Publications by authors named "Lei Jin"

948 Publications

Nutritional Status of Selenium and Its Association with Diet and Indoor Air Pollution among Pregnant Women in a Rural Area of Northern China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Nov 18;18(22). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, National Health Commission Key Laboratory, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

The nutritional status of selenium (Se) in pregnant women in rural areas of northern China and its association with diet and indoor air pollution are rarely reported. We recruited 273 pregnant women in early or middle term in Shanxi and Hebei province and detected their fasting blood selenium. Demographic characteristics, food habits, and indoor air pollution exposure were collected with a questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% confidence intervals for the factors and relatively low blood levels of Se (below the lower quartile). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) blood concentration of Se was 117.35 (103.90, 129.23) μg/L. The rate of Se deficiency was 4.8%, and the rate of overnutrition was 23.8%. The AORs for the risk for relatively low blood levels of Se were 2.26 (1.15, 4.44) for consuming less beef and pork/mutton; 0.39 (0.19, 0.80) for a lower frequency of vinegar consumption; and 1.41 (0.76, 2.60) and 1.18 (0.59, 2.36) for passive smoking and indoor coal pollution, respectively. In conclusion, the nutritional status of Se in pregnant women in a rural area of northern China was acceptable; diet was the main determinant; no conclusive association was found between indoor air pollution and Se nutritional status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212090DOI Listing
November 2021

Clinical Manifestations, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathies in Connective Tissue Diseases: More Diverse and Frequent in Different Subtypes than Expected.

Authors:
Lei Jin Yu Liu

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Oct 21;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200336, China.

Purpose Of Review: To discuss and summarize recent findings in peripheral neuropathy (PN) related to connective tissue diseases (CTD) including its prevalence, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

Recent Findings: Although PN is a common complication in CTD and has been well studied, recent research has shown that PN is more diverse and frequent in different subtypes of CTD than was expected. The incidence of PN in Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) varies according to different disease subtypes, and the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain in different subtypes of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) may also differ. Neurogenic inflammation, autoantibody-mediated changes, ischemia of the vascular wall and metabolic mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of PN in CTD. Moreover, allergic inflammation has been recently identified as a possible new mechanism producing peripheral neuropathic pain associated with MPO-ANCA negative EGPA patients. Glucocorticoids are routinely used to relieve pain caused by PN. However, these steroids may cause hyperalgesia, exacerbate neuropathic pain, and activate the early phase of pain induction and produce hyperalgesia. Recently, neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone and testosterone, have been shown to exert protective effects for several PN symptoms, and in particular neuropathic pain. Neuroactive steroids will be an interesting topic for future research into PN in CTD.

Summary: It is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of PN in CTD to be updated. Timely diagnosis, appropriate treatments, and multidisciplinary care are essential to minimize morbidity and decrease the risk of permanent neurologic deficits. Further studies are needed to guide diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11111956DOI Listing
October 2021

Targeting Oncogenic miR-181a-2-3p Inhibits Growth and Suppresses Cisplatin Resistance of Gastric Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 16;13:8599-8609. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the value of miR-181a-2-3p in cisplatin (DDP) treatment effectiveness prediction, and to reveal the function underlying the reversal of DDP resistance in patients with gastric cancer (GC).

Methods: miRNA expression dataset of three DDP-resistant GC cell lines and their DDP-sensitive parental cell lines obtained from GEO DataSets and GenBank, and functional miRNAs were annotated by bioinformatics analyses. Serum specimens and tumor samples were collected from 91 GC patients for understanding of the interrelation between chemotherapy response and miRNA expression. RT-qPCR validated these miRNAs at the transcriptional level in both gastric cancer cells and 91 gastric cancer patients. The correlation between the miRNAs expression and clinical parameters of the patients were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis has been utilized to assess the diagnostic performance. The MTT and colony formation assays were performed to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was conducted to detect cell apoptosis. DDP-resistant GC cells and their DDP-sensitive parental cells were transfected with miRNA mimic or inhibitor vector to overexpress or downregulate miRNA expression.

Results: miR-181a-2-3p as a unique miRNA was found in the common differentially expressed-miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) after miRNA screening and validation from three DDP-resistant and DDP-sensitive gastric cancer cell lines. Clinical data analysis displayed that miR-181a-2-3p expression was apparently increased in larger tumor size (≥5 cm), higher T stage (T4), and chemotherapy resistance. miR-181a-2-3p (AUC=0.926, SE=0.028, 95% CI: 0.872-0.980, < 0.0001) differentiated chemosensitive GC patients from chemoresistant GC patients. miR-181a-2-3p presented a higher level in gastric cancer, and could serve as a valid biomarker to predict the overall survival of GC patients. Upregulation of miR-181a-2-3p rendered the apoptosis-inducing and anti-proliferative effects of DDP, while downregulating it decreased these effects.

