Conclusion: We defined three distinct clusters of asthma patients, which had distinct clinical features and asthma outcomes. Our data reinforced the importance of evaluating BC to determining nutritional status in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14122525DOI Listing
June 2022

An overlooked source of nanosized lead particles in the atmosphere: Residential honeycomb briquette combustion.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 3;436:129289. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. Electronic address:

Atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution has attracted long-term and widespread concerns due to its high toxicity. The definite source identification of atmospheric Pb is the key step to mitigate this pollution. Here, we first report an overlooked source of atmospheric nanosized Pb particles using transmission electron microscopy and bulk sample analyses, finding that residential honeycomb briquette combustion emits large numbers of nanosized Pb-rich particles. We found that 33.7 ± 19.9 % of primary particles by number from residential honeycomb briquette combustion contains the crystalline Pb particles. These Pb-rich particles range in size from 14 to 956 nm with a mean diameter of 117 nm. Compared with raw coal chunks, honeycomb briquette combustion could emit less carbonaceous particles, but largely increase nanosized Pb particle emissions. This result is attributed to two key factors: (1) higher Pb content in honeycomb briquette (63.6 μg g) than that in coal chunk (8.5 μg g), and (2) higher Pb release rate for honeycomb briquette (62.3 %) caused by honeycomb structure than that for coal chunk (20.1 %). This study highlights that atmospheric and health implications of high emissions of toxic nanosized Pb from honeycomb briquette should be paid more attention in future research on ambient and indoor airs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129289DOI Listing
August 2022

Low temperature tolerance is depressed in wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley grown in Cd-contaminated soil.

J Hazard Mater 2022 May 15;430:128489. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Key Laboratory of Mollisols Agroecology, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130102, China; College of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; CAS Engineering Laboratory for Eco-agriculture in Water Source of Liaoheyuan, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130102, China. Electronic address:

The accumulation of heavy metals in soil, especially cadmium (Cd), may influence the tolerance of crops to other abiotic stress, such as low temperature. In this study, the low temperature tolerance of abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant (Az34) barley and its wild-type (WT) irrigated with Cd solution (1 g L) was tested. It was found that Cd aggravated the destruction of chloroplast ultrastructure and disturbed the ion homeostasis under low temperature. The presence of Cd increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, along with the depressed antioxidant enzyme activities, and limited the plant growth. Compared with WT, Az34 plants had lower ROS scavenging ability and decreased maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) under Cd and low temperature. In addition, the C-repeat binding factor and cold response (CBF-COR) signaling pathway was negatively affected by Cd treatment under low temperature, which also reduced the low temperature tolerance in barley. Therefore, it was indicated that the Cd reduced the low temperature tolerance in barley, that highlighted the potential risks of depressed low temperature tolerance caused by Cd pollution in barley.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128489DOI Listing
May 2022

Time in Range Assessed by Capillary Blood Glucose in Relation to Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in China.

J Diabetes Investig 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Endocrinology,the Sixth Affiliated Hospital, South China University of Technology, Guidan Road 120, Foshan, 528200, Guangdong Province, China.

Aims: This study investigated the association of capillary blood glucose (CBG)-assessed time in range (TIR) (3.9-10.0 mmol/L) with insulin sensitivity and islet β-cell function (BCF).

Materials And Methods: We recruited 455 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seven-point glucose-profile data (pre- and 120-min post-main meals, bedtime) were collected over three consecutive days. Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 60, and 120 min after a 100-g standard steamed bread meal test. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index were computed to evaluate insulin resistance (IR). HOMA of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and the area under the curve between insulin and blood glucose (IAUC /GAUC ) were used to estimate BCF.

Results: TIR was positively correlated with 60- and 120-min insulin values, IAUC , the Matsuda index, HOMA-β, and IAUC /GAUC (r : 0.154, 0.129, 0.137, 0.194, 0.341, and 0.334, respectively; P <0.05) but inversely correlated with HOMA-IR (r : -0.239, P <0.001). After adjusting for confounders, multinomial multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios (ORs) of achieving the target TIR (>70%) increased by 12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-21%), 7% (95% CI: 1-14%), 10% (95% CI: 5-16%), and 45% (95% CI: 25-68%) for each 10-mIU/L increase in 60- and 120-min insulin value, 10-unit increase in HOMA-β, and unit increase in IAUC /GAUC , respectively (P <0.05). Nevertheless, the OR decreased by 10% (95% CI: 1-18%) for each unit increase in HOMA-IR (P <0.05).

Conclusions: IR and BCF are related to CBG-assessed TIR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13876DOI Listing
June 2022

H2B Lys34 Ubiquitination Induces Nucleosome Distortion to Stimulate Dot1L Activity.

