Publications by authors named "Lei Jiang"

1,872 Publications

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Stiff and tough PDMS-MMT layered nanocomposites visualized by AIE luminogens.

Nat Commun 2021 07 27;12(1):4539. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Bio-inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used soft material that exhibits excellent stability and transparency. But the difficulty of fine-tuning its Young's modulus and its low toughness significantly hinder its application in fields such as tissue engineering and flexible devices. Inspired by nacre, here we report on the development of PDMS-montmorillonite layered (PDMS-MMT-L) nanocomposites via the ice-templating technique, resulting in 23 and 12 times improvement in Young's modulus and toughness as compared with pure PDMS. Confocal fluorescence microscopy assisted by aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogens reveals three-dimensional reconstruction and in situ crack tracing of the nacre-inspired PDMS-MMT-L nanocomposite. The PDMS-MMT-L nanocomposite is toughened with mechanisms such as crack deflection and bridging. The AIE-assisted visualization of the crack propagation for nacre-inspired layered nanocomposites provides an advanced and universal characterization technique for organic-inorganic nanocomposites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24835-wDOI Listing
July 2021

A Deep Learning-Based Approach for Glomeruli Instance Segmentation from Multistained Renal Biopsy Pathologic Images.

Am J Pathol 2021 Aug;191(8):1431-1441

Electron Microscope Lab, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Glomeruli instance segmentation from pathologic images is a fundamental step in the automatic analysis of renal biopsies. Glomerular histologic manifestations vary widely among diseases and cases, and several special staining methods are necessary for pathologic diagnosis. A robust model is needed to segment and classify glomeruli with different staining methods and apply in cases with various glomerular pathologic changes. Herein, pathologic images from renal biopsy slides stained with three basic special staining methods were used to build the data sets. The snapshot group included 1970 glomeruli from 516 patients, and the whole-slide image group included 8665 glomeruli from 148 patients. Cascade Mask region-based convolutional neural net architecture was trained to detect, classify, and segment glomeruli into three categories: i) GN, structural normal; ii) global sclerosis; and iii) glomerular with other lesions. In the snapshot group, total glomeruli, GN, global sclerosis, and glomerular with other lesions achieved an F1 score of 0.914, 0.896, 0.681, and 0.756, respectively, which were comparable with those in the whole-slide image group (0.940, 0.839, 0.806, and 0.753, respectively). Among the three categories, GN achieved the best instance segmentation effect in both groups, as determined by average precision, average recall, F1 score, and Mask mean Intersection over Union. The present model segments and classifies multistained glomeruli with efficiency and robustness. It can be applied as the first step for more detailed glomerular histologic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2021.05.004DOI Listing
August 2021

Synthesis of charged chitosan nanoparticles as functional biolubricant.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 15;206:111973. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis has been a major disease in recent years, which is mainly related to the breakdown of the lubrication function of the cartilage sliding interface, along with the inflammation of the joint capsule. In this paper, one kind of novel biomimetic nanoparticles (NPs) lubricant, named CS-PS, is synthesized through chemically grafting hydrophilic sulfonic acid (SO) groups onto the surface of biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan (CS) NPs. Compared with control CS NPs, the as-synthesized CS-PS NPs exhibits excellent hydration and stability because of negatively charged surface zeta potential, along with extraordinary lubrication performance in water for realizing a super-low friction coefficient (COF) as ∼0.01 at the sliding interface of PDMS elastomer-TiAlV disk. Correspondingly, the CS-PS NPs can also be used as a drug carrier for aspirin, which presents very good drug loading and release behavior in PBS (pH = 7.4). MCS cells culture experiment proves that this kind of novel lubricant is nontoxic and biocompatible, for which may be expected to use as potential articular injective material for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111973DOI Listing
July 2021

Radial endobronchial ultrasound-assisted transbronchial needle aspiration for pulmonary peripheral lesions in the segmental bronchi adjacent to the central airway.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Jun;10(6):2625-2632

School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Tissue samples from lesions located in the 3rd to 5th segmental bronchi are challenging to obtain. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic rate of pulmonary peripheral lesions located in the 3rd to 5th segmental bronchi, near the inner field of lung on the computed tomography (CT) image and outside the bronchus, using radial endobronchial ultrasound (REBUS) followed by transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA).

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled patients whose preoperative CT examinations showed a lesion located in the segmental bronchi (3rd to 5th), yet adjacent to the inner field of lung on the CT image. REBUS followed by TBNA was used to acquire tissue samples from these lesions. A bronchoscope was used to reach the bronchi surrounding the lesion, and an ultrasound probe was used to determine the lesion's location. Then, the ultrasound probe was withdrawn, and puncture was performed at the location that was determined by ultrasound. The tissue specimens obtained were subjected to pathological examination.