Conclusion: miR-181a-2-3p can function as a therapeutic target and a tumor biomarker. Targeting oncogenic miR-181a-2-3p inhibits growth and suppresses cisplatin resistance of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S332713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8605795PMC
November 2021

Immediate Effect of Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Point on Hand Spasticity in Chronic Post-stroke Patients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Neurol 2021 29;12:745618. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Rehabilitation, Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Hand spasticity after stroke influences the rehabilitation of hand function. Immediate and effective relief of spasticity potentially creates conditions for later rehabilitation training, which has far-reaching significance in the smooth transition of patients to the recovery period. To evaluate the immediate effect of dry needling (DN) at myofascial trigger point on hand spasticity in stroke patients. This was a prospective, evaluator blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. A total of 210 participants were randomly divided into DN group (DN, = 70), sham dry needling group (SDN, = 70), and control group ( = 70). Participants in the DN group were treated with DN at myofascial trigger point five times (30 min each time) every week for 4 weeks. Subjects in the SDN group were manipulated the same way as in the DN group, except that the acupuncture site was located in the area adjacent to the myofascial trigger point, which constituted a SDN. Routine rehabilitation treatment was performed for participants in the two groups and in the control group. The primary evaluation index was the immediate effect of hand spasticity relief. Secondary evaluation indicators included the cumulative effect of hand spasticity relief from baseline to week 4, and the changes in flexion angles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers 2-5 in the rest position before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after intervention. The immediate effective rate of spasticity relief (thumb, fingers 2-5, and wrist) of patients with different degrees of spasticity in the DN group was higher than that in the control and SDN groups (thumb, χ = 55.833, < 0.001; fingers 2-5, χ = 68.096, < 0.001; wrist, χ = 49.180, < 0.001) ( < 0.05). The effective rate of spasticity relief from baseline to 4 weeks in the DN group exceeded that in the control group and SDN groups (thumb, χ = 8.806, = 0.012; fingers 2-5, χ = 8.087, = 0.018; and wrist, χ = 8.653, = 0.013) ( < 0.05). No difference in immediate and cumulative effect was found between the control group and SDN group. The change of joints flexion angles in resting position before and after each treatment in the DN group was higher than that in the control and SDN groups ( < 0.05), but it was not significantly different between the control group and SDN group. At 4 weeks, although the change in the DN group was higher than that in the control group and SDN group, this difference was not statistically significant ( > 0.05). Dry needling can relieve varying degrees of hand spasticity instantly in post-stroke. www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1900022379.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.745618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585994PMC
October 2021

A Tuning Fork Frequency Up-Conversion Energy Harvester.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Nov 1;21(21). Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Beijing Institute of Aerospace Control Device, Beijing 100039, China.

In this paper, a novel tuning fork structure for self-frequency up-conversion is proposed. The structure has an in-phase vibration mode and an anti-phase vibration mode. The in-phase vibration mode is used to sense the environment vibration, and the anti-phase vibration mode is used for energy conversion and power generation. The low-frequency energy collection and the high-frequency energy conversion can be achieved simultaneously. Theoretical and experimental results show that the tuning fork frequency up-conversion energy harvester has excellent performance. This structure provides the energy harvester with excellent output power in a low-frequency vibration environment. At the resonant frequency of 7.3 Hz under 0.7 g acceleration, the peak voltage is 41.8 V and the peak power is 8.74 mW. The tuning fork frequency up-conversion energy harvester causes the humidity sensor to work stably. The structure has the potential to power wireless sensor nodes or to be used as a small portable vibration storage device, especially suitable for the monitoring of the environment related to human movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21217285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8587805PMC
November 2021

Dynamic Optical Visualization of Proton Transport Pathways at Water-Solid Interfaces.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Laboratory of Experimental Physical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Probing proton transport is of vital importance for understanding cellular transport, surface catalysis and fuel cells. Conventional proton transport measurements rely on the use of electrochemical conductivity and do not allow for the direct visualization of proton transport pathways. The development of novel experimental techniques to spatiotemporally resolve proton transport is in high demand. Here, building upon the general conversion of aqueous proton flux into spatially resolved fluorescence signals, we optically visualize proton transport through nanopores and along hydrophilic interfaces. We observed that the fluorescence intensity increased at negative voltage due to lateral transport. Thanks to the temporal resolution of optical imaging, our technique further empowers the analysis of proton transport dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202112150DOI Listing
November 2021

BAY61‑3606 attenuates neuroinflammation and neurofunctional damage by inhibiting microglial Mincle/Syk signaling response after traumatic brain injury.

Int J Mol Med 2022 01 9;49(1). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, P.R. China.

Neuroinflammatory processes mediated by microglial activation and subsequent neuronal damage are the hallmarks of traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an inhibitor of the macrophage‑inducible C‑type lectin (Mincle)/spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signaling pathway, BAY61‑3606 (BAY) has previously demonstrated anti‑inflammatory effects on some pathological processes, such as acute kidney injury, by suppressing the inflammatory macrophage response. In the present study, the potential effects of BAY on microglial phenotype and neuroinflammation after TBI were investigated. BAY (3 mg/kg) was first administered into mice by intraperitoneal injection after TBI induction and microglia were also treated with BAY (2 µM) . The levels of inflammatory factors in microglia were assessed using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and ELISA. Cortical neuron, myelin sheath, astrocyte and cerebrovascular endothelial cell markers were detected using immunofluorescence. The levels of components of the Mincle/Syk/NF‑κB signaling pathway [Mincle, phosphorylated (p)‑Syk and NF‑κB], in addition to proteins associated with inflammation (ASC, caspase‑1, TNF‑α, IL‑1β and IL‑6), apoptosis (Bax and Bim) and tight junctions (Claudin‑5), were measured via western blotting and ELISA. Migration and chemotaxis of microglial cells were evaluated using Transwell and agarose spot assays. Neurological functions of the mice were determined using the modified neurological severity scoring system and a Morris water maze. The results of the present study revealed that the expression levels of proteins in the Mincle/Syk/NF‑κB signaling pathway (including Mincle, p‑Syk and p‑NF‑κB), inflammatory cytokines (TNF‑α, IL‑1β and IL‑6), proteins involved in inflammation (ASC and caspase‑1), apoptotic markers (Bax and Bim) and the tight junction protein Claudin‑5 were significantly altered post‑TBI. BAY treatment reversed these effects in both the cerebral cortex extract‑induced cell model and the controlled cortical impact mouse model. BAY was also revealed to suppress activation of the microglial proinflammatory phenotype and microglial migration. In addition, BAY effectively attenuated TBI‑induced neurovascular unit damage and neurological function deficits. Taken together, these findings provided evidence that BAY may inhibit the Mincle/Syk/NF‑κB signaling pathway in microglia; this in turn could attenuate microglia‑mediated neuroinflammation and improve neurological deficits following TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5060DOI Listing
January 2022

