Publications by authors named "Lei Huang"

1,539 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assisted reproductive technology and birth defects in a Chinese birth cohort study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Feb 22;7:100090. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Centre for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

Background: It has been consistently shown in several meta-analyses that infants born after ART have an excess of birth defects compared with those after spontaneous conception, however, the prevalence of birth defects among ART offspring in China is incompletely studied. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent the risk of birth defects is associated with parental infertility characteristics, specific ART procedures and twinning.

Methods: In the prospective cohort study, we included women who participated in the cohort, and had pregnancies of at least 20 gestational weeks between August 2016 and May 2019, and followed them until their children reached 1 year of age. Exposures of interest were ART, as well as infertility-related characteristics, certain ART procedures and specific medication usage. The primary outcome was birth defects including both major and minor defects, which we analysed with logistic generalized estimating equations to investigate the association with ART and certain ART characteristics.

Findings: A total of 1,825 women with ART-pregnancy and 3,483 women with spontaneous-pregnancy were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any defects was significantly higher among ART-births than their non-ART counterparts at each follow-up, specifically at prenatal screening (2•2% vs. 1•2%), at delivery (4•9% vs. 2•9%), at 6 months (10•4% vs. 5•3%) and 1 year of age (13•9% vs. 7•0%), and the associations between ART and increased risk of birth defects at each follow-up were similarly robust. Among ART-births, GnRH antagonist regimen for ovulation induction in women was associated with an increased risk of birth defects in their offspring after taking into account potential influencing factors (Multivariable model: adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1•47, 1•04-2•07). Additionally, mediation through twinning accounted for 31•1% of the risk of ART-associated birth defects.

Interpretation: The results suggest that ART confers an increased risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk is partly attributable to infertility characteristics, certain ovulation induction regimen, and to some extent mediated by twinning. Our findings highlight the importance of long-term follow-up of children conceived via ART for health conditions.

Funding: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2020.100090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315325PMC
February 2021

Arbidol is associated with increased in-hospital mortality among 109 patients with severe COVID-19: A multicenter, retrospective study.

J Glob Health 2021 17;11:05017. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Emergency Center, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: The antiviral therapy has been considered as an ordinary intervention for COVID-19 patients. However, the effectiveness of antiviral therapy is uncertain. This study was designed to determine the association between the antiviral therapy and in-hospital mortality among severe COVID-19 patients.

Methods: This study enrolled severe COVID-19 patients admitted to four designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. The use of antiviral treatments, demographics, laboratory variables, co-morbidities, complications, and other treatments were compared between survival and fatal cases. The association between antiviral agents and in-hospital mortality were analyzed.

Results: In total, 109 severe COVID-19 patients (mean age 65.43) were enrolled for analysis, among which, 61 (56.0%) patients were discharged alive, and 48 (44.0%) died during hospitalization. We found no association between lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment and the in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.195, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.023-1.679). Besides, ribavirin (OR = 0.738, 95% CI = 0.344-1.582), oseltamivir (OR = 0.765, 95% CI = 0.349-1.636), and interferon-alpha (IFN-α) (OR = 0.371, 95% CI = 0.112-1.236) were not associated with the in-hospital mortality. However, arbidol monotherapy (OR = 5.027, 95% CI = 1.795-14.074) or the combination of arbidol and oseltamivir (OR = 5.900, 95% CI = 1.190-29.247) was associated with an increased in-hospital mortality. In addition, the multiple logistic regression identified a significant association between the use of arbidol and the in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR = 4.195, 95% CI = 1.221-14.408).

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that LPV/r, IFN-α, ribavirin, or oseltamivir have no beneficial effects on the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients, whereas the use of arbidol is associated with increased in-hospital mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.05017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284661PMC
July 2021

Tumor-derived NKG2D ligand sMIC reprograms NK cells to an inflammatory phenotype through CBM signalosome activation.

Commun Biol 2021 Jul 22;4(1):905. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Urology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Natural Killer (NK) cell dysfunction is associated with poorer clinical outcome in cancer patients. What regulates NK cell dysfunction in tumor microenvironment is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the human tumor-derived NKG2D ligand soluble MIC (sMIC) reprograms NK cell to secrete pro-tumorigenic cytokines with diminished cytotoxicity and polyfunctional potential. Antibody clearing sMIC restores NK cell to a normal cytotoxic effector functional state. We discovered that sMIC selectively activates the CBM-signalosome inflammatory pathways in NK cells. Conversely, tumor cell membrane-bound MIC (mMIC) stimulates NK cell cytotoxicity through activating PLC2γ2/SLP-76/Vav1 pathway. Ultimately, antibody targeting sMIC effectuated the in vivo anti-tumor effect of adoptively transferred NK cells. Our findings uncover an unrecognized mechanism that could instruct NK cell to a dysfunctional state in response to cues in the tumor microenvironment. Our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the efficacy of the ongoing NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02440-3DOI Listing
July 2021

