Publications by authors named "Lei Lan"

125 Publications

Associations between Temperature and Influenza Activity: A National Time Series Study in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 10 15;18(20). Epub 2021 Oct 15.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Previous studies have reported that temperature is the main meteorological factor associated with influenza activity. This study used generalized additive models (GAMs) to explore the relationship between temperature and influenza activity in China. From the national perspective, the average temperature (AT) had an approximately negative linear correlation with the incidence of influenza, as well as a positive rate of influenza H1N1 virus (A/H1N1). Every degree that the monthly AT rose, the influenza cases decreased by 2.49% (95%CI: 1.24%-3.72%). The risk of influenza cases reached a peak at -5.35 °C with RRs of 2.14 (95%CI: 1.38-3.33) and the monthly AT in the range of -5.35 °C to 18.31 °C had significant effects on the incidence of influenza. Every degree that the weekly AT rose, the positive rate of A/H1N1 decreased by 5.28% (95%CI: 0.35%-9.96%). The risk of A/H1N1 reached a peak at -3.14 °C with RRs of 4.88 (95%CI: 1.01-23.75) and the weekly AT in the range of -3.14 °C to 17.25 °C had significant effects on the incidence of influenza. Our study found that AT is negatively associated with influenza activity, especially for A/H1N1. These findings indicate that temperature could be integrated into the current influenza surveillance system to develop early warning systems to better predict and prepare for the risks of influenza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535740PMC
October 2021

Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D is involved in modulation of murine gastrointestinal motility.

Exp Physiol 2021 Dec 3;106(12):2502-2516. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The physiological function of Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D (MrgprD) in gastrointestinal motility is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of MrgprD and its receptor agonists on murine gastrointestinal motility. What is the main finding and its importance? Mrgprd deficiency improved murine gastrointestinal motility in vivo but had no effects on the spontaneous contractions of murine intestinal rings ex vivo. Systemic administration of the MrgprD ligand, either β-alanine or alamandine, delayed gastrointestinal transit in vivo and attenuated the spontaneous contractions of isolated intestinal rings ex vivo.

Abstract: Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D (MrgprD) was first identified in sensory neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglion and has been demonstrated to be involved in sensations of pain and itch. Although expression of MrgprD has recently been found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, its physiological role in GI motility is unknown. To address this question, we used Mrgprd knockout (Mrgprd ) mice and MrgprD agonists to examine the effects of Mrgprd gene deletion and MrgprD signalling activation, respectively, on murine intestinal motility, both in vivo and ex vivo. We observed that the deletion of Mrgprd accelerated the transmission of charcoal through the mouse GI tract. But Mrgprd deficiency did not affect the mean amplitudes and frequencies of spontaneous contractions in ileum ex vivo. Colonic motor complexes in the proximal and the distal colon were recorded from wild-type and Mrgprd mice, but their control frequencies were not different. Moreover, in wild-type mice, systemic administration of an MrgprD agonist, either β-alanine or alamandine, delayed GI transit in vivo and suppressed spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colonic motor complexes in the colon ex vivo. Our results suggest that MrgprD and its agonist are involved in the modulation of GI motility in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089958DOI Listing
December 2021

Neuroimaging Studies of Acupuncture on Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:730322. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Acupuncture and Tuina School, Acupuncture and Brain Science Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

This study was conducted in order to investigate the study design and main outcomes of acupuncture neuroimaging studies on low back pain (LBP). Neuroimaging studies of acupuncture on LBP were collected from three English databases such as PubMed and four Chinese databases such as China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from inception to December 31, 2020. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias were performed independently by two investigators. The quality of studies was appraised with the Cochrane's risk of bias tools. Information on basic information, methodology, and brain imaging data were extracted. The literature search returned 310 potentially eligible studies and 19 articles met inclusion criteria; 78.9% of studies chose manual acupuncture as the intervention, 89.5% of studies evaluated functional changes elicited by acupuncture, and 68.4% of studies used resting-state fMRI as imaging condition. The most frequently reported acupuncture-induced brain alterations of LBP patients were in the prefrontal cortex, insula, cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. There was a significant correlation between improved clinical outcomes and changes in the brain. The results suggested that improving abnormal structure and functional activities in the brain of the LBP patient is an important mechanism of acupuncture treatment for LBP. The brain regions involved in acupuncture analgesia for LBP were mainly located in the pain matrix, default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). However, it was difficult to draw a generalized conclusion due to the heterogeneity of study designs. Further well-designed multimodal neuroimaging studies investigating the mechanism of acupuncture on LBP are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.730322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488100PMC
September 2021

Acupuncture for chronic persistent asthma: a case report.

Acupunct Med 2021 Sep 19:9645284211040086. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Acupuncture and Tuina School, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09645284211040086DOI Listing
September 2021

Acupuncture Modulation Effect on Pain Processing Patterns in Patients With Migraine Without Aura.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:729218. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Acupuncture and Tuina School/The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: In this retrospective study, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in patients with migraine was analyzed to identify potential pathological pain processing patterns and compared them to those in healthy controls (HCs). The FC patterns in patients between pre- and post-acupuncture sessions were also analyzed to determine how acupuncture affects neurological activity and pain perception during the migraine interictal period.