Nat Chem Biol 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, MOE Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Ubiquitination-dependent histone crosstalk plays critical roles in chromatin-associated processes and is highly associated with human diseases. Mechanism studies of the crosstalk have been of the central focus. Here our study on the crosstalk between H2BK34ub and Dot1L-catalyzed H3K79me suggests a novel mechanism of ubiquitination-induced nucleosome distortion to stimulate the activity of an enzyme. We determined the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Dot1L-H2BK34ub nucleosome complex and the H2BK34ub nucleosome alone. The structures reveal that H2BK34ub induces an almost identical orientation and binding pattern of Dot1L on nucleosome as H2BK120ub, which positions Dot1L for the productive conformation through direct ubiquitin-enzyme contacts. However, H2BK34-anchored ubiquitin does not directly interact with Dot1L as occurs in the case of H2BK120ub, but rather induces DNA and histone distortion around the modified site. Our findings establish the structural framework for understanding the H2BK34ub-H3K79me trans-crosstalk and highlight the diversity of mechanisms for histone ubiquitination to activate chromatin-modifying enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-022-01067-7DOI Listing
June 2022

ZmBSK1 positively regulates BR-induced HO production via NADPH oxidase and functions in oxidative stress tolerance in maize.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2022 Jun 14;185:325-335. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Provincial Key Laboratory of Agrobiology, Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, 210014, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Brassinosteroid (BR) has been indicated to induce the production of hydrogen peroxide (HO) in plants in response to various environmental stimuli. However, it remains largely unknown how BR induces HO production. In this study, we found that BR treatment significantly raised the kinase activity of maize (Zea mays L.) brassinosteroid-signaling kinase 1 (ZmBSK1) using the immunoprecipitation kinase assay. ZmBSK1 could modulate the gene expressions and activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (EC 1.6.3.1) to modulate BR-induced HO production. BR could enhance the interaction between ZmBSK1 and maize calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (ZmCCaMK), a previously identified substrate of ZmBSK1. The BR-induced phosphorylation and kinase activity of ZmCCaMK are dependent on ZmBSK1. Moreover, we showed that ZmBSK1 regulated the NADPH oxidase gene expression and activity via directly phosphorylating ZmCCaMK. Genetic analysis suggested that ZmBSK1-ZmCCaMK module strengthened plant tolerance to oxidative stress induced by exogenous application of HO through improving the activities of antioxidant defense enzyme and alleviating the malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and electrolyte leakage rate. In conclusion, these findings provide the new insights of ZmBSK1 functioning in BR-induced HO production and the theoretical supports for breeding stress-tolerant crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.06.011DOI Listing
June 2022

Extracellular vesicles from Trichinella spiralis: Proteomic analysis and protective immunity.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Jun 23;16(6):e0010528. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed to play a key role in regulating the host immune responses. In this study, we provided the first investigation of EVs proteomics released by T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML). T. spiralis ML EVs (Ts-ML-EVs) were successfully isolated and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and western blotting. Using liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified 753 proteins in the Ts-ML-EVs proteome and annotated by gene ontology (GO). These proteins were enriched in different categories by GO, kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and domain analysis. GO enrichment analysis indicated association of protein deglutathionylation, lysosomal lumen and serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity with proteins which may be helpful during parasite-host interaction. Moreover, KEGG enrichment analysis revealed involvement of Ts-ML-EVs proteins in other glycan degradation, complement and coagulation cascades, proteasome and various metabolism pathways. In addition, BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous injection of purified Ts-ML-EVs. Ts-ML-EVs group demonstrated a 23.4% reduction in adult worms and a 43.7% reduction in ML after parasite challenge. Cellular and humoral immune responses induced by Ts-ML-EVs were detected, including the levels of specific antibodies (IgG, IgM, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a) as well as cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10) in serum. The results showed that Ts-ML-EVs could induce a Th1/Th2 mixed immune response with Th2 predominant. This study revealed a potential role of Ts-ML-EVs in T. spiralis biology, particularly in the interaction with host. This work provided a critical step to against T. spiralis infection based on Ts-ML-EVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010528DOI Listing
June 2022

Should preoperative computed tomography be routine examination for cervicofacial space infections?

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Jun 22;22(1):566. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Cervicofacial space infections are potentially life-threatening, which require accurate diagnosis, early incision, and adequate drainage. The utilization of computed tomography (CT) in cervicofacial space infections has significantly increased for its advantages in the evaluation of abscesses, its availability, and low cost. However, the clinical value of preoperative CT imaging in cervicofacial space infections remains controversial for its poor specificity, radiation exposure, potential complications, and extra cost. We, therefore, investigated whether CT examination should be used as a routine examination in the treatment of patients with cervicofacial space infections.