PERK mediates resistance to BRAF inhibition in melanoma with impaired PTEN.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Jul 19;5(1):68. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Targeting mutant BRAF in patients with melanomas harboring this oncogene has been highly successful as a first-line treatment, but other mutations may affect its efficacy and alter the route of acquired resistance resulting in recurrence and poor prognosis. As an evolving strategy, melanoma treatment needs to be expanded to include targets based on newly discovered emerging molecules and pathways. We here show that PERK plays a critical role in BRAF inhibitor-acquired resistance in melanoma with impaired PTEN. Inhibition of PERK by either shRNA or a pharmacological inhibitor blocked the growth of BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma with impaired PTEN in vitro and in vivo, suggesting an effective approach against melanomas with mutant BRAF and PTEN deficiency. Our current findings, along with our previous discovery that the AXL/AKT axis mediates resistance to BRAF inhibition in melanoma with wild-type PTEN, provide new insights toward a strategy for combating BRAF inhibition-acquired resistance in BRAF mutant melanoma with different PTEN statuses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00207-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289936PMC
July 2021

Cloning and characterization of a panel of mitochondrial targeting sequences for compartmentalization engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Mitochondrion is generally considered as the most promising subcellular organelle for compartmentalization engineering. Much progress has been made in reconstituting whole metabolic pathways in the mitochondria of yeast to harness the precursor pools (i.e., pyruvate and acetyl-CoA), bypass competing pathways, and minimize transportation limitations. However, only a few mitochondrial targeting sequences (MTSs) have been characterized (i.e., MTS of COX4), limiting the application of compartmentalization engineering for multigene biosynthetic pathways in the mitochondria of yeast. In the present study, based on the mitochondrial proteome, a total of 20 MTSs were cloned and the efficiency of these MTSs in targeting heterologous proteins, including the Escherichia coli FabI and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) into the mitochondria was evaluated by growth complementation and confocal microscopy. After systematic characterization, six of the well-performed MTSs were chosen for the colocalization of complete biosynthetic pathways into the mitochondria. As proof of concept, the full α-santalene biosynthetic pathway consisting of 10 expression cassettes capable of converting acetyl-coA to α-santalene was compartmentalized into the mitochondria, leading to a 3.7-fold improvement in the production of α-santalene. The newly characterized MTSs should contribute to the expanded metabolic engineering and synthetic biology toolbox for yeast mitochondrial compartmentalization engineering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27896DOI Listing
July 2021

Chinese medical students' disposition for critical thinking: a mixed methods exploration.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Jul 16;21(1):385. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Critical thinking (CT) is an essential competency for medical students. This study's aim was to evaluate Chinese medical students' disposition for CT and to explore the impact of current trends in medical education on students' CT development.

Methods: We used multistage stratified cluster sampling to recruit a total of 1241 medical students among five different years of training and from three medical institutions in China. The Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory-Chinese Version (CTDI-CV) and self-reported information were used to collect cross-sectional data. Based on the data from the CTDI-CV, 112 medical students in clinical course training from a single institution continued one-year follow-up. Their one-year CTDI-CV score changes were collected regarding various medical education variables.

Results: The mean CTDI-CV score of the 1241 medical students was 287.04 with 729 (58.7%) students receiving a score of 280 or higher. There were statistically significant differences in schools attended(F = 3.84, P < 0.05), year of school attended(F = 10.32, P < 0.001), GPA(F = 6.32, P < 0.01), weekly time spent learning after class(F = 14.14, P < 0.001), attitude toward medicine(F = 28.93, P < 0.001), desire to be a doctor after graduation(t = - 3.35, P < 0.001), familiarity with CT(F = 20.40, P < 0.001), and perception of importance of CT(F = 22.25, P < 0.001). The participants scored the highest on the CTDI-CV subscales of "inquisitiveness" and the lowest on "truth seeking." The 112 students in the longitudinal study had significantly lower total CT scores after one academic year follow-up.

Conclusions: Chinese medical students generally exhibited positive CT dispositions. The cross-sectional survey and one-year longitudinal study indicated that students' CT disposition diminished as they progressed through traditional medical training. Our study contributes to understanding the status of Chinese medical education of and influential factors on medical students' CT disposition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02801-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285800PMC
July 2021

Largely varying patterns and trends of primary cancer-directed resection for gastric carcinoma with synchronous distant metastasis in Europe and the US: a population-based study calling for further standardization of care.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 28;13:17588359211027837. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg 69120, Germany.

Aims: The role of resection remains debated in cases of metastatic gastric carcinoma (mGC). Some mGCs are technically resectable. At the population level, the real-world application of resection for mGC remains largely unclear in most Western countries. This large, population-based international investigation aimed to reveal the resection patterns and trends for mGC and the treatment-associated factors in Europe and the US.