Results: Nineteen patients were enrolled in this study including 15 males and 4 females with an average age of 55 years old. Of the enrollees, 8 patients (42.1%) were successfully diagnosed with samples obtained through TBNA, including 6 cases of lung cancer, 1 case of non-specific inflammation, and 1 case of cryptococcal infection. The diagnostic rate was 42.1%. No post-procedural complications were observed among the patients. There was no significant difference in nodule diameter between patients with a diagnostic sample and those in whom TBNA failed to provide a diagnosis (2.99±0.96 2.26±1.27 cm, P=0.20).

Conclusions: With the assistance of REBUS, TBNA can acquire sufficient samples to achieve a reasonably diagnostic rate for parenchymal lung lesions located near the inner field of lung on the CT image without intrabronchial invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-21-490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264313PMC
June 2021

Association between ARDS Etiology and Risk of Noninvasive Ventilation Failure.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 117972, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Chongqing, Sichuan, China;

Rationale: The etiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may play an important role in the failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV).

Objectives: To explore the association between ARDS etiology and risk of noninvasive ventilation failure.

Methods: A multicenter prospective observational study was performed in 17 ICUs in China from September 2017 to December 2019. Patients with ARDS who used NIV as a first-line therapy were enrolled. The etiology of ARDS was recorded at study entry.

Results: A total of 306 patients were enrolled. Of the patients, 146 were classified as having pulmonary ARDS (ARDSp) and 160 were classified as having extrapulmonary ARDS (ARDSexp). From initiation to 24 h of NIV, the respiratory rate, heart rate, PaO2/FiO2, and PaCO2 improved slower in patients with ARDSp than those with ARDSexp. Patients with ARDSp experienced more NIV failure (55% vs. 28%; p < 0.01) and higher 28-day mortality (47% vs. 14%; p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratio of NIV failure and 28-day mortality were 5.47 (95%CI: 3.04-9.86) and 10.13 (95%CI: 5.01-20.46), respectively. In addition, we combined the presence of ARDSp, presence of septic shock, age, non-pulmonary SOFA score, respiratory rate at 1-2 h of NIV, and PaO2/FiO2 at 1-2 h of NIV to develop a risk score of NIV failure. With the increase of the risk score, the rate of NIV failure increased. Using 5.5 as cutoff value to predict NIV failure, the sensitivity and specificity was good both in training and validation cohorts.

Conclusions: Among patients with ARDS who used NIV as a first-line therapy, ARDSp was associated with slower improvement, more NIV failure, and higher 28-day mortality than ARDSexp. The risk score combined presence of ARDSp, presence of septic shock, age, non-pulmonary SOFA score, respiratory rate at 1-2 h of NIV, and PaO2/FiO2 at 1-2 h of NIV has high accuracy to predict NIV failure among ARDS population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202102-161OCDOI Listing
July 2021

Association of Parenteral Anticoagulation Therapy with Outcomes in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Without Invasive Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Our previous study showed that parenteral anticoagulation therapy (PACT) in the context of aggressive antiplatelet therapy failed to improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). However, the roles of PACT in patients managed medically remains unknown. This observational cohort study enrolled NSTE-ACS patients receiving medical therapy from November 2014 to June 2017 in the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Acute Coronary Syndrome project. Eligible patients were included in the PACT group and non-PACT group. The primary outcomes were in-hospital all-cause mortality and major bleeding. The secondary outcome included minor bleeding. Among 23,726 patients, 8,845 eligible patients who received medical therapy were enrolled. After adjusting the potential confounders, PACT was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.71, P = 0.151). Additionally, PACT did not increase the incidence of major bleeding or minor bleeding (major bleeding: adjusted OR, 1.04, 95% CI, 0.80-1.35, P = 0.763, minor bleeding: adjusted OR, 1.27, 95% CI, 0.91-1.75, P = 0.156). The propensity score analysis confirmed the primary analyses. In patients with NSTE-ACS receiving antiplatelet therapy, PACT was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality or a higher bleeding risk in NSTE-ACS patients receiving non-invasive therapies and concurrent antiplatelet strategies. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to reevaluate the safety and efficacy of PACT in all NSTE-ACS patients who receive noninvasive therapies and current antithrombotic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2370DOI Listing
July 2021

Anti-swelling gradient polyelectrolyte hydrogel membranes as high-performance osmotic energy generators.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences: Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-inspired Materials and Interfacial Science, CHINA.