Methods: A retrospective study of all patients affected by cervicofacial space infections that received incision and drainage surgery from Jan 2016 to Dec 2020 was performed at West China Hospital of Stomatology at Sichuan University. Patients were divided into two groups: the group with preoperative CT and without preoperative CT. Outcomes, including reoperation rate, missed diagnosis rate, days of symptom relief, length of stay, duration of surgery, and total cost of hospitalization, were analyzed.

Results: Out of n = 153 patients, 108 patients underwent surgery with preoperative CT and 45 patients without preoperative CT. The reoperation rate in the preoperative CT group (6/108, 5.6%) was significantly lower (P = 0.00) than that in the group without preoperative CT (10/45, 22.2%). Significant reduction of missed diagnosis rate (P = 0.00), days of symptom relief (P = 0.01), length of stay(P = 0.03), and duration of surgery (P = 0.01) were detected in the preoperative CT group. The results demonstrated that the utilization of preoperative CT can reduce the missed diagnosis rate and repeated surgery complications.

Conclusions: We recommend preoperative CT as a routine examination in cervicofacial space infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07545-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Influence of alternating electric field on deep dewatering of municipal sludge and changes of extracellular polymeric substance during dewatering.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 19:156839. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

School of College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Henan University of Engineering, Zhengzhou 451191, PR China.

A self-prepared experimental device made of plexiglass with alternating power supply system was used to study the deep dewatering of municipal dewatered sludge. Considering the reduction rate of sludge water content (W) as the index, factors affecting enhanced electric settlement of sludge such as exchange electrode method, voltage gradient, sludge thickness, and mechanical pressure were studied, and the dewatering mechanism was elucidated. The single-factor experiment combined with the surface response method based on the Box-Behnken central experimental design was performed. With W as the response value, the voltage gradient conditions, time ratio, and sludge thickness were optimized. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the reduction of proteins/polysaccharides was beneficial to improving the sludge dewatering effect. Tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPSs) showed a significant influence on the sludge dewatering effect. Under the action of the external electric field, particles with negative charge moved toward the anode sludge, water with partial positive charge flowed to the cathode, and the sludge cellular structure was damaged. This resulted in the dissolution of a large number of EPSs and the release of bound water. The anode sludge cake got thickened due to the accumulation of the sludge particles, leading to the increase in resistance. The TB-EPS was deconstructed by the ohmic heating to improve the sludge dewatering effect and achieve deep dewatering. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the drying problem of anode sludge was alleviated during the dewatering process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156839DOI Listing
June 2022

Transfer learning in high-dimensional semiparametric graphical models with application to brain connectivity analysis.

Stat Med 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Division of Biostatistics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Transfer learning has drawn growing attention with the target of improving statistical efficiency of one study (dataset) by digging up information from similar and related auxiliary studies (datasets). In this article, we consider transfer learning problem in estimating undirected semiparametric graphical model. We propose an algorithm called Trans-Copula-CLIME for estimating an undirected graphical model while uncovering information from similar auxiliary studies, characterizing the similarity between the target graph and each auxiliary graph by the sparsity of a divergence matrix. The proposed method relaxes the restrictive Gaussian distribution assumption, which deviates from reality for the fMRI dataset related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) considered here. Nonparametric rank-based correlation coefficient estimators are utilized in the Trans-Copula-CLIME procedure to achieve robustness against normality. We establish the convergence rate of the Trans-Copula-CLIME estimator under some mild conditions, which demonstrates that if the similarity between the auxiliary studies and the target study is sufficiently high and the number of informative auxiliary samples is sufficiently large, the Trans-Copula-CLIME estimator shows great advantage over the existing non-transfer-learning ones. Simulation studies also show that Trans-Copula-CLIME estimator has better performance especially when data are not from Gaussian distribution. Finally, the proposed method is applied to infer functional brain connectivity pattern for ADHD patients in the target Beijing site by leveraging the fMRI datasets from some other sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.9499DOI Listing
June 2022

Development of advanced oil/water separation technologies to enhance the effectiveness of mechanical oil recovery operations at sea: Potential and challenges.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jun 10;437:129340. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Northern Region Persistent Organic Pollution Control (NRPOP) Laboratory, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL A1B 3X5, Canada.