Methods: Data on cases with microscopically-confirmed primary invasive stomach carcinoma with distant metastasis were obtained from the nationwide cancer registries of the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, and Slovenia and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 database. We calculated age-standardized rates of primary cancer-directed resection and assessed resection trends using linear regression. We investigated associations of treatment with patient and cancer factors using multivariable-adjusted log-binomial regression.

Results: Among 133,321 patients with gastric cancer, overall, 40,215 cases with mGC diagnosed between 2003-2017 were investigated. Age-standardized resection rates significantly declined over time in the US, Belgium, Sweden, and Norway (by 5-14%). Resection rates greatly differed from 5% to 16% in 2013-2014. Cases with older ages, cardia tumors, or tumors involving adjacent structures were significantly less often operated across most countries. Sex was not significantly associated with resection. Across countries the association patterns and strengths differed largely. With multivariable adjustment, resection rates decreased significantly in all countries except Slovenia and Estonia (prevalence ratio per year = 0.90-0.98), and the decreasing trends were consistently observed in various stratifications by age and location.

Conclusion: In Europe and the US, resection patterns and trends largely varied across countries for mGCs, which were mostly less often resected in the early 21st century. Various resection-associated factors were shown, with greatly varying association patterns and strengths. Our report could aid to identify discrepancies in clinical practice and highlight the great need for further clarifying the role of resection in mGCs to enhance standardization of care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17588359211027837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243140PMC
June 2021

Oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrazines and diarylamines using a polyoxomolybdate-based iron catalyst.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics & Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.

We report an efficient method for the oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrazines and diarylamines in aqueous ethanol using Anderson-type polyoxomolybdate-based iron(iii) as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. A series of azo compounds and tetraarylhydrazines were obtained in moderate to excellent yields. The reaction conditions and substrate scopes are complementary or superior to those of more established protocols. In addition, the catalyst shows good stability and reusability in water. The preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that a radical process is involved in the reaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02753kDOI Listing
July 2021

Neurokinin Receptor 1 (NK1R) Antagonist Aprepitant Enhances Hematoma Clearance by Regulating Microglial Polarization via PKC/p38MAPK/NFκB Pathway After Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA.

Hematoma clearance is an important therapeutic target to improve outcome following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recent studies showed that Neurokinin receptor-1 (NK1R) inhibition exerts protective effects in various neurological disease models, but its role in ICH has not been explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of NK1R and its relation to hematoma clearance after ICH using an autologous blood injection mouse model. A total of 332 adult male CD1 mice were used. We found that the expression levels of NK1R and its endogenous ligand, substance P (SP), were significantly upregulated after ICH. Intraperitoneal administration of the NK1R selective antagonist, Aprepitant, significantly improved neurobehavior, reduced hematoma volume and hemoglobin levels after ICH, and promoted microglia polarization towards M2 phenotype. Aprepitant decreased phosphorylated PKC, p38MAPK, and NFκB p65, and downregulated M1 markers while upregulating M2 markers after ICH. Intracerebroventricular administration of the NK1R agonist, GR73632 or PKC agonist, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) reversed the effects of Aprepitant. To demonstrate the upstream mediator of NK1R activation, we performed thrombin injection and found that it increased SP. Inhibiting thrombin suppressed SP and decreased M1 markers while increasing M2 microglia polarization. Thus, NK1R inhibition promoted hematoma clearance after ICH by increasing M2 microglial polarization via downregulating PKC/p38MAPK/NFκB signaling pathway, and thrombin may be a key upstream mediator of NK1R activation. Therapeutic interventions inhibiting NK1R signaling may be a new target for the treatment of ICH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-021-01077-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison and Validation of Force Fields for Deep Eutectic Solvents in Combination with Water and Alcohol Dehydrogenase.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Thermal Separation Processes, Hamburg University of Technology, Eißendorfer Straße 38, 21073 Hamburg, Germany.

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have become popular as environmental-friendly solvents for biocatalysis. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer an in-depth analysis of enzymes in DESs, but their performance depends on the force field chosen. Here, we present a comprehensive validation of three biomolecular force fields (CHARMM, Amber, and OPLS) for simulations of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in DESs composed of choline chloride and glycerol/ethylene glycol with varying water contents. Different properties (e.g., protein structure and flexibility, solvation layer, and H-bonds) were used for validation. For two properties (viscosity and water activity) also experiments were performed. The viscosity was calculated with the periodic perturbation method, whereby its parameter dependency is disclosed. A modification of Amber was identified as the best-performing model for low water contents, whereas CHARMM outperforms the other models at larger water concentrations. An analysis of ADH's structure and interactions with the DESs revealed similar predictions for Amber and CHARMM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jctc.1c00274DOI Listing
July 2021

Mitophagy in carcinogenesis, drug resistance and anticancer therapeutics.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jul 5;21(1):350. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Histoembryology, Genetics and Developmental Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of Chinese Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai, 200025, People's Republic of China.