Downregulation of is a novel prognostic biomarker for glioma patients.

Open Life Sci 2021 25;16(1):1164-1174. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Radiology, People's Hospital of Gaoxin District, Suzhou, 215129, Jiangsu, China.

is a winged helix transcription factor structurally and functionally related to the forkhead family of transcription factors. Recent studies have highlighted its role in the central nervous system and revealed hints in the development of glioma. However, the expression profiles of , its association with clinicopathological characteristics, and potential functions in glioma remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed three publicly available datasets including CGGA, TCGA, and Rembrandt and revealed a grade-dependent reduction in expression in glioma ( < 0.001). Chi-square test demonstrated that low expression was significantly associated with older age at initial diagnosis ( < 0.001), less IDH1 mutation ( < 0.001), and advanced WHO grade ( < 0.001). Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that expression may serve as a novel independent prognostic biomarker in glioma patients. Bioinformatic functional analysis (GSEA) predicted that was related to many key cancer pathways including P53 signaling pathway ( < 0.01), DNA replication ( < 0.05), homologous recombination ( < 0.05), and Wnt signaling pathway ( < 0.05). Taken together, these findings suggested that may be used as a novel predictive molecular biomarker for glioma grading and overall patient survival. Further investigations on the functional roles and therapeutic value of in glioma are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/biol-2021-0119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8546287PMC
October 2021

HARNAS: Human Activity Recognition Based on Automatic Neural Architecture Search Using Evolutionary Algorithms.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 19;21(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China.

Human activity recognition (HAR) based on wearable sensors is a promising research direction. The resources of handheld terminals and wearable devices limit the performance of recognition and require lightweight architectures. With the development of deep learning, the neural architecture search (NAS) has emerged in an attempt to minimize human intervention. We propose an approach for using NAS to search for models suitable for HAR tasks, namely, HARNAS. The multi-objective search algorithm NSGA-II is used as the search strategy of HARNAS. To make a trade-off between the performance and computation speed of a model, the F1 score and the number of floating-point operations (FLOPs) are selected, resulting in a bi-objective problem. However, the computation speed of a model not only depends on the complexity, but is also related to the memory access cost (MAC). Therefore, we expand the bi-objective search to a tri-objective strategy. We use the Opportunity dataset as the basis for most experiments and also evaluate the portability of the model on the UniMiB-SHAR dataset. The experimental results show that HARNAS designed without manual adjustments can achieve better performance than the best model tweaked by humans. HARNAS obtained an F1 score of 92.16% and parameters of 0.32 MB on the Opportunity dataset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21206927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540708PMC
October 2021

Prenatal uranium exposure and risk for fetal neural tube defects: A case-control study in women living in a rural area of northern China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Oct 7;424(Pt B):127466. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The adverse effects of uranium exposure on human health are well-known; less is known, however, regarding its association with congenital malformations. We conducted a case-control study to examine the association between prenatal exposure to uranium and risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs) using the concentration of uranium in placental tissue as an exposure marker in 408 NTD cases and 593 healthy controls. Uranium concentration was quantified with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The odds ratios of NTDs for uranium exposure levels, categorized into quartiles, were estimated using logistic regression. The median concentration of uranium in the NTD group (0.409 ng/g) was significantly higher than that in the control group (0.218 ng/g). The risk for NTDs increased 2.52-fold (95% CI, 1.85-3.45) for concentrations of uranium above the median value for all participants. After adjusting for confounders, the risk for NTDs increased 1.36-fold (95% CI, 1.25-6.17), 1.77-fold (95% CI, 1.09-2.85), and 3.60-fold (95% CI, 2.30-5.64) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of uranium concentrations compared to the lowest quartile, respectively. Prenatal exposure to uranium is a risk factor for NTDs in this population. Prospective studies are needed to further validate this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127466DOI Listing
October 2021

A novel homozygous missense variant in BTG4 causes zygotic cleavage failure and female infertility.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Purpose: "Zygotic cleavage failure" is an embryonic phenotype that causes female infertility and failure of in vitro fertilization and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We aimed to identify pathogenic variants in a female infertility patient from a consanguineous family with the "zygotic cleavage failure" phenotype.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in the affected patient; Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the identified variant. The functional effect of the identified variant was further investigated in HeLa cells.

Results: We identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in BTG4 (c.285G > C, p.W95C) in the affected individual. Co-immunoprecipitation in HeLa cells showed the complete loss of the interaction between the p.W95C BTG4 variant protein and CNOT7.