The emerging asymmetric ionic membranes consisting of two different porous membranes show great superiority in harvesting the clean and renewable osmotic energy. The main barriers constraining their applications are the incompatible interface and low interfacial ionic transport efficiency, detrimental to the long-term stability and improvement of power density. Here, the continuous gradient all-polysaccharide polyelectrolyte hydrogel membranes prepared by ultrafast reaction-diffusion method have been demonstrated to enable high-performance osmotic energy conversion. Besides of the inherent high ion conductivity and excellent ion selectivity, the anti-swelling gradient polyelectrolyte membranes reserve the ionic diode effect of the asymmetric membranes to facilitate one-way ion diffusion, but circumvent their adverse interfacial effect. In consequence, the gradient polyelectrolyte membrane-based generators can present ultrahigh power densities of 7.87 W/m 2 by mixing seawater and river water, far superior to the state-of-the-art membranes. The design strategy in this study can provide new insights in constructing high-performance membranes for osmotic energy collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202108549DOI Listing
July 2021

Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation signatures in sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation.

Fertil Steril 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Reproductive Medicine Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterns in sperm from men with differential levels of sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI).

Design: Prospective study.

Setting: University-affiliated reproductive medicine center.

Patient(s): A total of 278 male patients consulting for couple infertility were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed using Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip on spermatozoal DNA from 20 male patients. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified and validated using targeted bisulfite amplicon sequencing in spermatozoal DNA from 266 males.

Result(s): Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed three main clusters corresponding to sperm DFI levels (low, medium, or high). Between-cluster comparisons identified 959 (medium-low), 738 (high-medium), and 937 (high-low) DMRs. Sixty-six DMRs were validated in the 266-sample cohort, of which nine CpG fragments corresponding to nine genes (BLCAP, DIRAS3, FAM50B, GNAS, MEST, TSPAN32, PSMA8, SYCP1, and TEX12) exhibited significantly altered methylation in those with high DFI (≥25%) compared with those with low DFI (<25%).

Conclusion(s): We identified and validated a distinct DNA methylation signature associated with sperm DNA damage in a large, unselected cohort. These results indicate that sperm DNA damage may affect DNA methylation patterns in human sperm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2021.06.025DOI Listing
July 2021

Superhydrophobic-Substrate-Assisted Construction of Free-Standing Microcavity-Patterned Conducting Polymer Films.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 10:e2100949. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, P. R. China.

Patterned conducting polymer films with unique structures have promising prospects for application in various fields, such as actuation, water purification, sensing, and bioelectronics. However, their practical application is hindered because of the limitations of existing construction methods. Herein, a strategy is proposed for the superhydrophobic-substrate-assisted construction of free-standing 3D microcavity-patterned conducting polymer films (McPCPFs) at micrometer resolution. Easy-peeling and nondestructive transfer properties are achieved through electrochemical polymerization along the solid/liquid/gas triphase interface on micropillar-structured substrates. The effects of the wettability and geometrical parameters of the substrates on the construction of McPCPFs are systematically investigated in addition to the evolution of the epitaxial growth along the triphase interface at different polymerization times. The McPCPFs can be easily peeled from superhydrophobic surfaces using ethanol because of weak adhesion and nondestructively transferred to various substrates taking advantage of the capillarity. Furthermore, sensitive light-driven McPCPF locomotion on organic liquid surfaces is demonstrated. Ultimately, a facile strategy for the construction of free-standing 3D microstructure-patterned conducting polymer films is proposed, which can improve productivity and applicability of the films in different fields and expand the application scope of superwettable interfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100949DOI Listing
July 2021

Preoperative Prognostic Nutrition Index as a Prognostic Indicator of Survival in Elderly Patients Undergoing Gastric Cancer Surgery.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 2;13:5263-5273. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Guangdong Provincial Geriatrics Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, 510080, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Gastric cancer is a common tumor type associated with nutritional and immune status. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prognostic value of a preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI), composed of nutritional factors and immune factors in elderly patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.

Patients And Methods: A total of 454 patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery were divided into two groups based on preoperative PNI scores: ≤45.1 ( = 307) and >45.1 ( = 147). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent prognostic factors using a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: According to the X-tile program, the optimal cutoff value for predicting overall survival (OS) with the PNI was 45.1. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that PNI exhibited 70.6% sensitivity and 56.5% specificity for predicting death during long-term follow-up. The cumulative incidence of postoperative 4-year mortality indicated that the risk of death increased significantly for PNI ≤45.1. In multivariate analysis, preoperative PNI was a significant independent predictor of mortality. In the age-stratified subgroup analysis, preoperative PNI was more sensitive for the old elderly subgroup than for the young elderly subgroup.