The mitochondrion is an organelle that plays a vital role in energy production, cytoplasmic protein degradation and cell death. Mitophagy is an autophagic procedure that specifically clears damaged mitochondria and maintains its homeostasis. Emerging evidence indicates that mitophagy is involved in many physiological processes, including cellular homeostasis, cellular differentiation and nerve protection. In this review, we describe the regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy in mammals and yeasts and highlight the recent advances relevant to its function in carcinogenesis and drug resistance. Finally, a section has been dedicated to describing the role of mitophagy in anticancer therapeutics, which is a new frontier that offers a precise and promising strategy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02065-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256582PMC
July 2021

Clinical efficacy of curcumin versus chlorhexidine as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for the treatment of periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Phytother Res 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of curcumin versus chlorhexidine as adjuncts to scaling and root planing (SRP) for periodontitis treatment. We searched PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to February 18, 2021 and identified studies with relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using curcumin or chlorhexidine as an adjunct to SRP. Nine RCTs involving 420 patients/sites were included. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model revealed that curcumin and chlorhexidine, as an adjunct to SRP, reduced probing pocket depth (PPD) at similar levels during a 3-, 4-, 6-, and 12-week follow-up. No significant differences were observed in reducing clinical attachment loss (CAL) between curcumin and chlorhexidine as an adjunct to SRP at 4 weeks and 6 weeks. Furthermore, gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were similar using curcumin versus chlorhexidine as an adjunct to SRP at the 4-week-, 6-week-, and 12-week follow-up. Based on the available evidence in RCTs, compared with chlorhexidine as an adjunct to SRP, curcumin has a similar effect on reducing PPD, CAL, GI, and PI. The quality of evidence is low, limited by the number of studies and their limitations. Further studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of curcumin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7208DOI Listing
July 2021

Characteristics of Publications on Occupational Stress: Contributions and Trends.

Front Public Health 2021 15;9:664013. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Periodical Press and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

This study aimed to analyze the bibliometric characteristics of the publications on occupational stress and highlight key research topics and future trends. The Web of Science Core Collection database was searched to collect publications on occupational stress, from inception to December 9, 2020. Two authors independently screened eligible literature and extracted the data. Bibliometric analyses were performed using VOSviewer 1.6.6 and R 3.6.3 software. Overall, 6,564 publications on occupational stress were included. "Stress," with a total link strength of 1,252, appeared as the most co-occurrence keyword, followed by "occupational stress," "job stress," and "job satisfaction." All studies were published between 1956 and 2020. Among them, 6,176 (94.35%) papers were written in English, and 4,706 (70.25%) were original articles. The top three Web of Science categories were "public environmental occupational health" ( = 1,711), "psychology, applied" ( = 846), and "psychology, multidisciplinary" ( = 650). The 100 top-cited articles were mentioned a total of 36,145 times, with a median of 361, ranging from 174 to 5,574. The United States was the most productive country, with 1,780 publications. The main partners of the United States were England and China. Three themes of occupational stress research were identified: job satisfaction, burnout, and occupational stress-related health problems. This bibliometric analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of the trends and most influential contributions to the field of occupational stress, thus promoting ideas for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.664013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239141PMC
June 2021

Generation of a mode-tunable optical vortex based on a mirror curvature dynamically controlled Z-shaped resonant cavity.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(13):3079-3082

We report a novel, to the best of our knowledge, mode-tunable optical vortex generation method based on a mirror curvature dynamically controlled Z-shaped resonant cavity, a mode conversion beamline, and a reference laser beamline. By changing the mirror curvature of an intra-cavity deformable mirror (DM) at a certain pumping voltage and current, various Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode beams were obtained in the Z-shaped resonant cavity of a laser diode pumped Yb:CALGO laser. The vortex beams were realized finally by using an external cavity astigmatism converter. In the experiment, the dynamic tuning of the 1st to 9th order HG mode beams and Laguerre-Gaussian mode vortex beams carrying different orbital angular momenta, ranging from 1 to 9 were achieved by dynamically adjusting the driving voltage of the DM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.422316DOI Listing
July 2021

Degradation of trimethoprim by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes: kinetics, mechanisms, and effects of natural water matrices.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China.

In this study, we investigated the removal efficiency of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent trimethoprim (TMP) in a UV-activated persulfate system (UV/PS). The pseudo-first-order reaction kinetic model based on the steady-state hypothesis was used to explain TMP degradation behavior in UV-activated persulfate system. Due to the low quantum yield and molar absorptivity of TMP at 254 nm, the direct photolysis of TMP was slower. Since the free radicals generated by adding HO or PS to the system can react with TMP, the degradation rate was significantly accelerated, and[Formula: see text] played a dominant role in the UV/PS system. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were determined by the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetic model to be 6.02×10 and 3.88×10 Ms, respectively. The values were consistent with competitive kinetic measurements. The pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics model can predict and explain the effect of PS concentration, natural organic matter, and chloride ion on the TMP degradation in the UV/PS system. The observed pseudo first-order rate constants for TMP degradation (k) increased with the persulfate concentration, but it significantly decreased in the presence of NOM and chloride. [Formula: see text] has no effect on the degradation of TMP, while [Formula: see text] promotes the degradation and [Formula: see text] inhibits the degradation. The common transition metal ion (such as Cu, Zn, and Co) in industrial wastewater has a synergistic effect on the TMP degradation in the UV/PS system, but excessive metal ions will lead to a decrease of the degradation rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15146-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245158PMC
July 2021

Human Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy.