Methods: In total, 52 patients with migraine without aura (MwoA) and 60 HCs were recruited. Patients with migraine were given acupuncture treatment sessions for 4 weeks. As a primary observation, functional magnetic resonance images were obtained at the beginning and end of the sessions. HCs received no treatment and underwent one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan after enrollment. After the fMRI data were preprocessed, a region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI analysis was performed with predefined ROIs related to pain processing regions.

Results: The first analysis showed significantly different FCs between patients with MwoA and HCs [false discovery rate corrected -value (-FDR) < 0.05]. The FCs were found to be mainly between the cingulate gyrus (CG) and the insular gyrus, the CG and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the CG and the superior frontal gyrus, and the middle frontal gyrus and the IPL. The second analysis indicated that acupuncture treatment partly restored the different FCs found in the first analysis (-FDR < 0.05). Furthermore, subgroup analysis found different brain activity patterns in headache-intensity restored condition and headache-frequency restored condition. Lastly, the correlation analysis suggested a potential correlation between FCs and clinical symptoms ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study suggests that pain processing is abnormal in migraine, with significantly abnormal FCs in the frontal, parietal, and limbic regions. This finding could be a typical pathological feature of migraine. Acupuncture has been identified to relieve headache symptoms in two ways: it restores the pain processing function and regulates pain perception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.729218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427167PMC
August 2021

Efficacy and central mechanism of acupuncture treatment in patients with neck pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Aug 14;22(1):536. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Brain Research Center, Acupuncture and Tuina School/The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 37# Shierqiao Road, Chengdu, 610075, Sichuan, China.

Background: Acupuncture is effective for reducing the symptoms of neck pain (NP). However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Based on evaluating the efficacy of two acupuncture prescriptions for treating NP, this study aims to investigate the potential central mechanism of acupuncture treatment for NP by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial; 86 patients will be randomly assigned into two acupuncture treatment groups at a ratio of 1:1. The whole study period includes 2 weeks baseline, 2 weeks treatments, and 12 weeks follow-up (4 and 12 weeks after treatment). The pain severity, the neck disability index, the cervical range of motion, and the pressure pain threshold, etc., will be used to evaluate the clinical efficacy of two acupuncture prescriptions for NP treatment. The MRI scans will be performed to detect cerebral activity changes of 20 patients in each group. The clinical data and MRI data will be analyzed, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient will be used to evaluate the association between changes of cerebral activity features and improvement of clinical symptoms.

Discussion: The results will provide further evidence for the clinical application of acupuncture in the treatment of NP.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000040930 . Registered on 16 December 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05507-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364082PMC
August 2021

Comparison of HBV-DNA and HBeAg as antiviral therapeutic indicators among HBV-infected pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Sep 6;10(9):9362-9371. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid level (HBV-DNA) ≥5.3 log10IU/mL among pregnant women was recommended as an antiviral therapeutic indicator. However, implementation of HBV-DNA testing has varying difficulties in places. In this study, we explored the implementation rate of HBV-DNA testing worldwide, and possibility of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) testing replacing HBV-DNA as an antiviral treatment indicator during pregnancy.

Methods: We searched five electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and Nov 16, 2020. Studies were eligible for inclusion if HBV DNA testing implementation rate is available, or if maternal HBV DNA level could be analyzed by HBeAg status. The rates were pooled after data was made a Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42021235711.

Results: A total of 9,575 studies were identified, 79 were finally included in this study. The HBV-DNA testing implementation rate was 36.6% (95% CI, 28.3-45.3%) globally. The rate of HBV-DNA ≥5.3 log10IU/mL was 81.51% (95% CI, 71.68-89.74%) among HBeAg positive pregnant women, and was 4.08% (95% CI, 2.14-6.54%) in HBeAg negative pregnant women. Even if infants were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, the rate of mother-to-child transmission was still 4.87% (95% CI, 4.10-5.68%) among HBeAg positive mothers, and was 0 (95% CI, 0-0.07%) among HBeAg negative mothers, with a RR of 30.40 (95% CI, 11.31-81.72).

Conclusions: The implementation rate of HBV DNA testing varies from region to region. Limited studies show that HBV DNA testing does not cover all pregnant women with hepatitis B. When HBV-DNA testing is not available, it is worth considering to use HBeAg positivity as an antiviral therapeutic indicator among HBV-infected pregnant women for preventing MTCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1560DOI Listing
September 2021

Epidemiological Trends and Hotspots of Other Infectious Diarrhea in Mainland China: A Population-Based Surveillance Study From 2004 to 2017.

Front Public Health 2021 22;9:679853. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

The incidence of other infectious diarrhea ranked second in class C notifiable disease in China. It has posed a great threat to public health of all age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological trends and hotspots of OID in mainland China. Incidence and mortality data for OID stratified by date, age and region from 2004 to 2017 was extracted from the data-center of China public health science. Joinpoint regression and space-time analyses were performed to explore the epidemiological trends and hotspots of OID. The average annual incidence of OID was 60.64/100,000 and it showed an increased trend in the mainland China especially after 2006 (APC = 4.12, 95 CI%: 2.06-6.21). Children of 0-4 year age group accounts for 60.00% (5,820,897/11,414,247) of all cases and its incidence continuously increased though 2004-2017 (APC = 6.65, 95 CI%: 4.39-8.96). The first-level spatial and temporal aggregation areas were located in Beijing and Tianjin, with the gathering time from 2005/1/1 to 2011/12/31 (RR = 5.52, LLR = 572893.59, < 0.001). The secondary spatial and temporal aggregation areas covered Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Guizhou from 2011/1/1 to 2017/12/31 (RR = 1.98, LLR = 242292.72, < 0.001). OID of Tianjin and Beijing presented a decreased trend since 2006. However, the incidence of OID in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Guizhou showed increased trends through 2004-2017. Our study showed that OID showed a constantly increasing trend and brought considerable burden in China especially in the 0-4 age group. The high-risk periods and clusters of regions for OID were identified, which will help government develop disease-specific and location-specific interventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.679853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339203PMC
August 2021

The Related Factors of Hyperuricemia in IgA Nephropathy.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2021 Jul;15(4):256-262

Department of Nephrology, the First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, China.