Conclusion: Preoperative PNI is a sensitive and specific prognostic predictor among elderly patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S316437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259731PMC
July 2021

Design of Bionic Buffering and Vibration Reduction Foot for Legged Robots.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2021 9;2021:5510993. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, China, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

When legged robots walk on rugged roads, they would suffer from strong impact from the ground. The impact would cause the legged robots to vibrate, which would affect their normal operation. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to absorb impact energy and reduce vibration. As an important part of a goat's foot, the hoof capsule can effectively buffer the impact from the ground in the goat's running and jumping. The structure of the hoof capsules and its principle of buffering and vibration reduction were studied. Inspired by the unique shape and internal structure of the hoof capsules, a bionic foot was designed. Experimental results displayed that the bionic foot could effectively use friction to consume impact energy and ensured the stability of legged robot walking. In addition, the bionic foot had a lower natural vibration frequency, which was beneficial to a wide range of vibration reduction. This work brings a new solution to the legged robot to deal with the ground impact, which helps it adapt to a variety of complex terrain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5510993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211519PMC
June 2021

Sustainable, Highly Efficient and Superhydrophobic Fluorinated Silica Functionalized Chitosan Aerogel for Gravity-Driven Oil/Water Separation.

Gels 2021 Jun 2;7(2). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

A superhydrophobic fluorinated silica functionalized chitosan (F-CS) aerogel is constructed and fabricated by a simple and sustainable method in this study in order to achieve highly efficient gravity-driven oil/water separation performance. The fluorinated silica functionalization invests the pristine hydrophilic chitosan (CS) aerogel with promising superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 151.9°. This novel F-CS aerogel possesses three-dimensional structure with high porosity as well as good chemical stability and mechanical compression property. Moreover, it also shows striking self-cleaning performance and great oil adsorption capacity. Most importantly, the as-prepared aerogels exhibits fast and efficient separation of oil/water mixture by the gravity driven process with high separation efficiency. These great performances render the prepared F-CS aerogel a good candidate for oil/water separation in practical industrial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/gels7020066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293147PMC
June 2021

[Efficacy and safety of body-insulated acupuncture needle for electrical stimulation at rabbit scia-tic nerve trunk].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Jun;46(6):492-6

Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of electrical stimulation at the rabbit sciatic nerve trunk with the body-insulated acupuncture needle whose body is painted with insulating material.

Methods: Eighteen male New Zealand rabbits were randomized into the body-insulated acupuncture needle (BIAN), the general acupuncture needle (GAN), and the blank control groups,with 6 rabbits in each group. The rats'sciatic nerve trunks in BIAN and GAN groups were stimulated by electroacupuncture with the body-insulated acupuncture needle (only allowing the uncoated needle handle and tip to conduct electricity) and the general acupuncture needle, separately. The current intensity was recorded when regular plantarflexion reflexes (sciatic nerve effector reflexes) were observed in the rabbit's foot. The pathological changes of the sciatic nerve at the acupuncture site were observed by H.E. staining, and the ultrastructural changes of the sciatic nerve trunk were observed by transmission electron microscope.

Results: The intensity of the current causing the regular plantar flexion reflection in BIAN group ([0.29±0.07] mA) was significantly lower than that in the GAN group([0.86±0.08] mA, <0.01). H.E. staining revealed nerve axon degeneration, forming eosinophilic bodies, nerve fiber edema, and focal loss of myelin sheath in the GAN group. While the nerve fiber damage was not obvious, and axons were only degenerated in a few areas in the BIAN group. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the nerve myelin sheath structure was separated, the layers were arranged disorderly and bubbled in the GAN group. while the nerve myelin sheath structure of the BIAN group was normal, and it presents a concentric circle-like light and dark lamellar structure, with fewer myelin vacuoles and fissures, only a small part of the mitochondria, microfilaments, and microtubules of the nerve axons were abnormal, and the overall vacuole-like degeneration was significantly reduced, with few of the myelinated fibers were slightly degenerated, and axonal disease was not obvious.

Conclusion: Insulated acupuncture needle is more accurate and safer than ordinary acupuncture needle for electrical stimulation of rabbit sciatic nerve trunk, and the required electric current intensity is smaller.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.201295DOI Listing
June 2021