Matern Fetal Med 2021 Jan 21;3(1):53-65. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518020, China.

Human coronavirus (HCoV) causes potentially fatal respiratory disease. Pregnancy is a physiological state that predisposes women to viral infection. In this review, we aim to present advances in the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment in HCoV in pregnancy. We retrieved information from the Pubmed database up to June 2020, using various search terms and relevant words, including coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 2019 coronavirus disease, and pregnancy. Both basic and clinical studies were selected. We found no evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible to HCoV infection or that those with HCoV infection are more prone to developing severe pneumonia. There is also no confirmed evidence of vertical mother-to-child transmission of HcoV infection during maternal HCoV infection. Those diagnosed with infection should be promptly admitted to a negative-pressure isolation ward, preferably in a designated hospital with adequate facilities and multi-disciplinary expertise to manage critically ill obstetric patients. Antiviral treatment has been routinely used to treat pregnant women with HCoV infection. The timing and mode of delivery should be individualized, depending mainly on the clinical status of the patient, gestational age, and fetal condition. Early cord clamping and temporary separation of the newborn for at least 2 weeks is recommended. All medical staff caring for patients with HCoV infection should use personal protective equipment. This review highlights the advances in pathogenesis, maternal-fetal outcome, maternal-fetal transmission, diagnosis and treatment in HCoV including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FM9.0000000000000071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834663PMC
January 2021

Estimating mouthing exposure to chemicals in children's products.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Background: Existing models for estimating children's exposure to chemicals through mouthing currently depends on the availability of chemical- and material-specific experimental migration rates, only covering a few dozen chemicals.

Objective: This study objective is hence to develop a mouthing exposure model to predict migration into saliva, mouthing exposure, and related health risk from a wide range of chemical-material combinations in children's products.

Methods: We collected experimental data on chemical migration from different products into saliva for multiple substance groups and materials, identifying chemical concentration and diffusion coefficient as main properties of influence. To predict migration rates into saliva, we adapted a previously developed migration model for chemicals in food packaging materials. We also developed a regression model based on identified chemical and material properties.

Results: Our migration predictions correlate well with experimental data (R = 0.85) and vary widely from 8 × 10 to 32.7 µg/10 cm/min, with plasticizers in PVC showing the highest values. Related mouthing exposure doses vary across chemicals and materials from a median of 0.005 to 253 µg/kg/d. Finally, we combined exposure estimates with toxicity information to yield hazard quotients and identify chemicals of concern for average and upper bound mouthing behavior scenarios.

Significance: The proposed model can be applied for predicting migration rates for hundreds of chemical-material combinations to support high-throughput screening.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-021-00354-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Quadruple-editing of the MAPK and PI3K pathways effectively blocks the progression of KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer cells.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery IV, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.

Mutated KRAS promotes the activation of the MAPK pathway and the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Aberrant activation of the PI3K pathway strongly attenuates the efficacy of MAPK suppression in KRAS-mutated CRC. The development of a novel strategy targeting a dual pathway is therefore highly essential for the therapy of KRAS-mutated CRC. In this study, a quadruple-depleting system for the KRAS, MEK1, PIK3CA, and MTOR genes based on CRISPR/SaCas9 was developed. Adenovirus serotype 5 (ADV5) was integrated with two engineered proteins, an adaptor and a protector, to form ADV-protein complex (APC) for systemic delivery of the CRISPR system. Quadruple-editing could significantly inhibit the MAPK and PI3K pathways in CRC cells with oncogenic mutations of KRAS and PIK3CA or with KRAS mutation and compensated PI3K activation. Compared with MEK and PI3K/MTOR inhibitors, quadruple-editing induced more significant survival inhibition on primary CRC cells with oncogenic mutations of KRAS and PIK3CA. The adaptor specifically targeting EpCAM and the hexon-shielding protector could dramatically enhance ADV5 infection efficiency to CRC cells and significantly reduce off-targeting tropisms to many organs except the colon. Moreover, quadruple-editing intravenously delivered by APC significantly blocked the dual pathway and tumor growth of KRAS-mutated CRC cells, without influencing normal tissues in cell- and patient-derived xenograft models. Therefore, APC-delivered quadruple-editing of the MAPK and PI3K pathways shows a promising therapeutic potential for KRAS-mutated CRC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15049DOI Listing
June 2021