Introduction: Many factors, such as increased serum creatinine, increased blood pressure and abnormal urine protein, may lead to poor prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The features of IgAN are also affected by uric acid, but its effect on the prognosis is less reported. We therefore systematically investigated the possible correlation of IgAN with hyperuricemia (HUA) and their prognosis.

Methods: Two groups (HUA group and uric acid normal group) were included of 178 IgAN patients. The indexes in the clinic and pathology were compared; logistic regression and renal survival were used to speculate the correlated factors of HUA in IgAN and their prognosis.

Results: HUA group had higher serum urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, total cholesterol, 24-hour urinary protein quantity, percentage of CKD3⁃5, the thickness of arteriole, glomerular mesangial hyperplasia, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and the area of infiltration of inflammatory cells (ICI), lower eGFR and serum albumin-to-creatinine ratios (P < .05). Total cholesterol and ICI in X2 were independent related factors of HUA given by the analysis of logistic regression (P < .05). No correlation was found in HUA and normal group used by Kaplan- Meier (P > .05).

Conclusion: Severer renal pathological injures (glomeruli, tubules or interstitium) were found in IgAN. Besides, total cholesterol and the area of infiltration of inflammatory cells were independent related factors of hyperuricemia in IgAN.
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July 2021

A Potential Oncogenic Role for PFKFB3 Overexpression in Gastric Cancer Progression.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 07 1;12(7):e00377. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Experimental Research Center, Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (ICBM), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: PFKFB3 regulates glycolysis in tumor cells, might function as an oncogene, and is associated with cancer metastasis. However, its role in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown.

Methods: PFKFB3 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC tissues and paired paracancerous histological normal tissues (PCHNTs). The associations of PFKFB3 expression with clinical features and HIF-1α, Ki-67, E-cadherin, Snail, and Vimentin expression levels were assessed. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to investigate the effects of PFKFB3 on the growth, migration, and invasion of GC cells.

Results: We found that PFKFB3 expression was significantly higher in GC tissues compared with PCHNTs (P = 0.000). PFKFB3 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P = 0.000), differentiation (P = 0.025), venous invasion (P = 0.084), nerve invasion (P = 0.014), lymphatic invasion (P = 0.000), local invasion (P = 0.000), invasive depth (P = 0.000), nodal metastasis (P = 0.000), tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.000), and patient survival (P = 0.000). Notably, PFKFB3 upregulation was highly correlated with increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GC samples. PFKFB3 overexpression positively modulated cell proliferation, migration, and EMT in GC cells in vitro, with concomitant activation of NF-κB signaling. Administration of an NF-κB inhibitor attenuated PFKFB3-induced EMT in GC cells. PFKFB3 overexpression promoted tumor development and EMT in nude mice, which were attenuated by PFK-15, a PFKFB3 inhibitor.

Discussion: PFKFB3 could potentiate malignancy in GC cells through NF-κB pathway-mediated EMT, suggesting PFKFB3 represents a potential target for GC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345915PMC
July 2021

De novo genome assembly of a foxtail millet cultivar Huagu11 uncovered the genetic difference to the cultivar Yugu1, and the genetic mechanism of imazethapyr tolerance.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 12;21(1):271. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Genetic, Engineering Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 401331, China.

Background: Setaria italica is the second-most widely planted species of millets in the world and an important model grain crop for the research of C4 photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. Through three genomes assembly and annotation efforts, all genomes were based on next generation sequencing technology, which limited the genome continuity.

Results: Here we report a high-quality whole-genome of new cultivar Huagu11, using single-molecule real-time sequencing and High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) mapping technologies. The total assembly size of the Huagu11 genome was 408.37 Mb with a scaffold N50 size of 45.89 Mb. Compared with the other three reported millet genomes based on the next generation sequencing technology, the Huagu11 genome had the highest genomic continuity. Intraspecies comparison showed about 94.97 and 94.66% of the Yugu1 and Huagu11 genomes, respectively, were able to be aligned as one-to-one blocks with four chromosome inversion. The Huagu11 genome contained approximately 19.43 Mb Presence/absence Variation (PAV) with 627 protein-coding transcripts, while Yugu1 genomes had 20.53 Mb PAV sequences encoding 737 proteins. Overall, 969,596 Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and 156,282 insertion-deletion (InDels) were identified between these two genomes. The genome comparison between Huagu11 and Yugu1 should reflect the genetic identity and variation between the cultivars of foxtail millet to a certain extent. The Ser-626-Aln substitution in acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) was found to be relative to the imazethapyr tolerance in Huagu11.