Conclusion: This study confirms our previous research and expands the mutational spectrum of BTG4. Our findings complement the diagnostic genetic basis for "zygotic cleavage failure" patients and suggest that BTG4 may be a good target for future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-021-02340-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Visualization of endogenous p27 and Ki67 reveals the importance of a c-Myc-driven metabolic switch in promoting survival of quiescent cancer cells.

Theranostics 2021 21;11(19):9605-9622. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, NSW, 2308, Australia.

Recurrent and metastatic cancers often undergo a period of dormancy, which is closely associated with cellular quiescence, a state whereby cells exit the cell cycle and are reversibly arrested in G0 phase. Curative cancer treatment thus requires therapies that either sustain the dormant state of quiescent cancer cells, or preferentially, eliminate them. However, the mechanisms responsible for the survival of quiescent cancer cells remain obscure. Dual genome-editing was carried out using a CRISPR/Cas9-based system to label endogenous p27 and Ki67 with the green and red fluorescent proteins EGFP and mCherry, respectively, in melanoma cells. Analysis of transcriptomes of isolated EGFP-p27mCherry-Ki67 quiescent cells was conducted at bulk and single cell levels using RNA-sequencing. The extracellular acidification rate and oxygen consumption rate were measured to define metabolic phenotypes. SiRNA and inducible shRNA knockdown, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were employed to elucidate mechanisms of the metabolic switch in quiescent cells. Dual labelling of endogenous p27 and Ki67 with differentiable fluorescent probes allowed for visualization, isolation, and analysis of viable p27Ki67 quiescent cells. Paradoxically, the proto-oncoprotein c-Myc, which commonly drives malignant cell cycle progression, was expressed at relatively high levels in p27Ki67 quiescent cells and supported their survival through promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In this context, c-Myc selectively transactivated genes encoding OXPHOS enzymes, including subunits of isocitric dehydrogenase 3 (IDH3), whereas its binding to cell cycle progression gene promoters was decreased in quiescent cells. Silencing of c-Myc or the catalytic subunit of IDH3, IDH3α, preferentially killed quiescent cells, recapitulating the effect of treatment with OXPHOS inhibitors. These results establish a rigorous experimental system for investigating cellular quiescence, uncover the high selectivity of c-Myc in activating OXPHOS genes in quiescent cells, and propose OXPHOS targeting as a potential therapeutic avenue to counter cancer cells in quiescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.63763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490506PMC
September 2021

Pharmacological inhibition of serine synthesis enhances temozolomide efficacy by decreasing O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage in glioblastoma.

Lab Invest 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary tumor in the central nervous system of adults. Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM patients. However, its efficacy is often limited by innate or acquired chemoresistance. Cancer cells can rewire their metabolic programming to support rapid growth and sustain cell survival against chemotherapies. An example is the de novo serine synthesis pathway (SSP), one of the main branches from glycolysis that is highly activated in multiple cancers in promoting cancer progression and inducing chemotherapy resistance. However, the roles of SSP in TMZ therapy for GBM patients remain unexplored. In this study, we employed NCT503, a highly selective inhibitor of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH, the first rate-limiting enzyme of SSP), to study whether inhibition of SSP may enhance TMZ efficacy in MGMT-positive GBMs. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), flowcytometry and colony formation assays demonstrated that NCT503 worked synergistically with TMZ in suppressing GBM cell growth and inducing apoptosis in T98G and U118 cells in vitro. U118 and patient-derived GBM subcutaneous xenograft models showed that combined NCT503 and TMZ treatment inhibited GBM growth and promoted apoptosis more significantly than would each treatment alone in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that NCT503 treatment decreased MGMT expression possibly by modulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were elevated especially when NCT503 and TMZ treatments were combined, and the synergistic effects could be partially negated by NAC, a classic scavenger of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these results suggest that NCT503 may be a promising agent for augmenting TMZ efficacy in the treatment of GBM, especially in TMZ-resistant GBMs with high expression of MGMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00666-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Amplitude-modulated continuous-wave laser rangefinder employing Bessel-Gauss beamforming.

Appl Opt 2021 Aug;60(24):7485-7491

We propose an amplitude-modulated continuous-wave laser rangefinder employing Bessel-Gauss beamforming. Our Bessel-Gauss beam was generated by a newly proposed doublet configuration, which is simple and low cost. Such a beam was propagated >2 with a mainlobe having the diameter <1. We have conducted proof-of-concept ranging experiments employing the amplitude-modulated continuous-wave scheme with the Bessel-Gauss beam and obtained ranging results of a measurement distance up to 2 m. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply zeroth-order Bessel-Gauss beamforming to laser rangefinders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.432556DOI Listing
August 2021

Ibrutinib ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through autophagy activation and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in diabetic mice.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):7432-7445

Department of Neurology, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, 201318, PR China.