The exposures and health effects of benzene, toluene and naphthalene for Chinese chefs in multiple cooking styles of kitchens.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 22;156:106721. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Commercial cooking has higher intensity and more severe instantaneous cooking pollution from volatile organic chemicals compared to home cooking, making health risk assessment of occupational exposure for chefs a priority. In this study, chefs from three cooking styles of kitchens, including steaming, frying, and grilling, were selected to investigate the external and internal exposures, health risks and effects of several typical aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene and naphthalene). Naphthalene was found to be the most concentrated contaminant in air samples among the different kitchens, while benzene had the lowest concentration. The concentration of toluene in frying kitchens was significantly higher than that in steaming kitchens. Air concentrations of toluene in frying kitchens, as well as benzene concentrations in grilling kitchens exceeded the standard level according to indoor air quality standard (GB/T18883-2002). Regarding the metabolites of pollutants in urine, the content of S-benzylmercapturic acids (S-BMA) for frying chefs was significantly higher than that for other cooking styles of chefs, which was consistent with the relatively higher air concentrations of toluene. There was a good correlation between internal and external exposure of the pollutants. The level of oxidative stress was influenced by 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHN) and S-BMA, indicating the potential health risks of these occupational exposed chefs. This study indicates the need to improve the monitoring of typical aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as to investigate their potential health effects in large-scale groups, and improve the ventilation in kitchens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106721DOI Listing
June 2021

A multi-omics investigation of the composition and function of extracellular vesicles along the temporal trajectory of COVID-19.

Nat Metab 2021 07 22;3(7):909-922. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Exosomes represent a subtype of extracellular vesicle that is released through retrograde transport and fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Although no perfect methodologies currently exist for the high-throughput, unbiased isolation of pure plasma exosomes, investigation of exosome-enriched plasma fractions of extracellular vesicles can confer a glimpse into the endocytic pathway on a systems level. Here we conduct high-coverage lipidomics with an emphasis on sterols and oxysterols, and proteomic analyses of exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs hereafter) from patients at different temporal stages of COVID-19, including the presymptomatic, hyperinflammatory, resolution and convalescent phases. Our study highlights dysregulated raft lipid metabolism that underlies changes in EV lipid membrane anisotropy that alter the exosomal localization of presenilin-1 (PS-1) in the hyperinflammatory phase. We also show in vitro that EVs from different temporal phases trigger distinct metabolic and transcriptional responses in recipient cells, including in alveolar epithelial cells, which denote the primary site of infection, and liver hepatocytes, which represent a distal secondary site. In comparison to the hyperinflammatory phase, EVs from the resolution phase induce opposing effects on eukaryotic translation and Notch signalling. Our results provide insights into cellular lipid metabolism and inter-tissue crosstalk at different stages of COVID-19 and are a resource to increase our understanding of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00425-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficient fabrication of highly sensitive AgNPs-drawing paper SERS substrates by robotic writing approach.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 10;261:120064. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, PR China.

Inspired by hand writing approach for preparing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated drawing paper substrates were prepared by robotic writing technique. The wettabilities and surface morphologies of the drawing paper before and after the deposition of AgNPs were characterized by contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Malachite green was employed as a probe molecule to evaluate the SERS activities of the AgNPs-drawing paper substrates. The AgNPs-drawing paper substrates exhibited extremely high sensitivity that the detection limit for malachite green was down to 10 mol/L and the Raman enhancement factor was calculated to be 10. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the Raman peaks intensities collected from twelve points on a single substrate and fifteen substrates were used to evaluate the uniformity and reproducibility of the AgNPs-drawing paper substrates. It was found that the substrates had good reproducibility and uniformity with RSD values of 7.29% and 9.70%, respectively. Furthermore, the prepared AgNPs-drawing paper substrates exhibited long-term stability among six months.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120064DOI Listing
November 2021

Exposure and Toxicity Characterization of Chemical Emissions and Chemicals in Products: Global Recommendations and Implementation in USEtox.

Int J Life Cycle Assess 2021 May 5;26(5):899-915. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

Purpose: Reducing chemical pressure on human and environmental health is an integral part of the global sustainability agenda. Guidelines for deriving globally applicable, life cycle based indicators are required to consistently quantify toxicity impacts from chemical emissions as well as from chemicals in consumer products. In response, we elaborate the methodological framework and present recommendations for advancing near-field/far-field exposure and toxicity characterization, and for implementing these recommendations in the scientific consensus model USEtox.

Methods: An expert taskforce was convened by the Life Cycle Initiative hosted by UN Environment to expand existing guidance for evaluating human toxicity impacts from exposure to chemical substances. This taskforce evaluated advances since the original release of USEtox. Based on these advances, the taskforce identified two major aspects that required refinement, namely integrating near-field and far-field exposure and improving human dose-response modeling. Dedicated efforts have led to a set of recommendations to address these aspects in an update of USEtox, while ensuring consistency with the boundary conditions for characterizing life cycle toxicity impacts and being aligned with recommendations from agencies that regulate chemical exposure. The proposed framework was finally tested in an illustrative rice production and consumption case study.