Mechanical oil recovery (i.e., booming and skimming) is the most common tool for oil spill response. The recovered fluid generated from skimming processes may contain a considerable proportion of water (10 % ~ 70 %). As a result of regulatory prohibition on the discharge of contaminated waters at sea, vessels and/or storage barges must make frequent trips to shore for oil-water waste disposal. This practice can be time- consuming thus reduces the overall efficiency and capacity of oil recovery. One potential solution is on-site oil-water separation and disposal of water fraction at sea. However, currently available decanting processes may have limited oil/water separation capabilities, especially in the presence of oil-water emulsion, which is inevitable in mechanical oil recovery. The decanted water may not meet the discharge standards and cause severe ecotoxicological impacts. This paper therefore comprehensively reviews the principles and progress in oil/water separation, demulsification, and on-site treatment technologies, investigates their applicability on decanting at sea, and discusses the ecotoxicity of decanted water in the marine environment. The outputs provide the fundamental and practical knowledge on decanting and help enhance response effectiveness and consequently reducing the environmental impacts of oil spills.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129340DOI Listing
June 2022

Maternal DDB1 regulates apoptosis and lineage differentiation in porcine preimplantation embryos.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Context: Maternal-effect genes (MEGs) play a critical role in modulating both cellular and molecular biology events in preimplantation embryonic development. Damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a gene that participates in meiotic resumption, ovulation, and embryonic stem cell maintenance. Its function in preimplantation development is not well-studied.

Aims: We aimed to explore the expression pattern, genomic heritage, and potential molecular mechanisms of DDB1 in preimplantation embryos in porcine.

Methods: In this study, RNA interference, microinjection, RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining and single-cell RNA sequencing were used to explore the molecular function of DDB1 in porcine preimplantation embryos.

Key Results: DDB1 was found to be expressed in germinal vesicle (GV) and Meiosis II (MII) oocytes and in preimplantation embryos. We confirmed it is a MEG. DDB1-deficient blastocysts had a significantly reduced number of trophectoderm cells, an increased apoptotic cell number and increased apoptosis index. According to a next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, 236 genes (131 upregulated and 105 downregulated) significantly changed in the DDB1-deficient morula. The myeloid leukaemia factor 1 (MLF1) and yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) expressions were significantly upregulated and downregulated respectively, in the DDB1-deficient morula. In combination with the decreased expression of TEAD4, CDX2, GATA3, OCT4, and NANOG and the increased expression of SOX2 in the blastocyst, DDB1 may play a role in determining lineage differentiation and pluripotency maintenance.

Conclusions: DDB1 is a MEG and it plays a crucial role in porcine preimplantation embryonic development.

Implications: This study provides a theoretical basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of preimplantation embryo development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD22028DOI Listing
June 2022

MicroRNA-mediated high expression of PDIA3 was correlated with poor prognosis of patients with LUAD.

Genomics 2022 Jun 17:110417. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University and Medical School of Nantong University, Nantong, China. Electronic address:

Lung cancer, especially lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) as the most common subtype has threatened the health of people. Even though more and more patients diagnosed as LUAD could be treated efficiently or even cured, a spilt of patients still suffer from disease. Here, on the basis of previous research, we firstly performed the mRNA expression of PDIA3 in pan-cancer, and differential expression between tumor and normal groups was followed. We further analyzed the survival difference and ultimately the expression of PDIA3 in LUAD was selected as our current study. Next, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of PDIA3 from online databases and performed qRT-PCR and western blotting to verify the outcomes. We still analyzed the correlation between the expression of PDIA3 and clinicopathologic parameters and predicted the potential signal pathways as well as the possible upstream molecular of PDIA3. Considering the correlation of PDIA3 and immune infiltration, related analysis of PDIA3 and immune biomarkers along with PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4 were made. We clarified the expression of PDIA3 was upregulated in LUAD and its oncogenic role may be played through tumor infiltration. Thus targeting PDIA3 and immune checkpoint could enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy on patients with LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110417DOI Listing
June 2022

Construction of a pH-Mediated Single-Molecule Switch with a Nanopore-DNA Complex.

Small 2022 Jun 20:e2201650. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

A molecular switch is one of the simplest examples of artificial molecular machines. Even so, the development of molecular switches is still at its very early stage. Currently, building single-molecule switches mostly rely on the molecular junction technique, but many of their performance characteristics are device-dependent. Here, a pH-mediated single-molecule switch based on the combination of an α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore and a hexacyclen-modified DNA strand is developed. The single-stranded DNA is suspended inside an αHL through biotin-streptavidin linkage and the hexacyclen-modified nucleobase interacts with amino acid residues at positions 111, 113, and 147 to cause current oscillations. Distinct current transitions are observed when pH is tuned back and forth in the range of 3.0-7.4, with a typical "up" level when pH > 6.5 and a "down" level when pH < 4.5. This nanopore-DNA complex possesses membrane-bound advantages and may find applications in single-cell studies where pH could be readily tuned to control ON-OFF functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202201650DOI Listing
June 2022

Simulation and prediction of the effect of aeration, recirculation and degradation on landfill temperature in aerobic operation.