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is involved in the diabetogenic process and cerebral ischemic injury. However, it remained unclear whether BTK inhibition has remedial effects on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury complicated with diabetes. We aim to investigate the regulatory role and potential mechanism of ibrutinib, a selective inhibitor of BTK, in cerebral I/R injured diabetic mice. The cytotoxicity and cell vitality tests were performed to evaluate the toxic and protective effects of ibrutinib at different incubating concentrations on normal PC12 cells or which were exposed to high glucose for 24 h, followed by hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R), respectively. Streptozotocin (STZ) stimulation-induced diabetic mice were subjected to 1 h ischemia and then reperfusion. Then the diabetic mice received different dosages of ibrutinib or vehicle immediately and 24 h after the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The behavioral, histopathological, and molecular biological tests were then performed to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects and mechanism in I/R injured diabetic mice. Consequently, Ibrutinib improved the decreased cell viability and attenuated oxidative stress in the high glucose incubated PC12 cells which subjected to H/R injury. In the I/R injured diabetic mice, ibrutinib reduced the cerebral infarct volume, improved neurological deficits, ameliorated pathological changes, and improved autophagy in a slightly dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-related proteins were significantly upregulated by ibrutinib treatment. In summary, our finding collectively demonstrated that Ibrutinib could effectively ameliorate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via ameliorating inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and improving autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in diabetic mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1974810DOI Listing
December 2021

Passive Smoking During the Periconceptional Period and Risk for Neural Tube Defects in Offspring - Five Counties, Shanxi Province, China, 2010-2016.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Sep;3(37):778-782

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health/Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Peking University, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known About This Topic?: Passive smoking during pregnancy, which is prevalent in China, has been reported to be associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in five counties of Shanxi Province in northern China.

What Is Added By This Report?: After 4 years since the implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in China, 59.4% of mothers of NTDs cases and 29.4% of mothers of healthy controls reported passive smoking during the periconceptional period. The association between periconceptional passive smoking and an increased risk for NTDs remains in the study population.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practice?: It's urgent to take measures to prevent passive smoking among pregnant women to minimize the harmful effects on offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441180PMC
September 2021

Orofacial Clefts in High Prevalence Area of Birth Defects - Five Counties, Shanxi Province, China, 2000-2020.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Sep;3(37):773-777

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health/Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Peking University, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known On This Topic?: The prevalence of structural birth defects, especially neural tube defects, decreased after national folic acid (FA) supplementation initiation.

What Is Added By This Report?: The prevalence of orofacial clefts (OFCs) in five counties of Shanxi Province in northern China, including most subtypes except cleft palate, showed a downward trend in the past two decades. In this study, pre-perinatal prevalence increased due to earlier detection.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practice?: Periconceptional supplementation with FA may contribute to the decline in OFCs prevalence, while the effect on the OFCs subtype needs further investigation. Continuing to advocate for earlier supplementation (3 months before conception) and increased supplementation frequency (daily consumption) could promote further reduction in the prevalence of OFCs. Specific surveillance of this effect in the era of universal three-child policy is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441179PMC
September 2021

Selected Structural Birth Defects - Shanxi Province, China, 2000-2019.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Sep;2(37):718-722

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health/Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

To reduce the high prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in rural areas of the country, the Ministry of Health of China (currently known as the National Health Commission) initiated a nationwide folic acid supplementation program in 2009. The prevalence of NTDs have decreased from 118.9/10,000 births to 31.5/10,000 in northern China from 2000 to 2014.



Based on a population-based birth-defect surveillance system, the prevalence of selected structural birth defects in 5 counties in northern China decreased significantly from 182.8/10,000 births to 119.3/10,000 during the past two decades. Perinatal (28 gestational weeks or more) structural birth defects decreased from 83.9% of total birth defects in 2000 to 59.9% in 2019.



Improving the compliance of periconceptional folic acid supplementation, the fortification of staple foods with folic acid, and the health education surrounding early prenatal check-ups should be considered to further reduce the risk of birth defects in the population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2020.196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392938PMC
September 2020

Effect of platelet-rich plasma injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy on temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: A prospective cohort study.

J Oral Rehabil 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection combined with physical therapy for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) has not been studied.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy for the treatment of TMJ-OA.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 40 patients with TMJ-OA who received PRP injection or PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy. Pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, temporomandibular joint sounds, and the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS) scores and imaging findings were compared before treatment and during follow-up.

Results: The pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, and temporomandibular joint sounds of the two groups significantly improved with an increase in treatment time (p < .05). The pain improvement in the combined treatment group was greater than that in the PRP injection group at 3 and 6 months (p < .05). The improvement of mouth opening was better in the combined treatment group, whereas the improvement of joint sounds was better in the PRP injection group. The improvement in JFLS scores in the combined treatment group was greater than that in the PRP injection group at 6 months (p < .05). The imaging improvement rates of the two groups were similar.

Conclusions: Platelet-rich plasma injection can significantly improve pain, mouth opening, abnormal joint sound, and mandibular function in patients with TMJ-OA and has good repair effect on condylar bone defects. PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy can effectively control the medium- and long-term pain of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joor.13261DOI Listing
September 2021

Tissue-Resident-Memory CD8 T Cells Bridge Innate Immune Responses in Neighboring Epithelial Cells to Control Human Genital Herpes.

Front Immunol 2021 6;12:735643. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States.