Integrated Bundle Electrode with Wettability-Gradient Copper Cones Inducing Continuous Generation, Directional Transport, and Efficient Collection of H Bubbles.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 29;13(27):32435-32441. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), as an efficient process of converting various energies into high-purity hydrogen, has attracted much attention from both scientific research studies and industrial productions. However, its wide applications still confront considerable difficulties, for example, bubble coverage on the electrode and bubble dispersion in the electrolyte, which will disturb current distribution and isolate active sites from reaction ions resulting in a high reaction overpotential and large Ohmic voltage drop. Consequently, timely removing the generated gas bubbles from the electrode as well as avoiding their direct release into the electrolyte can be an effective approach to address these issues. In this work, we have developed an elegant electrode, that is, the integrated bundle electrode with wettability-gradient copper cones, which is endowed with the multifunctions of continuous generation, direct transport, and efficient collection of hydrogen bubbles. All processes are proceeding on the electrode, which not only remove the generated hydrogen bubbles efficiently but also prevent the hydrogen bubbles from releasing into the electrolyte, which should greatly advance the development of water electrolysis and offer inspirations for people to fabricate more efficient HER devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04993DOI Listing
July 2021

Superior lithium-storage properties derived from a g-CN-embedded honeycomb-shaped [email protected] carbon nanofiber anode loaded with FeO for Li-ion batteries.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul;50(28):9775-9786

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, PR China.

In this work, a honeycomb-shaped [email protected] carbon nanofiber material incorporating homogeneously dispersed ultra-fine Fe2O3 nanoparticles (denoted as [email protected]@H-MMCN) is synthesised through a pyrolysis process. The honeycomb-shaped configuration of the [email protected] carbon nanofiber material derived from a natural bio-carbon source (crab shell) acts as a support for an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is produced via the one-step pyrolysis of urea at high temperature under an N2 atmosphere without the assistance of additives. The resulting favorable electrochemical performance, with superior rate capabilities (1067 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1), a remarkable specific capacity (1510 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1), and steady cycling performance (782.9 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 2000 mA g-1), benefitted from the advantages of both the host material and the Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which play an important role due to their ultra-fine particle size of 5 nm. The excellent cycle life and high capacity demonstrate that this strategy of strong synergistic effects represents a new pathway for pursuing high-electrochemical-performance materials for lithium-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01178bDOI Listing
July 2021

Abnormal Properties of Low-Dimensional Confined Water.

Small 2021 Jun 27:e2100788. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, P. R. China.

Water molecules confined to low-dimensional spaces exhibit unusual properties compared to bulk water. For example, the alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanodomains on flat silicon wafer can induce the abnormal spreading of water (contact angles near 0°) which is caused by the 2D capillary effect. Hence, exploring the physicochemical properties of confined water from the nanoscale is of great value for understanding the challenges in material science and promoting the applications of nanomaterials in the fields of mass transport, nanofluidic designing, and fuel cell. The knowledge framework of confined water can also help to better understand the complex functions of the hydration layer of biomolecules, and even trace the origin of life. In this review, the physical properties, abnormal behaviors, and functions of the confined water are mainly summarized through several common low-dimensional water formats in the fields of solid/air-water interface, nanochannel confinement, and biological hydration layer. These researches indicate that the unusual behaviors of the confined water depend strongly on the confinement size and the interaction between the molecules and confining surface. These diverse properties of confined water open a new door to materials science and may play an important role in the future development of biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100788DOI Listing
June 2021

Fluorinated Metal-Organic Coatings with Selective Wettability.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 25;143(26):9972-9981. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, and the Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

Surface chemistry is a major factor that determines the wettability of materials, and devising broadly applicable coating strategies that afford tunable and selective surface properties required for next-generation materials remains a challenge. Herein, we report fluorinated metal-organic coatings that display water-wetting and oil-repelling characteristics, a wetting phenomenon different from responsive wetting induced by external stimuli. We demonstrate this selective wettability with a library of metal-organic coatings using catechol-based coordination and silanization (both fluorinated and fluorine-free), enabling sensing through interfacial reconfigurations in both gaseous and liquid environments, and establish a correlation between the coating wettability and polarity of the liquids. This selective wetting performance is substrate-independent, spontaneous, durable, and reversible and occurs over a range of polar and nonpolar liquids (60 studied). These results provide insight into advanced liquid-solid interactions and a pathway toward tuning interfacial affinities and realizing robust, selective superwettability according to the surrounding conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c04396DOI Listing
July 2021

Pyruvate kinase M2 mediates fibroblast proliferation to promote tubular epithelial cell survival in acute kidney injury.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21706