Waste Manag Res 2022 Jun 20:734242X221105430. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Much heat is released in aerobic landfills, which leads to temperature change. Quantitative prediction of temperature change with time and space is essential for the safe aerobic operation of landfill. In this article, based on the theory of porous media seepage mechanics and heat transfer, a seepage-temperature coupling model considering aeration, recirculation and degradation was established, which included internal energy change, heat conduction, convection and heat transfer. Moreover, combined with the long-time on-site monitoring temperature data from Wuhan Jinkou Landfill, the model's reliability was preliminarily verified. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for aeration intensity, aeration temperature, recirculation intensity and recirculation temperature. Among the four factors, recirculation intensity influences the peak temperature most with a decrease of 20.11%. Compared with Borglin's and Hao's models, it is found that waste should not be assumed as a cell for temperature prediction. By comparing the results of Non-linear Ascent Stage model, Linear Ascent Stage model and Absent Ascent Stage model, it showed that the temperature difference of the three models decreases with the increase of operation time. In addition, the time point of peak temperature, , affects the temperature distribution. The above results provide a reference for predicting the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature and regulations for long-term aerobic landfill operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X221105430DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical significance of chromosomal integrity in gastric cancers.

Int J Biol Markers 2022 Jun 19:3936155221106217. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: A whole-exome or targeted cancer genes panel by next-generation sequencing has been used widely in assisting individualized treatment decisions. Currently, multiple algorithms are developed to estimate DNA copy numbers based on sequencing data, which makes a comprehensive global glance at chromosomal integrity possible. We aim to classify gastric cancers based on chromosomal integrity to guide personalized therapy.

Methods: We investigated copy number variations (CNV) across the entire genome of 124 gastric carcinomas via exome or targeted sequencing. Chromosomal integrity was classified as chromosomal stability (CS), chromosomal instability (CIN) and intermediate state (CIN/CS) based on CNV results. Chromosomal integrity was correlated to molecular features and clinical characteristics.

Results: According the states of chromosomal integrity, gastric carcinomas can be stratified into two cohorts: CS and CIN. Our results showed a significant relationship between CIN status and TP53 mutation, but not RB1, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), or other reported DNA damage repair genes. The mutation frequency of the TP53 gene had great relevance. Our study initially revealed clinical significance of chromosomal integrity that CIN patients were prone to HER2-positive and mucinous adenocarcinoma, while CS patients were a diffuse subtype and poorly differentiated but had longer overall survival.

Conclusions: We classified gastric carcinomas into two states of chromosomal integrity with clinical implications. The dichotomy is applicable to clinical transformation. We proposed that classifying gastric cancers based on chromosomal integrity would enable us to achieve personalized therapy for patients and may be beneficial to patient stratification in future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03936155221106217DOI Listing
June 2022

Variations in concentration and solubility of iron in atmospheric fine particles during the COVID-19 pandemic: An example from China.

Gondwana Res 2021 Sep 2;97:138-144. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Iron (Fe) in the atmosphere can affect atmospheric chemical processes and human health. When deposited into oceans, it can further influence phytoplankton growth. These roles of Fe fundamentally depend on its concentration and solubility. However, the sources of aerosol Fe and controlling factors of Fe solubility in megacities remain poorly understood. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic causes large changes in human activities, which provides a unique opportunity to answer these key issues. Field observations were conducted before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Hangzhou, China. Our results show that in the COVID-19 lockdown stage, the concentrations of total Fe (Fe, 75.0 ng m) and soluble Fe (Fe, 5.1 ng m) in PM decreased by 78% and 62%, respectively, compared with those (Fe 344.7 ng m, Fe 13.5 ng m) in the pre-lockdown stage. The sharp reduction (81%) in on-road vehicles was most responsible for the aerosol Fe decrease. Surprisingly, the Fe solubility increased by a factor of 1.9, from 4.2% in the pre-lockdown stage to 7.8% in the COVID-19 lockdown stage. We found that the atmospheric oxidizing capacity was enhanced after lockdown restrictions were implemented, which promoted the formation of more acidic species and further enhanced the dissolution of aerosol Fe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2021.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9188026PMC
September 2021

Design of Financial Risk Control Model Based on Deep Learning Neural Network.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 10;2022:5842039. Epub 2022 May 10.

Saxo Fintech Business School, University of Sanya, Sanya 572000, Hainan, China.

In recent years, with the continuous increase of financial business, the risk of business is on the rise. Among them, major risk cases are frequent, the cases are increasingly complex, and the means of committing crimes are concealed. The main research contents of this paper include the preprocessing of internal and external financial data and the structure design of recurrent NNs. Its purpose is to design a financial risk control model based on a deep learning NNs, thereby reducing financial risk. The Borderline-SMOTE algorithm is used first to preprocess the sample data, and the oversampling method is used to eliminate the imbalance of the data, and then, the long short-term memory deep NNs algorithm is introduced to process the sample data with time series characteristics. The final experiment shows that LSTM has a better accuracy, reaching 0.9715, compared with traditional methods; the sample preprocessing method and risk control model proposed in this paper have better ability to identify fraudulent customers, and the model itself has faster iteration efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5842039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9203193PMC
June 2022

A Robust Immuno-Prognostic Model of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Indicates Dynamic Interaction in Tumor Immune Microenvironment Contributes to Cancer Progression.