Tissue-resident-memory T cells (TRM) populate the body's barrier surfaces, functioning as frontline responders against reencountered pathogens. Understanding of the mechanisms by which CD8TRM achieve effective immune protection remains incomplete in a naturally recurring human disease. Using laser capture microdissection and transcriptional profiling, we investigate the impact of CD8TRM on the tissue microenvironment in skin biopsies sequentially obtained from a clinical cohort of diverse disease expression during herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) reactivation. Epithelial cells neighboring CD8TRM display elevated and widespread innate and cell-intrinsic antiviral signature expression, largely related to IFNG expression. Detailed evaluation T-cell receptor reconstruction confirms that CD8TRM recognize viral-infected cells at the specific HSV-2 peptide/HLA level. The hierarchical pattern of core IFN- signature expression is well-conserved in normal human skin across various anatomic sites, while elevation of IFI16, TRIM 22, IFITM2, IFITM3, MX1, MX2, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, IFI44, CXCL10 and CCL5 expression is associated with HSV-2-affected asymptomatic tissue. In primary human cells, IFN- pretreatment reduces gene transcription at the immediate-early stage of virus lifecycle, enhances IFI16 restriction of wild-type HSV-2 replication and renders favorable kinetics for host protection. Thus, the adaptive immune response through antigen-specific recognition instructs innate and cell-intrinsic antiviral machinery to control herpes reactivation, a reversal of the canonical thinking of innate activating adaptive immunity in primary infection. Communication from CD8TRM to surrounding epithelial cells to activate broad innate resistance might be critical in restraining various viral diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.735643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450389PMC
September 2021

Does education matter for psychological recovery amidst the COVID-19 pandemic? Evidence from a panel survey in Hubei, China.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2021 Sep 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Sociology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Little has been done to examine socioeconomic differences in the trajectory of psychological well-being during a disaster. This paper investigates educational differences in the changes in psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores the mechanisms of the differences.

Methods: The data were obtained from a unique two-wave panel survey conducted during the peak and waning phases of the pandemic in Hubei province, the epicenter of the pandemic in China.

Results: At the peak of the pandemic, individuals with different levels of education reported high and similar levels of psychological distress. As the pandemic subsided, the psychological well-being of people of all educational levels rebounded, but the recovery was greater and faster for those with tertiary education. Mediation analysis shows that neighborhood social support and evaluation of the performance of grassroots government partially explained the advantage of the more highly educated.

Conclusion: This study reveals how social differentiation is translated into health disparities when a disaster strikes. It may also inform public policy by identifying segments of the population at heightened risk of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2021.1978431DOI Listing
September 2021

Suppressing Sulfite Dimerization at a Polarized Gold Electrode/Water Solution Interface for High-Quality Gold Electrodeposition.

Langmuir 2021 Sep 16;37(38):11251-11259. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of the Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, P. R. China.

Solid/liquid interfacial structure occupies great importance in chemistry, biology, and materials. In this paper, by combining EC-SERS study and DFT calculation, we reveal the adsorption and dimerization of sulfite (SO) at a gold electrode/water solution interface, and establish an adsorption displacement strategy to suppress the dimerization of sulfite. At the gold electrode/sodium sulfite solution interface, at least two layers of SO anions are adsorbed on the electrode surface. As the applied potential shifts negatively, the adsorption strength of the first SO layer is weakened gradually and then is dimerized with the second orientated SO layer to form SO, and SO is further reduced to SO. After hydroxyethylene disphosphonic acid (HEDP) is introduced to the gold electrode/sodium sulfite solution interface, the second oriented SO layer is replaced by a HEDP coadsorption layer. This results in the first layer of SO being desorbed directly without any structural transformation or chemical reaction as the potential shifts negatively. The suppression of sulfite dimerization by HEDP is more clear at the gold electrode/gold sulfite solution interface owing to the electroreduction of gold ions. Furthermore, the electrochemical studies and electrodeposition experiments show that as the sulfite dimerization reaction is suppressed, the electroreduction of gold ions is accelerated, and the deposited gold coating is bright and dense with finer grains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01595DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation of Ovarian Reserve Tests and Age in the Prediction of Poor Ovarian Response to Controlled Ovarian Stimulation-A Real-World Data Analysis of 89,002 Patients.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 30;12:702061. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aims: This study aimed to explore the value of ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) for predicting poor ovary response (POR) and whether an age cutoff could improve this forecasting, so as to facilitate clinical decision-making for women undergoing fertilization (IVF).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on poor ovary response (POR) patients using real-world data from five reproductive centers of university-affiliated hospitals or large academic hospitals in China. A total of 89,002 women with infertility undergoing their first traditional ovarian stimulation cycle for fertilization from January 2013 to December 2019 were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to estimate the prediction value of POR by the following ORTs: anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), basal FSH (bFSH), as well as patient age.

Results: In this retrospective cohort, the frequency of POR in the first IVF cycle was 14.8%. Age, AFC, AMH, and bFSH were used as predicting factors for POR, of which AMH and AFC were the best indicators when using a single factor for prediction (AUC 0.862 and 0.842, respectively). The predictive values of the multivariate model included age and AMH (AUC 0.865), age and AFC (AUC 0.850), age and all three ORTs (AUC 0.873). Compared with using a single factor alone, the combinations of ORTs and female age can increase the predictive value of POR. Adding age to single AMH model improved the prediction accuracy compared with AMH alone (AUC 0.865 0.862), but the improvement was not significant. The AFC with age model significantly improved the prediction accuracy of the single AFC model (AUC 0.846 0.837). To reach 90% specificity for POR prediction, the cutoff point for age was 38 years old with a sensitivity of 40.7%, 5 for AFC with a sensitivity of 55.9%, and 1.18 ng/ml for AMH with a sensitivity of 63.3%.