Center for Kidney Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathological features of AKI are tubular injury, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and impaired vascular integrity. Pyruvate kinase is the final rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolysis pathway. We previously showed that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) plays an important role in regulating the glycolytic reprogramming of fibroblasts in renal interstitial fibrosis. The present study aimed to determine the role of PKM2 in fibroblast activation during the pathogenesis of AKI. We found increased numbers of S100A4 positive cells expressing PKM2 in renal tissues from mice with AKI induced via folic acid or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The loss of PKM2 in fibroblasts impaired fibroblast proliferation and promoted tubular epithelial cell death including apoptosis, necroptosis, and ferroptosis. Mechanistically, fibroblasts produced less hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in response to a loss of PKM2. Moreover, in two AKI mouse models, fibroblast-specific deletion of PKM2 blocked HGF signal activation and aggravated AKI after it was induced in mice via ischemia or folic acid. Fibroblast proliferation mediated by PKM2 elicits pro-survival signals that repress tubular cell death and may help to prevent AKI progression. Fibroblast activation mediated by PKM2 in AKI suggests that targeting PKM2 expression could be a novel strategy for treating AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100040RDOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of Lead (Pb) and Benzo [a] Pyrene (B[a]P) and their Combined Exposure on Element Accumulation in Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Environment, Liaoning University, Shenyang, China.

It was observed in this work that application of Pb and B[a]P co-exposure significantly (p < 0.05) reduced Pb content in ryegrass leaves and roots. The effect of Pb dominated the change of N, P, K, Cu, and Cr content in leaves and roots of ryegrass under joint stress of Pb and B[a]P. Principal component analysis showed that the foliar spraying of 400 μmol L Pb and 80 μmol L B[a]P had the best effect on improving the mineral element absorption under combined pollution. Ryegrass has strong resistance and certain Pb and B[a]P absorptive capacities, and can resist combined contamination by transferring N, P, K, Zn, Cu, and Cr contents between the overground and the root. These results highlight the potential capacity of ryegrass for use in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by Pb and B[a]P.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03308-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of percutaneous poking reduction combined with minimally invasive plate internal fixation on foot function and complications of patients with Sanders type II and III calcaneal fractures.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):5329-5335. Epub 2021 May 15.

First Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Zaozhuang Mining Group Zaozhuang Hospital Zaozhuang, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the impact of percutaneous poking reduction (PPR) combined with minimally invasive plate internal fixation on foot function and complications of Sanders type II and III calcaneal fractures (CFs).

Methods: In this prospective study, 76 patients with Sanders type II and III CFs were randomly divided into the control group (n=38, "L" incision open reduction and plate internal fixation) and the study group (n=38, PPR combined with minimally invasive plate internal fixation (MIPIF)). The operation related indexes, skin necrosis rate, Gissane angle, Bohler angle, calcaneal height and ankle-hindfoot score before and after the operation were compared between the two groups. Complications of the two groups were recorded.

Results: Compared with the control group, the operation time of the study group was significantly prolonged, but the intraoperative blood loss was significantly reduced, and the fracture healing time and hospitalization time were significantly shortened (P<0.05). The skin necrosis rate of the study group was slightly lower than that of the control group without statistical significance (P>0.05). The Gissane angle, Bohler angle and calcaneal height of the two groups increased 6 months after the operation, and the changes in the study group were more obvious than those in the control group (P<0.05). Six months after the operation, the ankle-hindfoot scores of the two groups significantly increased, and the changes of the study group were more significant than that of the control group (P<0.05). The total incidence of postoperative complications in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: PPR combined with MIPIF can significantly promote the healing of Sanders type II and III CFs and the recovery of the Gissane angle and Bohler angle, effectively improve the foot function of patients and induce fewer complications, which is worthy of clinical promotion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205695PMC
May 2021

LncRNA DRAIC promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of colorectal cancer via regulating MiR-223.

Minerva Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07605-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Large-scale, robust mushroom-shaped nanochannel array membrane for ultrahigh osmotic energy conversion.

Sci Adv 2021 May 19;7(21). Epub 2021 May 19.

Laboratory of Bio-inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

The osmotic energy, a large-scale clean energy source, can be converted to electricity directly by ion-selective membranes. None of the previously reported membranes meets all the crucial demands of ultrahigh power density, excellent mechanical stability, and upscaled fabrication. Here, we demonstrate a large-scale, robust mushroom-shaped (with stem and cap) nanochannel array membrane with an ultrathin selective layer and ultrahigh pore density, generating the power density up to 22.4 W·m at a 500-fold salinity gradient, which is the highest value among those of upscaled membranes. The stem parts are a negative-charged one-dimensional (1D) nanochannel array with a density of ~10 cm, deriving from a block copolymer self-assembly; while the cap parts, as the selective layer, are formed by chemically grafted single-molecule-layer hyperbranched polyethyleneimine equivalent to tens of 1D nanochannels per stem. The membrane design strategy provides a promising approach for large-scale osmotic energy conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg2183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133705PMC
May 2021

Non-invasive measurement of PD-L1 status and prediction of immunotherapy response using deep learning of PET/CT images.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USA

Background: Currently, only a fraction of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) experience a durable clinical benefit (DCB). According to NCCN guidelines, Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of biopsies is the only clinically approved companion biomarker to trigger the use of ICI therapy. Based on prior work showing a relationship between quantitative imaging and gene expression, we hypothesize that quantitative imaging (radiomics) can provide an alternative surrogate for PD-L1 expression status in clinical decision support.