Front Genet 2022 3;13:833989. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Institutes of Biomedical Sciences and School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for more than 70% of urothelial cancer. More than half of NMIBC patients experience recurrence, progression, or metastasis, which essentially reduces life quality and survival time. Identifying the high-risk patients prone to progression remains the primary concern of risk management of NMIBC. In this study, we included 1370 NMIBC transcripts data from nine public datasets, identified nine tumor-infiltrating marker cells highly related to the survival of NMIBC, quantified the cells' proportion by self-defined differentially expressed signature genes, and established a robust immuno-prognostic model dividing NMIBC patients into low-risk versus high-risk progression groups. Our model implies that the loss of crosstalk between tumor cells and adjacent normal epithelium, along with enriched cell proliferation signals, may facilitate tumor progression. Thus, evaluating tumor progression should consider various components in the tumor immune microenvironment instead of the single marker in a single dimension. Moreover, we also appeal to the necessity of using appropriate meta-analysis methods to integrate the evidence from multiple sources in the feature selection step from large-scale heterogeneous omics data such as our study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.833989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9205430PMC
June 2022

Mechanism of pod shattering in the forage legume Medicago ruthenica.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2022 Jun 14;185:260-267. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Grassland Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hohhot, China; Key Laboratory of Herbage & Endemic Crop Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China. Electronic address:

Pod shattering is a seed dispersal strategy and an important agronomical trait in domesticated crops. The relationship between pod shattering and pod morphology in the genus Medicago is well known; however, the detailed mechanism underlying pod dehiscence in Medicago ruthenica, a perennial legume used for forage production, is unknown. Here, the pod ventral sutures of shatter-resistant and shatter-susceptible M. ruthenica genotypes were examined at 8, 12, 16, and 20 d after flowering. The mechanism of pod shattering was analyzed through microscopic observations, polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulase (CE) activity analyses, and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), and the results were verified via reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pod shattering at the ventral suture in M. ruthenica occurs via a combination of two mechanisms: degradation of the middle lamella at the abscission layers (ALs) and detachment of lignified cells on either side of the ALs triggered by physical forces. Increased PG and CE activities in the pod ventral suture are essential for AL cell-autolysis in the shatter-susceptible genotype. RNA-Seq revealed that 11 genes encoding PG and CE were highly expressed in the ventral sutures of the shatter-susceptible genotype. The expression levels of auxin biosynthesis-related genes decreased in the AL cells and they were negatively associated with pod dehiscence. These results enhance our understanding of the pod shattering mechanism not only in M. ruthenica but also in other leguminous plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.06.013DOI Listing
June 2022

The LMNA p.R541C mutation causes dilated cardiomyopathy in human and mice.

Int J Cardiol 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital; National Health Commission of China (NHC) Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides; Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research. Beijing, 100191, China.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cause of heart failure. LMNA variants contribute to 6-10% DCM cases, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we reported two patients carrying the LMNA c.1621C > T/ p.R541C variant and generated a knock-in mouse model (Lmna) to study the role of this variant in DCM pathogenesis. We found Lmna mice exhibited ventricular dilation and reduced systolic functions at 6 months after birth. The Lmna cardiomyocytes increased in size but no nuclear morphology defects were detected. Transcriptomic and microscopic analyses revealed suppressed gene expression and perturbed ultrastructure in Lmna mitochondria. These defects were associated with increased heterochromatin structures and epigenetic markers including H3K9me2/3. Together, these data implied that the LMNA c.1621C > T/ p.R541C variant enhanced heterochromatic gene suppression and disrupted mitochondria functions as a cause of DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.06.038DOI Listing
June 2022