Conclusion: AFC and AMH demonstrated a high accuracy when using ROC regression to predict POR. When testing is reliable, AMH can be used alone to forecast POR. When AFC is used as a prediction parameter, age is suggested to be considered as well. Based on the results of the cutoff threshold analysis, AFC ≤ 5 and AMH ≤ 1.18 ng/ml should be recommended to predict POR more accurately in IVF/ICSI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.702061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435745PMC
August 2021

Clinically Relevant Influenza Virus Evolution Reconstituted in a Human Lung Airway-on-a-Chip.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 10 15;9(2):e0025721. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Human-to-human transmission of viruses, such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses, can promote virus evolution and the emergence of new strains with increased potential for creating pandemics. Clinical studies analyzing how a particular type of virus progressively evolves new traits, such as resistance to antiviral therapies, as a result of passing between different human hosts are difficult to carry out because of the complexity, scale, and cost of the challenge. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous evolution of influenza A virus through both mutation and gene reassortment can be reconstituted by sequentially passaging infected mucus droplets between multiple human lung airway-on-a-chip microfluidic culture devices (airway chips). Modeling human-to-human transmission of influenza virus infection on chips in the continued presence of the antiviral drugs amantadine or oseltamivir led to the spontaneous emergence of clinically prevalent resistance mutations, and strains that were resistant to both drugs were identified when they were administered in combination. In contrast, we found that nafamostat, an inhibitor targeting host serine proteases, did not induce viral resistance. This human preclinical model may be useful for studying viral evolution and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics. The rapid evolution of viruses, such as influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is challenging the use and development of antivirals and vaccines. Studies of within-host viral evolution can contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological factors that shape viral global evolution as well as development of better antivirals and vaccines. However, little is known about how viral evolution of resistance to antivirals occurs clinically due to the lack of preclinical models that can faithfully model influenza infection in humans. Our study shows that influenza viral evolution through mutation or gene reassortment can be recapitulated in a human lung airway-on-a-chip (airway chip) microfluidic culture device that can faithfully recapitulate the influenza infection This approach is useful for studying within-host viral evolution, evaluating viral drug resistance, and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling the preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.00257-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557867PMC
October 2021

cGAS-STING and MyD88 Pathways Synergize in Ly6C Monocyte to Promote -Induced Late-Stage Lung IFNγ Production.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:699702. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway senses DNA and induces type I interferon (IFN) production. Whether and how the STING pathway crosstalk to other innate immune pathways during pathogen infection, however, remains unclear. Here, we showed that STING was needed for -induced late, not early, stage of lung IFNγ production. Using knockout mice, IFNγ reporter mice, intracellular cytokine staining, and adoptive cell transfer, we showed that cGAS-STING-dependent lung IFNγ production was independent of type I IFNs. Furthermore, STING expression in monocyte/monocyte-derived cells governed IFNγ production in the lung the production of IL-12p70. Surprisingly, DNA stimulation alone could not induce IL-12p70 or IFNγ in Ly6C monocyte. The production of IFNγ required the activation by both DNA and heat-killed . Accordingly, MyD88 monocyte did not generate IL-12p70 or IFNγ. In summary, the cGAS-STING pathway synergizes with the MyD88 pathway in monocyte to promote late-stage lung IFNγ production during pulmonary pneumococcal infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.699702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427188PMC
August 2021

Maternal Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation and Risk for Fetal Congenital Heart Defects.

J Pediatr 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/National Health Commission Key Laboratory, Peking University, Beijing, China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To determine the effects of maternal periconceptional supplementation with folic acid or multiple micronutrients containing folic acid on the prevention of fetal congenital heart defects (CHDs).

Study Design: Data were drawn from a Prenatal Health Care System and a Birth Defects Surveillance System in a district of Beijing, China. A total of 63 969 singleton births, live or stillborn, 308 CHDs among them, during 2013 to 2018 were included. Associations between different patterns of supplementation and risk for total CHDs or main types of CHDs were evaluated with risk ratios (RRs).

Results: For folic acid or multiple micronutrients containing folic acid users compared with nonusers, the adjusted RRs (ARRs) for total CHDs, critical CHD, and ventricular septal defect (VSD) were 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.83), 0.41 (95% CI, 0.26-0.67), and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.30-0.74), respectively. When we compared multiple micronutrients containing folic acid users with folic acid users, the ARRs were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.66-1.09), 0.64 (95% CI, 0.41-1.00), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.63-1.41) for total CHDs, critical CHD, and VSD, respectively. We also found that, compared with supplementation initiated after conception, supplementation initiated before conception was associated with a lower risk for CHDs: the ARRs were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48-0.95) for total CHDs and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.10-0.71) for critical CHD, but 1.08 (95% CI, 0.63-1.83) for VSD.

Conclusions: Maternal periconceptional supplementation with folic acid or multiple micronutrients containing folic acid seems to decrease the risk for CHDs, especially critical CHD, in offspring. Supplementation confers a greater protective effect when it is initiated before conception. We did not find any difference between folic acid and multiple micronutrients containing folic acid in terms of preventing CHDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.09.004DOI Listing
September 2021

Malicious Network Behavior Detection Using Fusion of Packet Captures Files and Business Feature Data.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 3;21(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China.