Methods: F-FDG-PET/CT images and clinical data were curated from 697 patients with NSCLC from three institutions and these were analyzed using a small-residual-convolutional-network (SResCNN) to develop a deeply learned score (DLS) to predict the PD-L1 expression status. This developed model was further used to predict DCB, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in two retrospective and one prospective test cohorts of ICI-treated patients with advanced stage NSCLC.

Results: The PD-L1 DLS significantly discriminated between PD-L1 positive and negative patients (area under receiver operating characteristics curve ≥0.82 in the training, validation, and two external test cohorts). Importantly, the DLS was indistinguishable from IHC-derived PD-L1 status in predicting PFS and OS, suggesting the utility of DLS as a surrogate for IHC. A score generated by combining the DLS with clinical characteristics was able to accurately (C-indexes of 0.70-0.87) predict DCB, PFS, and OS in retrospective training, prospective testing and external validation cohorts.

Conclusion: Hence, we propose DLS as a surrogate or substitute for IHC-determined PD-L1 measurement to guide individual pretherapy decisions pending in larger prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211060PMC
June 2021

Inhibition of miR-145-5p Reduces Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses via Affecting Nurr1-TNF-α Signaling Axis.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, China.

Inflammation and oxidative stress feature prominently in the secondary spinal cord injury (SCI). The present work is targeted at deciphering miR-145-5p's role and underlying mechanism in SCI. We randomly divided Sprague-Dawley rats into SCI group and control group. Microglial BV2 cells were separated into control group and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out for determining the concentrations of interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The expressions of malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and reactive oxygen species were also detected. TNF-α, miR-145-5p, and Nurr1 expressions were examined by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay were conducted to examine the regulating impact that miR-145-5p had on Nurr1 and TNF-α. MiR-145-5p was remarkably upregulated in the SCI rat model's spinal cord tissues and BV2 cells treated with LPS, and Nurr1 expression was dramatically lowered. Furthermore, miR-145-5p inhibition markedly repressed inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. Moreover, it was proved that Nurr1 was a direct miR-145-5p target. The inhibition of miR-145-5p helped promote Nurr1 expression to block TNF-α signaling. MiR-145-5p inhibition mitigates inflammation and oxidative stress via targeting Nurr1 to regulate TNF-α signaling, which ameliorates SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-021-00992-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Immune landscape and subtypes in primary resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma: prognostic significance and predictive of therapeutic response.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

Background: Immune landscape of cancer has been increasingly recognized as a key feature affecting disease progression, prognosis and therapeutic response. Here, we sought to comprehensively characterize the patterns of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIIs) in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and develop immune features-derived models for prognostication and therapeutic prediction.

Methods: A total number of 392 patients with OSCC receiving ablative surgery at three independent centers were retrospectively enrolled and defined as training, testing and validation cohorts. Detailed features of 12 types of TIIs at center of tumor and invasive margin were assessed by immunohistochemistry coupled with digital quantification. TIIs abundance in OSCC was also estimated by bioinformatics approaches using multiple publicly available data sets. Prognostic models based on selected immune features were trained via machine learning approach, validated in independent cohorts and evaluated by time-dependent area under the curves and concordance index (C-index). Immune types of OSCC were further identified by consensus clustering and their associations with genetic, molecular features and patient survival were clarified.

Results: Patterns of TIIs infiltration varied among patients and dynamically evolved along with tumor progression. Prognostic models based on selected TIIs were identified as efficient and sensitive biomarkers to stratify patients into subgroups with favorable or inferior survival as well as responders or non-responders to postoperative radiotherapy or immunotherapy. These models outperformed multiple conventional biomarkers and immune-related scores in prognostic prediction. Furthermore, we identified two main immune subtypes of OSCC (immune-hot and immune-cold) which harbored characteristic TIIs infiltrations and genomic and molecular features, and associated with patient survival.