Functionalized biochars: Synthesis, characterization, and applications for removing trace elements from water.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jun 10;437:129337. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Lab of Environ. Remediation and Ecol. Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Biochar (BC) has been recognized as an effective adsorbent to remove trace elements (TEs) from water. However, low surface functionality and small pore size can limit the adsorption ability of pristine biochar. These limitations can be addressed by using functionalized biochars which are developed by physical, chemical, or biological activation of biochar to improve their physico-chemical properties and adsorption efficiency. Despite the large amount of research concerning functionalized biochars in recent decades, to our knowledge, no comprehensive review of this topic has been published. This review focuses solely on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functionalized/engineered biochars for removing TEs from water. Firstly, we evaluate the synthesis of functionalized biochars by physical, chemical, and biological strategies that yield the desired properties in the final product. The following section describes the characterization of functionalized biochars using various techniques (SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD, XANES/NEXAFS, XPS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy). Afterward, the role of functionalized biochars in the adsorption of different TEs from water/wastewater is critically evaluated with an emphasis on the factors affecting sorption efficiency, sorption mechanisms, fate of sorbed TEs from contaminated environments and associated challenges. Finally, we specifically scrutinized the future recommendations and research directions for the application of functionalized biochar. This review serves as a comprehensive resource for the use of functionalized biochar as an emerging environmental material capable of removing TEs from contaminated water/wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129337DOI Listing
June 2022

Peptide Binder with High-Affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding Domain.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Haihe Laboratory of Cell Ecosystem, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China.

Rapid antigen detection tests are urgently needed for the early diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The discovery of a binder with high affinity and selectivity for the biomarkers presented by SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to the development of the rapid antigen detection method. We utilized the surface biopanning to identify a peptide binder R1 from a phage-displayed peptide library consisting of 10 independent phage recombinants. The R1 peptide exhibited high-affinity for specific binding with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with a dissociation constant of (7.5 ± 1.9) × 10 M, which maintained high binding affinity with the RBD derived from Gamma, Lambda, Delta, and Omicron variants. The composition and sequence dependence of binding characteristics in R1-RBD interactions was revealed by the binding affinity fluctuations between RBD and the scrambled sequences or single-site mutants of R1. The R1-functionalized gold nanoparticles possessed concentration-dependent response to RBD and selectivity over bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin. The peptide binder R1 shows the potential to be used for constructing a rapid detection method for the early-stage diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c03707DOI Listing
June 2022

A critical review on air pollutant exposure and age-related macular degeneration.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 14;840:156717. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Guangdong Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairments and blindness worldwide in the elderly and its incidence strongly increases with ages. The etiology of AMD is complex and attributed to the genetic modifiers, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions. Recently, the impacts of air pollution on the development of eye diseases have become the new area of focus, and disordered air exposure combined with inadequate health management has caused problems for the eye health, such as dry eye, glaucoma, and retinopathy, while its specific role in the occurrence of AMD is still not well understood. In order to summarize the progress of this research field, we performed a critical review to summarize the epidemiological and mechanism evidence on the association between air pollutants exposure and AMD. This review documented that exposure to air pollutants will accelerate or worsen the morbidity and prevalence of AMD. Air pollutants exposure may change the homeostasis, interfere with the inflammatory response, and take direct action on the lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in the macula. More attention should be given to understanding the impact of ambient air pollution on AMD worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156717DOI Listing
June 2022

TYRP1 Protects Against the Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress of Retinal Ganglion Cells by Binding to PMEL.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022 Jun 16:1-11. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin, P.R. China.

Objectives: This research aimed to dissect the function of TYRP1 and PMEL in glaucomatous animal and cell models.

Methods: A chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model was induced in the right eyes of rats through the electrocoagulation of superficial iris veins. In addition, an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-retinal ganglion cell (RGC) model was constructed through OGD. TYRP1 and PMEL expression was altered in the animal and cell models to explore their effects.

Results: TYRP1 and PMEL expression was poor in glaucoma patients, COH rats, and OGD-RGCs. Mechanistically, TYRP1 interacted with PMEL to upregulate PMEL in OGD-RGCs. TYRP1 overexpression enhanced viability and diminished apoptosis and oxidative stress of OGD-RGCs, which was abolished by PMEL knockdown. TYRP1 upregulation reduced intraocular pressure, RGC apoptosis, and oxidative stress in COH rats, which was reversed by PMEL knockdown.

Conclusions: TYRP1 elevates PMEL expression to reduce RGC apoptosis and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2022.2081862DOI Listing
June 2022

Hypoxia regulates fibrosis-related genes via histone lactylation in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia.

J Hypertens 2022 Jun;40(6):1189-1198

Reproductive Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

Background: Histone lactylation, a novel epigenetic modification induced by hypoxia and lactate, plays an important role in regulating gene expression. However, the role of histone lactylation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unknown.

Methods: Placentas from preeclamptic patients and control pregnant women were collected for protein immunoassay to detect the expression level of histone lactylation, and two trophoblast cell lines were used to simulate the effect of histone lactylation on genes.