Results And Discussion: On the exposure side, a matrix system is proposed and recommended to integrate far-field exposure from environmental emissions with near-field exposure from chemicals in various consumer product types. Consumer exposure is addressed via submodels for each product type to account for product characteristics and exposure settings. Case study results illustrate that product-use related exposure dominates overall life cycle exposure. On the effect side, a probabilistic dose-response approach combined with a decision tree for identifying reliable points of departure is proposed for non-cancer effects, following recent guidance from the World Health Organization. This approach allows for explicitly considering both uncertainty and human variability in effect factors. Factors reflecting disease severity are proposed to distinguish cancer from non-cancer effects, and within the latter discriminate reproductive/developmental and other non-cancer effects. All proposed aspects have been consistently implemented into the original USEtox framework.

Conclusions: The recommended methodological advancements address several key limitations in earlier approaches. Next steps are to test the new characterization framework in additional case studies and to close remaining research gaps. Our framework is applicable for evaluating chemical emissions and product-related exposure in life cycle assessment, chemical alternatives assessment and chemical substitution, consumer exposure and risk screening, and high-throughput chemical prioritization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11367-021-01889-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208704PMC
May 2021

Exposure and perception of PM pollution on the mental stress of pregnant women.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 15;156:106686. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Prenatal exposure to ambient PM has been proved to be related to pregnant women's physical health and birth outcomes. However, the damage from air pollution on pregnant women's mental health has not been fully discussed. A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PM exposure and risk perception on the mental stress of pregnant women. A total of 605 pregnant women, including 403 high symptoms of stress cases and 202 matched controls, were recruited from January 2018 to December 2018 in Nanjing, among which 313 high symptoms of stress cases and 144 matched controls were included in the analysis. Meaningfully high symptoms of anxiety were defined with a score of 6 points or greater on the phobic anxiety subscale of the Crown-Crisp index. We found that the PM effect perceived by the case group was significantly higher than the control group, and the PM exposure of the case group was also significantly higher than that of the control group. Binary logistic regression showed that for each increase in unit of PM exposure, the risk of pregnant women suffering from high mental stress increased by 13.76% (95 %CI: 8.26-19.53%). Through path analysis modeling, we found that in the case group, perceived indoor attributions not only had a direct impact on mental stress (p < 0.001), but also played a key mediating role in the impact of average daily dose of PM on mental stress (p < 0.001). The high level of mental stress is not only affected by objective exposure, but also by subjective perceptions in the case group. Considering the significant effect of PM exposure on mental stress, pregnant women are recommended to spend appropriate amounts of time outdoors during clean air days. In addition, the mediating role of risk perception cannot be ignored. It is necessary to reassure pregnant women not to become overly concerned about the risk of PM pollution and reduce their psychological burden.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106686DOI Listing
June 2021

Long non‑coding RNA SNHG3 promotes the development of non‑small cell lung cancer via the miR‑1343‑3p/NFIX pathway.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Aug 16;48(2). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to identify the function of long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 3 (SNHG3) and examine its effects on non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A series of experiments were employed to evaluate the effects of SNHG3 on the progression of NSCLC, including Cell Counting Kit‑8, 5‑Ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine, flow cytometry, wound healing, Transwell, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR assays. Bioinformatics analyses and a luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify the target gene of SNHG3 and microRNA (miR)‑1343‑3p. Finally, recuse experiments were conducted to verify the effect of SNHG3 and its target gene on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The findings indicated that lncRNA SNHG3 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of lncRNA SNHG3 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and accelerated cell apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines. The results of the bioinformatics analysis and the luciferase reporter assay indicated that lncRNA SNHG3 directly bound to miR‑1343‑3p and that it could downregulate the expression levels of miR‑1343‑3p to promote the progression of NSCLC. Rescue experiments indicated that lncRNA SNHG3 increased nuclear factor IX (NFIX) expression by sequestering miR‑1343‑3p in NSCLC. These results suggested that the SNHG3/miR‑1343‑3p/NFIX axis may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208627PMC
August 2021

Changes in the interstitial cells of Cajal in the gallbladder of guinea pigs fed a lithogenic diet.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 2;22(2):823. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China.

Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a common disease and gallbladder hypomotility may underlie its pathogenesis. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the gallbladder serve vital roles in regulating gallbladder motility. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in gallbladder ICCs during the development of cholesterol cholelithiasis. A total of 40 male guinea pigs were randomly assigned to four groups and fed a standard diet (SD) or lithogenic diet (LD) for 2 or 8 weeks. The LD significantly increased the total cholesterol levels in the serum and bile, as well as the serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol after 2 and 8 weeks. The LD also significantly increased and decreased the number of gallbladder ICCs at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively, by regulating the stem cell factor/C-kit pathway. Moreover, the ultrastructure of gallbladder ICCs was significantly altered after 8 weeks, and the protein expression levels of connexin 43 in the gallbladder were differentially altered after 2 and 8 weeks. Finally, cholecystokinin receptor type A (CCK1R) expression in the gallbladder was assessed. In gallbladder ICCs, its expression was significantly increased and decreased after 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the density, ultrastructure and CCK1R expression levels of gallbladder ICCs are differentially altered at various stages of cholesterol cholelithiasis progression, indicating that gallbladder ICCs may be considered a potential therapeutic target for treatment of cholesterol cholelithiasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193206PMC
August 2021

[Research Progress of Fusion Genes RET in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Oncology, The Friendship Hospital of Dalian, Dalian 116001, China.