Conclusions: Our results delineated immune landscape and subtypes in OSCC, consolidated their clinical values as robust biomarkers to predict patient survival and therapeutic benefits and reinforced key roles of TIIs and tumor-immune interactions underlying oral tumorigenesis, ultimately facilitating development of tailed immunotherapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2021-002434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208002PMC
June 2021

Crystallization Behavior of the Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrate Formed in Microcapillaries.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 28;6(22):14288-14297. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

There are no reports on the hydrogen sulfide hydrate growth process and morphology in micropores due to the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, the experimental measurements and dissociation enthalpies were provided to assess the effect of the microcapillary silica tube size on hydrogen sulfide hydrate dissociation conditions. To simulate micropore sediments, the HS hydrate growth processes and morphologies at different supercooling temperatures were observed in this study. The dissociation temperature depression of the hydrate crystal in the microcapillary was less than 0.001 °C, which shows that the stability of the hydrate is less affected by the microcapillary pore used in this study. The mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid phase is easily blocked when the hydrogen sulfide hydrate shell covers the gas-water meniscus, causing the growth of the gas hydrate to be inhibited. The hydrate crystal morphology can be divided into fibrous, needle-like crystals and dendritic crystals when Δ > 12.7; the hydrate crystal morphology can be categorized as dendritic crystals and columnar crystals when Δ = 7.9-8.9, and the hydrate crystals can form polyhedral crystals when Δ = 7.9-8.9. Additionally, a new "bridging effect" that a hollow crystal which was filled with the gas phase can connect with two separated gas phases was found at low supercooling temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190900PMC
June 2021

The Central Roles of Noncoding RNA in Estrogen-Dependent Female Reproductive System Tumors.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 24;2021:5572063. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Gynecology, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China.

The pathogenesis of ovarian and endometrial cancers is closely associated with estrogen-related pathways. These estrogen-dependent tumors seriously threaten the health and quality of life in women. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are defined as RNAs that do not encode proteins, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), both of which have been reported in estrogen-dependent female reproductive system tumors. This review systematically summarizes the role of ncRNAs in estrogen-dependent tumors and common patterns of regulatory mechanisms to explore their future research directions in tumor diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This may provide new ideas for the potential application of ncRNAs in estrogen-dependent female reproductive system tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5572063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169271PMC
May 2021

Surface Charge Regulated Asymmetric Ion Transport in Nanoconfined Space.

Small 2021 Jul 13;17(28):e2101099. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-inspired Materials and Interfacial Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

The asymmetric ion transport in the nanoconfined space, similar to that of natural ion channels, has attracted broad interest in sensor, energy conversion, and other related fields. Among these systems, the surface charge plays an important role in regulating ion transport behaviors. Herein, this surface charge-regulated asymmetric ion transport behavior is systematically explored in the nanoconfined space and the influence on the performance of nanofluidic energy conversion system. The ion transport behaviors in the nanoconfined space are classified into pure diffusion, electrical double layer, and the polarization controlled state. The asymmetric solution environment or surface charge distribution induces asymmetric ion transport behavior which is largely controlled by the low concentration side. The ion-selectivity and the energy conversion performance can be effectively enhanced by improving the local apparent surface charge (more active sites and higher charge strength) or introducing a selective layer with dense surface charge on the low concentration side. These material design concepts for asymmetric ion transport are further supported by both simulation and experiment. The results provide a significant comprehension for ion behaviors in nanoconfined space and the development of high-performance energy storage and conversion systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101099DOI Listing
July 2021

Annual trends and health risks of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in a drinking water source in East China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;791:148152. Epub 2021 May 29.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China; Shanghai Environmental Protection Key Laboratory on Environmental Standard and Risk Management of Chemical Pollutants, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Industrial Wastewater Treatment, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

The extensive pollution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water has aroused worldwide concern. Successive monitoring of these pollutants has noteworthy significance for drinking water safety. Accordingly, this study conducted successive monitoring of antibiotics and ARGs from 2015 to 2017 in a drinking water source in East China. The total antibiotic concentration ranged from 19.68 ng/L to 497.00 ng/L, and decreased slightly from 2015 to 2017. Eighteen out of forty-one ARG subtypes showing resistance to six antibiotic classes and one class I integrase gene intI1, were detected in the drinking water source at concentrations ranging from 6.5 × 10 copies/mL to 1.6 × 10 copies/mL. Importantly, the total ARG concentration increased on an annual basis from 2015 to 2017 with an average annual increment of 0.25 orders of magnitude, which was mainly attributed to the increase in specific ARG subtypes, such as sul1, sul2, sul3, tetA, qnrB, and ermB. Most ARGs was positively correlated with the intI1 genes (r = 0.47-0.55, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the variation of antibiotics and ARGs appeared to be related to the water indices, particularly of the values of COD, BOD NO-N (P < 0.05). This study provides basic data on antibiotic and ARG pollution in the studied drinking water source. Importantly, the findings expound that although the residual antibiotics in this drinking water source decreased slightly from 2015 to 2017, while its biological effect, the antibiotic resistance, increased annually, which give a warning of the antibiotic resistance pollution in the drinking water source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148152DOI Listing
May 2021
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