Conclusions: A new improved high-quality reference genome sequence of Setaria italica was assembled, and intraspecies genome comparison determined the genetic identity and variation between the cultivars of foxtail millet. Based on the genome sequence, it was inferred that the Ser-626-Aln substitution in AHAS was responsible for the imazethapyr tolerance in Huagu11. The new improved reference genome of Setaria italica will promote the genic and genomic studies of this species and be beneficial for cultivar improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03003-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196518PMC
June 2021

Serum iron and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and advanced hepatic fibrosis in US adults.

Sci Rep 2021 05 17;11(1):10387. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Ren'ai Road, Suzhou, 215123, China.

Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between serum iron and liver diseases is limited. This study aims to investigate whether serum iron is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced hepatic fibrosis (AHF). Cross-sectional data for adults aged ≥ 18 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2018 were analyzed. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of NAFLD and AHF associated with serum iron were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 18,031 males and 18,989 females were included in the analysis. After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, serum iron was significantly and inversely associated with NAFLD in both genders (P-trend < 0.001) and AHF in females (P-trend = 0.018). Compared to the bottom quartile, those in higher quartiles of serum iron had no significant ORs for AHF in males, but the trend across the quartiles was significant (P-trend = 0.046). In conclusion, higher serum iron level was associated with lower risk of NAFLD in males and females, and with lower risk of AHF in females but not in males. No significant racial/ethnical differences in these associations were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89991-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128903PMC
May 2021

Characteristics of Viral Shedding Time in SARS-CoV-2 Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Public Health 2021 19;9:652842. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The viral shedding time (VST) of SARS-CoV-2 mainly determines its transmission and duration of infectiousness. However, it was heterogeneous in the existing studies. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively summarize the VST of SARS-CoV-2. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, CNKI, CSTJ, and Wanfang up to October 25, 2020, for studies that reported VSTs of SARS-CoV-2. Pooled estimates and 95% CIs for the VSTs were calculated using log-transformed data. The VSTs in SARS-CoV-2 infections based on different demographic and clinical characteristics, treatments and specimens were stratified by subgroup analysis. A total of 35 studies involving 3,385 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled mean VST was 16.8 days (95% CI: 14.8-19.4, = 99.56%) in SARS-CoV-2 infections. The VST was significantly longer in symptomatic infections (19.7 days, 95% CI: 17.2-22.7, = 99.34%) than in asymptomatic infections (10.9 days, 95% CI: 8.3-14.3, = 98.89%) ( < 0.05). The VST was 23.2 days (95% CI: 19.0-28.4, = 99.24%) in adults, which was significantly longer than that in children (9.9 days, 95% CI: 8.1-12.2, = 85.74%) ( < 0.05). The VST was significantly longer in persons with chronic diseases (24.2 days, 95% CI: 19.2-30.2, = 84.07%) than in those without chronic diseases (11.5 days, 95% CI: 5.3-25.0, = 82.11%) ( < 0.05). Persons receiving corticosteroid treatment (28.3 days, 95% CI: 25.6-31.2, = 0.00%) had a longer VST than those without corticosteroid treatment (16.2 days, 95% CI: 11.5-22.5, = 92.27%) ( = 0.06). The VST was significantly longer in stool specimens (30.3 days, 95% CI: 23.1-39.2, = 92.09%) than in respiratory tract specimens (17.5 days, 95% CI: 14.9-20.6, = 99.67%) ( < 0.05). A longer VST was found in symptomatic infections, infected adults, persons with chronic diseases, and stool specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.652842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017277PMC
April 2021

The Altered Functional Connectivity With Pain Features Integration and Interaction in Migraine Without Aura.

Front Neurosci 2021 4;15:646538. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Acupuncture and Tuina School/The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: Migraine without aura (MwoA) is a primary type of migraine, a common disabling disorder, and a disabling neurological condition. The headache is a complex experience, a common form of pain, in which multiple sensory information dimensions are combined to provide a unified conscious event. Migraine ictal have unique neuroimage biomarkers, but the brain is also affected during the inter-ictal phase. According to the current studies, a hypothesis was constructed that the altered integration of pain spatial and intensity information impacts headache intensity in the inter-ictal period.

Methods: In this study, we applied theory-based region-to-region functional connectivity (FC) analyses to compare the differences in resting-state FC between MwoA participants and healthy controls with the pain integration hypothesis. After the correlation matrices between FC edges and clinical symptoms were constructed, the moderating effect and simple slope tests were investigated to explain whether and how the dysfunction of pain features discrimination affects the clinical symptoms.

Results: Functional connectivity analyses showed significantly decreased FC edges between the left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus (SFGdor) and left insula, and an increased FC edge between the left SFGdor and bilateral angular gyrus. The correlation matrix showed no significant correlation between significantly altered FC edge and headache duration, frequency, Zung self-rating anxiety scale, and Zung self-rating depression scale. Only one significantly altered edge in the MwoA condition was significantly correlated with headache intensity. Moderating Module 1 and 2 manifested the moderator variable (altered rs-FC edge) moderated the link between the normal edges and headache intensity.

Conclusion: The pain features integration processes in migraineurs vary from HCs, related to the clinical symptoms during a migraine attack. Moreover, the clinical symptoms will be affected by one or more discrimination modules. And the spatial or intensity discrimination modules have a higher impact when combined with another module on clinical symptoms than the single module.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.646538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969893PMC
March 2021

Worldwide burden of genital human papillomavirus infection in female sex workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 05;50(2):527-537

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Although female sex workers (FSWs) have long been identified as a key human papillomavirus (HPV)-affected population, the burden and scope of their disproportionate risk for HPV infection have not been systematically estimated. We therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV and the distribution of HPV types in FSWs at the country, regional and global levels.

Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, EBSCO, ProQuest, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 June 2019. Studies of genital HPV prevalence in FSWs, or with sufficient data (e.g. adequate number of HPV-positive cases and sample size) to compute prevalence rates in FSWs, were included in this systematic review. The meta-analysis was completed using the random effects model.

Results: We ultimately identified 107 studies in 45 countries or regions with sufficient data to calculate HPV prevalence in FSWs. The pooled global HPV prevalence among FSWs was 39.5% (95% CI 35.3, 43.9%), with notable variations by WHO region and country. Globally, the five most common HPV types in FSWs were HPV16 (9.0%), HPV 52 (8.3%), HPV89 (7.0%), HPV58 (6.2%), and HPV53 (5.3%).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that FSWs are disproportionately affected by HPV, which is more pronounced in the Western Pacific and African regions, and are therefore in need of prevention, treatment and care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa289DOI Listing
May 2021

The epidemiological and radiographical characteristics of asymptomatic infections with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 12;104:458-464. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China; Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The role of asymptomatic infections in the transmission of COVID-19 have drawn considerable attention. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the epidemiological and radiographical characteristics of asymptomatic infections associated with COVID-19.

Methods: Data on the epidemiological and radiographical characteristics of asymptomatic infections were extracted from the existing literature. Pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals were then calculated using a random effects model.

Results: A total of 104 studies involving 20,152 cases were included. The proportion of asymptomatic individuals among those with COVID-19 was 13.34% (10.86%-16.29%), among which presymptomatic and covert infections accounted for 7.64% (4.02%-14.04%) and 8.44% (5.12%-13.62%), respectively. The proportions of asymptomatic infections among infected children and healthcare workers were 32.24% (23.08%-42.13%) and 36.96% (18.51%-60.21%), respectively. The proportion of asymptomatic infections was significantly higher after 2020/02/29 than before (33.53% vs 10.19%) and in non-Asian regions than in Asia (28.76% vs 11.54%). The median viral shedding duration of asymptomatic infections was 14.14 days (11.25-17.04). A total of 47.62% (31.13%-72.87%) of asymptomatic infections showed lung abnormalities, especially ground-glass opacity (41.11% 19.7%-85.79%).

Conclusions: Asymptomatic infections were more commonly found in infected children and healthcare workers and increased after 2020/02/29 and in non-Asian regions. Chest radiographical imaging could be conducive to the early identification of asymptomatic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.01.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833455PMC
March 2021

[Progress and prospect of machine learning in research of acupuncture and moxibustion].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Dec;40(12):1383-6

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu 610075, Sichuan Province, China; Acupuncture Brain Science Research Center, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu 610075, Sichuan Province, China; Key Laboratory of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Chronobiology, Chengdu 610075.

The application progress of machine learning in research of acupuncture and moxibustion was reviewed from three aspects: mining of acupuncture and moxibustion prescription and indications, acupuncture efficacy prediction and its influencing factors, acupoint specificity and acupuncture manipulation research, and the existing problems in current research and future research trends were discussed. It is believed that the appropriate machine learning algorithm should be selected to build the model according to the research purpose and data characteristics in the future research; attention should be paid to feature design, feature selection and feature cleaning; sample data collection should be a priority, and data sharing platform and standardized data collection should be developed to improve the data quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20191026-0002DOI Listing
December 2020

Acupuncture for chronic persistent asthma based on the theory of Meridian-viscera Association: study protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial in China.

Trials 2021 Jan 6;22(1):17. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Acupuncture and Tuina School/The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 37# Shierqiao Road, Chengdu, 610075, Sichuan, China.

Background: Acupuncture is effective in symptom and quality of life improvement of chronic asthma, but the efficacy differences between different acupoints are uncertain. In terms of the theory of Meridian-viscera Association, the study aims to investigate the different effectiveness between acupoints in Lung meridian and the acupoints in Heart meridian, so as to provide the evidence to develop a better prescription of the acupuncture treatment of chronic persistent asthma.

Methods: This study is a multicentral randomized controlled trial. A total of 68 chronic persistent asthma patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: the Lung meridian group and the Heart meridian group. This trial will include a 2-week baseline period, a 4-week treatment period with 12 sessions' acupuncture, and an 8-week follow-up period. The primary outcome is the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Secondary outcomes are the Asthma Control Test (ACT), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF), and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1). The AQLQ and ACT will be collected at baseline, week 4, week 8, and week 12 after randomization. PEF, FEV1, the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) will be assessed at baseline and week 4.

Discussion: The results will provide evidence for acupuncture prescription selection and the clinical efficacy improvement. The results of this trial will also be used to determine whether or not a full definitive trial will go ahead, which will further confirm the theory of Meridian-viscera Association.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=43803 ) ChiCTR1900027284. Registered on 7 November 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04844-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789474PMC
January 2021

Concurrent brain structural and functional alterations in patients with migraine without aura: an fMRI study.

J Headache Pain 2020 Dec 7;21(1):141. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Acupuncture & Tuina School / The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 610036, Sichuan, China.

Objectives: To explore the possible concurrent brain functional and structural alterations in patients with migraine without aura (MwoA) patients compared to healthy subjects (HS).