Results: We found that lactate and histone lactylation levels were increased in preeclamptic placentas. In vitro, hypoxia was demonstrated to induce histone lactylation by promoting the production of lactate in human-trophoblast-derived cell line (HTR-8/SVneo) and human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line (TEV-1) cells. In addition, 152 genes were found to be upregulated by both hypoxia exposure and sodium l-lactate treatment in HTR-8/SVneo cells. These genes were mainly enriched in the pathways including the response to hypoxia, cell migration and focal adhesion. Among the 152 genes, nine were upregulated in preeclamptic placentas. Most noteworthy, two upregulated fibrosis-related genes, FN1 and SERPINE1, were promoted by hypoxia through histone lactylation mediated by the production of lactate.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the elevated levels of histone lactylation in preeclamptic placentas and identified fibrosis-related genes that were promoted by histone lactylation induced by hypoxia in trophoblast cells, which provides novel insights into the mechanism of placental dysfunction in preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000003129DOI Listing
June 2022

Tetraphenylethene derivative that discriminates parallel G-quadruplexes.

RSC Adv 2022 May 16;12(23):14765-14775. Epub 2022 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University, University Town Guian New District Guizhou 550025 P. R. China

G-Quadruplex (G4), as a non-canonical nucleic acid secondary structure, has been proved to be prevalent in genomes and plays important roles in many biological processes. Ligands targeting G4, especially small-molecular fluorescent light-up probes with selectivity for special conformations, are essential for studying the relationship between G4 folding and the cellular response. However, their development still remains challenging but is attracting massive attention. Here, we synthesized a new tetraphenylethene derivative, namely TPE-B, as a parallel G4 probe. Fluorescence experiments showed that TPE-B could give out a strong fluorescence response to the G4 structure. Moreover, it gave a much higher fluorescence intensity response to parallel G4s than anti-parallel ones, which indicated that TPE-B could serve as a special tool for probing parallel G4s. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra and melting curves showed that TPE-B could selectively bind and stabilize parallel G4s without changing their topology. ESI-MS studies showed that TPE-B could bind to parallel G4 with a 1 : 1 stoichiometry. The gel staining results showed that TPE-B was a good candidate for probing parallel G4s. Altogether, the TPE-B molecule may serve as a promising new probe that can discriminate parallel G4s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra01433eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9109478PMC
May 2022

Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies Novel Mutations Associated With Bedaquiline Resistance in .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 27;12:807095. Epub 2022 May 27.

National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Tuberculosis, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Bedaquiline (BDQ), a new antitubercular agent, has been used to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Although mutations in , , and confer major resistance to BDQ, the mechanisms of resistance to BDQ and in clinical settings have not been fully elucidated. We selected BDQ-resistant mutants from 7H10 agar plates containing 0.5 mg/L BDQ (the critical concentration) and identified mutations associated with BDQ resistance through whole genome sequencing and Sanger sequencing. A total of 1,025 mutants were resistant to BDQ. We randomly selected 168 mutants for further analysis and discovered that 157/168 BDQ-resistant mutants harbored mutations in , which encodes a transcriptional regulator that represses the expression of the efflux pump, MmpS5-MmpL5. Moreover, we found two mutations with high frequency in at nucleotide positions 286-287 (CG286-287 insertion; accounting for 26.8% [45/168]) and 198-199 (G198, G199 insertion, and G198 deletion; accounting for 14.3% [24/168]). The other mutations were dispersed covering the entire gene. Moreover, we found that one new gene, , harbors a G572 insertion; this mutation has a high prevalence (85.7%; 144/168) in the isolated mutants, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay demonstrated that it is closely associated with BDQ resistance. In summary, we characterized 168/1,025 mutants resistant to BDQ and found that mutations in confer the primary mechanism of BDQ resistance. Moreover, we identified a new gene () involved in BDQ resistance. Our study offers new insights and valuable information that will contribute to rapid identification of BDQ-resistant isolates in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.807095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9184757PMC
May 2022

Copper Modulates Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation to Enhance Dermal Papilla Cells Proliferation in Rex Rabbits.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 1;23(11). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China.

Copper (Cu) is an important coenzyme factor in cell signaling, such as cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV). Metabolism plays an important role in regulating the fate of mammalian cells. The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of copper on cell metabolism in the dermal papilla cells of the Rex rabbit. In this study, Cu promoted proliferation of dermal papilla cells ( = 0.0008) while also increasing levels of cellular CIII, CIV, Complex IV and ATP. Moreover, fifty metabolites that were significantly different between Cu and controls were identified as potential biomarkers of Cu stimulation. Copper-stimulated cells had altered levels of arachidonic acid derivatives, S-glutamic acid, and citric acid, which were primarily linked to two different pathways: arachidonic acid metabolism ( < 0.0001) and alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism ( = 0.0003). The addition of Cu can increase the proliferation of Rex rabbit dermal papilla cells. Increased levels of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex core protein 2 (CIII) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CIV) were associated with the increased levels of cellular cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In a word, copper promotes cell proliferation by maintaining the function of the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116209DOI Listing
June 2022
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