Information and communication technologies have essential impacts on people's life. The real time convenience of the internet greatly facilitates the information transmission and knowledge exchange of users. However, network intruders utilize some communication holes to complete malicious attacks. Some traditional machine learning (ML) methods based on business features and deep learning (DL) methods extracting features automatically are used to identify these malicious behaviors. However, these approaches tend to use only one type of data source, which can result in the loss of some features that can not be mined in the data. In order to address this problem and to improve the precision of malicious behavior detection, this paper proposed a one-dimensional (1D) convolution-based fusion model of packet capture files and business feature data for malicious network behavior detection. Fusion models improve the malicious behavior detection results compared with single ones in some available network traffic and Internet of things (IOT) datasets. The experiments also indicate that early data fusion, feature fusion and decision fusion are all effective in the model. Moreover, this paper also discusses the adaptability of one-dimensional convolution and two-dimensional (2D) convolution to network traffic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21175942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434644PMC
September 2021

Efficacy of three COS protocols and predictability of AMH and AFC in women with discordant ovarian reserve markers: a retrospective study on 19,239 patients.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Aug 28;14(1):111. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: Recent studies have consistently shown that AFC and serum AMH are good predictors of ovarian response and have shown strong correlations. However, it is not unusual for reproductive medicine specialists to encounter discordance between them. This is the first study to investigate the efficacies of the different COS protocols when the AFC and AMH levels are discordant. Based on the association between COS protocols and pregnancy outcomes, we attempt to explain the controversial results and clarify the predictive value of AMH and AFC in this context.

Methods: 19,239 patients undergoing their first fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH-a long protocols or GnRH-a ultra-long protocols between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019, were enrolled and then divided into four groups in accordance with the boundaries for the AFC and serum AMH level provided by the Poseidon Classification. Our study was divided into two parts. Firstly, we retrospectively compared the effects of the three COS protocols in patients with discordant AMH and AFC. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted in a forward manner to exclude the influence of confounding factors. Afterward, to increase comparability between Group 2 (low AMH and normal AFC) and Group 3 (normal AMH and low AFC), propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed based on age, BMI, the number of embryos transferred, and COS protocol. IVF intermediate and reproductive outcomes were compared between Group 2 and Group 3.

Results: For people with low AMH and normal AFC (Group 2), the number of total oocytes, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), live birth rate (LBR) and cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) were significantly higher in GnRH-a ultra-long protocol compared with GnRH antagonist protocol. In multivariate logistic regression models, significant associations of COS protocol with fresh LBR and CPR were found after adjusting for age, BMI, AFC, AMH and the number of embryos transferred. Whereas, in patients with normal AMH and low AFC (Group 3), the number of total oocytes, CLBR, LBR and CPR were highest in the long GnRH-a protocol although there was no statistically significant difference. After PSM, the results showed that although oocytes yield and available embryos in patients with normal AMH and low AFC were significantly higher, there was no significant difference in reproductive outcomes between Group 2 and Group 3.

Conclusions: We found that women with normal AFC and low AMH may benefit from the GnRH-a ultra-long protocol. Nevertheless, for women with normal AMH and low AFC, the long GnRH-a protocol seems to be associated with better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, after eliminating the confounding factors including the COS protocol, we found that AMH can only predict the number of oocytes but not the quality of oocytes when there was discordance between AFC and AMH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-021-00863-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403432PMC
August 2021

Neonatal Outcomes of Embryos Cultured in a Time-Lapse Incubation System: an Analysis of More Than 15,000 Fresh Transfer Cycles.

Reprod Sci 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

In the past 5 years, the time-lapse culture system (TLS) has gradually been applied to the field of assisted reproduction. However, there are few reports on the comparison between this system and the conventional culture system (CS) on the outcome of newborns. As a new model in embryo culture, we should pay attention to its neonatal outcomes. We examined 15,252 fresh transfer cycles processed between January 2016 and December 2019. After propensity score matching, embryos in two groups, TLS and CS, had similar rates of miscarriages, ectopic pregnancy, and live delivery (P > 0.05). Embryos in the TLS group achieved higher clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (P < 0.05). Of the perinatal and neonatal outcomes, singletons and twins were analyzed separately. No significant differences were observed in gestational age, preterm deliveries, birth weight, and sex ratio (P > 0.05). Incidences of malformations of babies delivered from CS and TLS groups were also similar between the two groups. Embryos cultured in a TLS are as safe as CS with regard to neonatal outcomes, including congenital malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00714-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Surface Basicity of [email protected] to Enhance Photocatalytic Efficiency for CO Reduction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 9;13(32):38595-38603. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, United States.

Photocatalytic reduction of CO to valuable chemical fuels is of broad interest, given its potential to activate stable greenhouse CO using renewable energy input. We report how to choose the right metal cocatalysts in combination with the surface basicity of TiO to enhance their photocatalytic efficiency for CO photoreduction. Uniform ligand-free metal nanoparticles (NPs) of Ag, Cu, Au, Pd, and Pt, supported on TiO, are active for CO photoreduction using water as an electron donor. The group XI metals show a high selectivity to CO and Ag/TiO is most active to produce CO at a rate of 5.2 μmol g h. The group X metals, e.g., Pd and Pt, mainly generate hydrocarbons including methane and ethane, and Pd/TiO is slightly more active in methane production at a rate of 2.4 μmol g h. The activity of these photocatalysts can be enhanced by varying the surface basicity of TiO with primary amines. However, proton reduction selectivity is greatly enhanced in the presence of amine except amine-modified Ag/TiO, which shows an activity enhancement by 2.4 times solely for CO photoreduction as compared to that without amines without switching its selectivity to proton reduction. Using in situ infrared spectroscopy and CO stripping voltammetry, we demonstrate that the improvement of electron density and the low proton affinity of metal cocatalysts are of key importance in CO photoreduction. As a systematic study, our results provide a guideline on the right choice of metals in combination of the surface functionality to tune the photocatalytic efficiency of supported metal NPs on TiO for selective CO photoreduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09119DOI Listing
August 2021
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