Methods: Seventy-two MwoA patients and forty-six HS were recruited. 3D-T1 and resting state fMRI data were collected during the interictal period for MwoA and HS. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for structure analysis and regional homogeneity (Reho) for fMRI analysis were applied. The VBM and Reho maps were overlapped to determine a possible brain region with concurrent functional and structural alteration in MwoA patients. Further analysis of resting state functional connectivity (FC) alteration was applied with this brain region as the seed.

Results: Compared with HS, MwoA patients showed decreased volume in the bilateral superior and inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), locus ceruleus, median raphe nuclei (MRN) and dorsal pons medulla junction. MwoA patients showed decreased Reho values in the middle occipital gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, and increased Reho values in the MRN. Only a region in the MRN showed both structural and functional alteration in MwoA patients. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was no association between volume or Reho values of the MRN and headache frequency, headache intensity, disease duration, self-rating anxiety scale or self-rating depression scale in MwoA patients. Resting state functional connectivity (FC) with the MRN as the seed showed that MwoA patients had increased FC between the MRN and PAG.

Conclusions: MRN are involved in the pathophysiology of migraine during the interictal period. This study may help to better understand the migraine symptoms.

Trial Registration: NCT01152632 . Registered 27 June 2010.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-020-01203-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720576PMC
December 2020

Cerebral fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations may predict headache intensity improvement following acupuncture treatment in migraine patients.

J Tradit Chin Med 2020 12;40(6):1041-1051

Acupuncture & Tuina School/The Third Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610000, China.

Objective: To explore how baseline resting-state cerebral function predicts clinical outcomes of acupuncture treatment for migraine.

Methods: One hundred migraine patients and 46 healthy subjects were recruited. Patients were randomized into the acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and waiting list groups. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at baseline and after 1 month of longitudinal acupuncture treatments. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) calculations were applied to explore the associations between baseline fALFF and changes in clinical variables in the acupuncture treatment group and the waiting list group.

Results: Compared with healthy subjects, migraine patients had lower fALFF in the left rostral ventromedial medulla, right thalamus, left amygdala, and right angular gyrus. Regression analyses revealed that baseline fALFF values in the left middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus were positively associated with headache intensity changes in the acupuncture treatment group, while baseline fALFF values in the bilateral lingual gyrus and cuneus were negatively associated with headache intensity changes in this group.

Conclusion: The baseline fALFF values of brain regions associated with cognitive pain modulation, but not migraine severity, may predict future headache intensity improvement levels in migraine patients receiving acupuncture treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.2020.06.016DOI Listing
December 2020

The Spontaneous Activity Pattern of the Middle Occipital Gyrus Predicts the Clinical Efficacy of Acupuncture Treatment for Migraine Without Aura.

Front Neurol 2020 9;11:588207. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Acupuncture and Tuina School/The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

The purpose of the present study was to explore whether and to what extent the neuroimaging markers could predict the relief of the symptoms of patients with migraine without aura (MWoA) following a 4-week acupuncture treatment period. In study 1, the advanced multivariate pattern analysis was applied to perform a classification analysis between 40 patients with MWoA and 40 healthy subjects (HS) based on the z-transformed amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (zALFF) maps. In study 2, the meaningful classifying features were selected as predicting features and the support vector regression models were constructed to predict the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks and headache intensity in 40 patients with MWoA. In study 3, a region of interest-based comparison between the pre- and post-treatment zALFF maps was conducted in 33 patients with MwoA to assess the changes in predicting features after acupuncture intervention. The zALFF value of the foci in the bilateral middle occipital gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left insula, and left superior cerebellum could discriminate patients with MWoA from HS with higher than 70% accuracy. The zALFF value of the clusters in the right and left middle occipital gyrus could effectively predict the relief of headache intensity ( = 0.38 ± 0.059, mean squared error = 2.626 ± 0.325) and frequency of migraine attacks ( = 0.284 ± 0.072, mean squared error = 20.535 ± 2.701) after the 4-week acupuncture treatment period. Moreover, the zALFF values of these two clusters were both significantly reduced after treatment. The present study demonstrated the feasibility and validity of applying machine learning technologies and individual cerebral spontaneous activity patterns to predict acupuncture treatment outcomes in patients with MWoA. The data provided a quantitative benchmark for selecting acupuncture for MWoA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.588207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680874PMC
November 2020

Optimizing the Peritumoral Region Size in Radiomics Analysis for Sentinel Lymph Node Status Prediction in Breast Cancer.

Acad Radiol 2020 Nov 4. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, 100 Nicolls Rd, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Department of Radiology, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, 101 Nicolls Rd, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, 101 Nicolls Rd, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: Peritumoral features have been suggested to be useful in improving the prediction performance of radiomic models. The aim of this study is to systematically investigate the prediction performance improvement for sentinel lymph node (SLN) status in breast cancer from peritumoral features in radiomic analysis by exploring the effect of peritumoral region sizes.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was performed using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans of 162 breast cancer patients. The effect of peritumoral features was evaluated in a radiomics pipeline for predicting SLN metastasis in breast cancer. Peritumoral regions were generated by dilating the tumor regions-of-interest (ROIs) manually annotated by two expert radiologists, with thicknesses of 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm. The prediction models were established in the training set (∼67% of cases) using the radiomics pipeline with and without peritumoral features derived from different peritumoral thicknesses. The prediction performance was tested in an independent validation set (the remaining ∼33%).

Results: For this specific application, the accuracy in the validation set when using the two radiologists' ROIs could be both improved from 0.704 to 0.796 by incorporating peritumoral features. The choice of the peritumoral size could affect the level of improvement.

Conclusion: This study systematically investigates the effect of peritumoral region sizes in radiomic analysis for prediction performance improvement. The choice of the peritumoral size is dependent on the ROI drawing and would affect the final prediction performance of radiomic models, suggesting that peritumoral features should be optimized in future radiomics studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.10.015DOI Listing
November 2020

Acupuncture for chronic stable angina pectoris based on the theory of Meridian-Viscera Association: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Nov 6;21(1):915. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Acupuncture and Tuina School/The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 37# Shierqiao Road, Chengdu, 610075, Sichuan, China.

Background: Acupuncture has long been used to treat chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP), but the acupuncture prescription for CSAP varies. This trial will compare the therapeutic effects between the acupoints on the Heart Meridian and the acupoints on the Lung Meridian for treating CSAP, so as to provide a better prescription for acupuncture treatment of CSAP.

Methods: This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial. A total of 148 CSAP patients will be randomly allocated into two groups through central randomization in a 1:1 ratio. This trial will include a 2-week screening period, a 4-week treatment period, and a 4-week follow-up period. The primary outcome is the frequency of angina attacks from baseline to 4 weeks after inclusion. Secondary outcomes include the frequency of angina attacks from baseline to 4 weeks after acupuncture treatment, the pain intensity of angina, total ischemia burden, heart rate variability, QT dispersion, the score of Seattle Angina Questionnaire, and the score of Short-Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire. These outcome measures will be evaluated at baseline, at the end of acupuncture treatment, and at the end of follow-up.

Discussion: We hypothesize that the effectiveness of puncturing at acupoints on the Heart Meridian will not be the same as those on the Lung Meridian. The results will provide further evidence of Meridian-Viscera Association theory and references for acupoints selection in the clinical practice.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1900025804 . Registered on September 9, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04836-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646707PMC
November 2020

Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D participates in inflammatory pain by promoting NF-κB activation through interaction with TAK1 and IKK complex.

Cell Signal 2020 12 18;76:109813. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor D (MrgprD) is mainly expressed in small-diameter sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Results from previous studies suggest that MrgprD participates in mechanical hyperalgesia and nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, it remains elusive whether and how MrgprD is involved in inflammatory pain. Here, we used a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain established by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS injection induced an evident peripheral neuroinflammation and mechanical hyperalgesia in the mice and increased MrgprD expression in the DRG. The LPS administration also augmented the proportion of MrgprD-expressing neurons in the lumbar 4 DRG. Behaviorally, the LPS-induced hypersensitivities to mechanical and cold stimuli, but not to a heat stimulus, were substantially attenuated in Mrgprd-knockout mice compared with wildtype littermates. Mrgprd deletion in DRGs suppressed the LPS-triggered activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and attenuated LPS-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of MrgprD in HEK293 cells stably expressing mouse toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) markedly promoted the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and enhanced NF-κB's DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, MrgprD physically interacted with TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) complexes, but not with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in mouse DRGs. In macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, MrgprD also interacted with TAK1 and IKK complex, and the treatment of MrgprD agonist elicited the activation of NF-κB signaling, but not of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway. Our findings indicate that MrgprD facilitates the development of LPS-triggered persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia by promoting canonical NF-κB activation, highlighting the important roles of MrgprD in NF-κB-mediated inflammation and chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109813DOI Listing
December 2020

Does the Acupoint Specificity Exist? Evidence from Functional Neuroimaging Studies.

Curr Med Imaging 2020 ;16(6):629-638

Acupuncture and Tuina School/The 3rd Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan 610075, China.

Background: Using functional neuroimaging techniques to explore the central mechanism of acupoint specificity, the key of acupuncture theory and clinical practice, has attracted increasing attention worldwide. This review aimed to investigate the current status of functional neuroimaging studies on acupoint specificity and explore the potential influencing factors for the expression of acupoint specificity in neuroimaging studies.

Methods: PubMed database was searched from January 1st, 1995 to December 31st, 2016 with the language restriction in English. Data including basic information, methodology and study results were extracted and analyzed from the eligible records.

Results: Seventy-nine studies were finally enrolled. 65.8% of studies were performed in China, 73.4% of studies were conducted with healthy subjects, 77.2% of studies chose manual acupuncture as the intervention, 86.1% of studies focused on the instant efficacy and 89.9% of studies used functional magnetic resonance imaging as scanning technique. The average sample size was 16 per group. The comparison of verum acupoints and sham acupoints were the main body of acupoint specificity researches. 93.7% of studies obtained the positive results and favored the existence of acupoint specificity.

Conclusion: This review affirmed the existence of acupoint specificity and deemed that the acupoint specificity was relative. Multiple factors such as participants, sample size, acupoint combinations, treatment courses, and types of acupoint could influence the expression of acupoint specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405615666190220113111DOI Listing
July 2021

Traditional Chinese herbal bath therapy for insomnia: A protocol for systematic review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(29):e21166

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu.

Introduction: Insomnia is a major public health problem. Due to the side effects of pharmacological therapy, people are seeking to choose complementary and alternative therapies for insomnia disorder. Traditional Chinese herbal bath therapy is an important complementary therapy which combines advantages of Chinese herbs and bathing therapy. This protocol describes the methodology of a systematic review assessing the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herbal bath therapy for insomnia.

Methods And Analysis: Reporting of this review will be adherent to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We will electronically search the following seven databases from inception to January 23, 2020: PubMed, Cochrane database (CENTRAL), EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database, and Wanfang Database. Parallel randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herbal bath therapy for insomnia will be included. Study selection, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias will be performed independently by two researchers. The sleep quality will be assessed as the primary outcome. Global symptom improvement, anxiety and depression, and adverse events will be evaluated as secondary outcomes. The Cochrane's risk of bias tool will be utilized for assessing the methodological quality of included studies. Revman software (v.5.3) will be used for data synthesis and statistical analysis. Data will be synthesized by either fixed-effects or random-effects model according to a heterogeneity test. If it is not appropriate for a meta-analysis, a descriptive analysis will be conducted. GRADE system will be used to assess the quality of evidence.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020168507.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373592PMC
July 2020

Draft genome of the famous ornamental plant .

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 12;10(11):4518-4530. Epub 2020 May 12.

Luoyang Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences Luoyang Henan China.

Tree peony ( Sect) is a famous ornamental plant, with huge historical, cultural, and economic significance worldwide. In this study, we reported the ~13.79 Gb draft genome of a wide-grown cultivar "Luo shen xiao chun," representing the largest sequenced genome in dicots to date. Phylogenetic analyses based on genome sequences demonstrated that was placed as sister to Vitales, and they together formed a clade that was sister to Rosids, weakly supporting a relationship of ((Saxifragales and Vitales) and Rosids). The identification and expression analysis of MADS-box genes based on the genome assembly and de novo transcriptome assembly of revealed that the function of C class genes was restricted in flower development, which might be responsible for the stamen petalody in tree peony cultivars. Overall, the first sequenced genome in the family Paeoniaceae provides an important resource for the origin, domestication, and evolutionary study as well as cultivar breeding in tree peony.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297784PMC
June 2020

Copper-Catalyzed Three-Component Formal [3 + 1 + 2] Benzannulation for Carbazole and Indole Synthesis.

J Org Chem 2020 Jul 25;85(14):9117-9128. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, People's Republic of China.

Three-component formal [3 + 1 + 2] benzannulation reactions of indole-3-carbaldehydes or 1-methyl-pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes with two different molecules of saturated ketones have been successfully developed under Cu-catalyzed and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated conditions. Various unsymmetrically substituted carbazoles and indoles were obtained up to 95% yield. Furthermore, the resulting products exhibit unusual aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties in the solid state. This method features high atom-economy, cheap catalysts and oxidants, wide substrate scope, and saturated ketones as one-carbon and two-carbon sources, thus providing an efficient approach to polycyclic carbazole and indole compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c01056DOI Listing
July 2020

The brain structure and function alterations in tension-type headache: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(24):e20411

College of Acupuncture & Moxibustion and Tuina, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Hunan.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of tension-type headache (TTH), as well as propose avenues for future neuroimaging studies of TTH.

Methods: From the inception dates to May 1, 2020, a systematic literature will search in Medline (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and 4 Chinese databases without limitation on language or publication. Additionally, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform , reference lists, and relevant gray literatures will be searched. After screening of eligible references, included studies will be determined according to included criteria, and then data extraction and a methodological quality assessment with a customized checklist will be conducted. Each process will be independently implemented by 2 reviewers, any disagreement will be resolved by consensus to the third researcher. If the extracted data is feasible, anisotropic effect-size version of signed differential mapping will be conducted to perform the meta-analysis of the structural and functional brain alterations in TTH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302660PMC
June 2020

Effect of acupuncture and its influence on cerebral activity in patients with persistent asthma: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Trials 2020 May 14;21(1):406. Epub 2020 May 14.

Brain Research Center, Acupuncture and Tuina School/Third Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 37 Shierqiao Road, Chengdu, 610075, Sichuan, China.

Background: Previous studies suggested that acupuncture was a promising adjunctive treatment for asthma. However, the underlying mechanism of acupuncture for asthma remains unclear. The aim of the present trial is to explore whether and how specific meridian acupuncture works in quality of life and symptomatic improvement by modulating brain function in patients with asthma.

Methods/design: This is a randomized controlled functional brain imaging trial currently being conducted in Sichuan, China. In total, 48 patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma will be recruited randomly and allocated to either of two acupuncture groups: acupuncture at the lung meridian or acupuncture at the heart meridian. The treatment period will last 4 weeks. The Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire is the primary outcome. The Asthma Control Test, peak expiratory flow rate, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale will also be used to assess the clinical efficacy of different interventions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) will be performed to detect cerebral activity changes in each group. The clinical data and fMRI data will be analyzed between groups, then, the Pearson correlation analysis will be used to assess the association between the changes of cerebral activity features and the improvement of clinical outcomes in each group.

Discussion: The present study has been established on the basis of the "meridian-viscera relationship" theory of traditional Chinese medicine and the modern central mechanism of acupuncture. The results of this trial would be useful to identify the efficiency of the specific meridian acupuncture for asthma. The investigation of its central mechanism would further expand knowledge of acupuncture for asthma.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900027478. Registered on 15 November 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04319-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227329PMC
May 2020
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