In the past 20 years, with the development of molecular biology, the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been developing. Targeted therapy has improved the survival period of patients with positive mutation of tumor driver gene. More and more targets have been found gradually. Drugs targeting different driving genes have brought the treatment of NSCLC into a promising target era. Among the many driving genes of NSCLC, the fusion of transfection proto oncogene (RET) is the addition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), analytic lymphama kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1-receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) are emerging targets. Targeted drugs for RET gene fusion have been constantly updated. Recently, new high selective RET inhibitors blu-667 and loxo-292 have made important breakthroughs. This paper will review the review of the fusion mutation of RET gene in NSCLC, the detection methods, clinicopathological characteristics, targeted treatment and the research progress after drug resistance.
.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2021.102.22DOI Listing
June 2021

Relative contribution of rice and fish consumption to bioaccessibility-corrected health risks for urban residents in eastern China.

Environ Int 2021 Oct 10;155:106682. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, PR China; Environmental and Life Sciences Program (EnLS), Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

There are global concerns about dietary exposure to metal(loid)s in foods. However, little is known about the relative contribution of rice versus fish to multiple metal(loid) exposure for the general population, especially in Asia where rice and fish are major food sources. We compared relative contributions of rice and fish consumption to multi-metal(loid) exposure on the city-scale (Nanjing) and province-scale in China. The effects of ingestion rate, metal(loid) level, and bioaccessibility were examined to calculate modeled risk from Cu, Zn, total As (TAs), inorganic As (iAs), Se, Cd, Pb, and methylmercury (MeHg). Metal(loid) levels in rice and fish samples collected from Nanjing City were generally low, except iAs. Metal(loid) bioaccessibilities in fish were higher than those in rice, except Se. Calculated carcinogenic risks induced by iAs intake (indicated by increased lifetime cancer risk, ILCR) were above the acceptable level (1 0 ) in Nanjing City (median: 3 × 10 for female and 4 × 10 for male) and nine provinces (1.4 × 10 to 5.9 × 10) in China. Rice consumption accounted for 85.0% to 99.8% of carcinogenic risk. The non-carcinogenic hazard quotients (HQ) for single metals and hazard index (HI) for multi-metal exposure were < 1 in all cases, indicating of their slight non-carcinogen health effects associated. In Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces, results showed that rice and fish intake contributed similarly to the HI (i.e., 42.6% vs 57.4% in Guangdong and 54.6% vs 45.4% in Jiangsu). Sensitivity analysis indicated that carcinogenic risk was most sensitive to rice ingestion rate and rice iAs levels, while non-carcinogenic hazard (i.e., HQ and HI) was most sensitive to ingestion rate of fish and rice, and Cu concentration in rice. Our results suggest that rice is more important than fish for human dietary metal(loid) exposure risk in China, and carcinogenic risk from iAs exposure in rice requires particular attention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106682DOI Listing
October 2021

The effects of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and dantrolene on rat bones treated with NaAsO2.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Ultrasonography, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832008, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmab075DOI Listing
March 2021

More sensitive to drought of young tissues with weak water potential adjustment capacity in two desert shrubs.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;790:148103. Epub 2021 May 29.

Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

Water is the main limiting factor for survival and growth for desert plants, and plants can alleviate water deficits under drought by adjusting water potential (Ψ). However, the water potential adjustment capacity and water-sensitivity at the tissue level among shrub species remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate water potential adjustment capacity and water-sensitivity of different tissues in Artemisia ordosica and Caragana korshinskii through calculating the water relation parameters from pressure-volume (P-V) curves. The present study found that the sensitivity coefficients, -1/β and -1/b, were gradually decreased with increasing degree of lignification in A. ordosica and C. korshinskii, suggesting that younger tissues with low lignification are more sensitive to water deficit. Additionally, the younger tissues with more negative osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ), water potential at turgor loss point (Ψ), and lower the bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), the relative water deficit at turgor loss point (RWD), apoplastic water fraction (AWF) and total hydraulic capacitance (C), which indicated that younger tissues have stronger turgor adjustment capacity compared to osmotic adjustment capacity and them were more easily lose water during times of decreased water potential because of higher cell wall elasticity and weaker water storage capacity. Collectively, the present study highlighted that younger tissues are more sensitive to drought due to their weaker water potential adjustment capacity and provided critical insight into water physiological mechanism or sensitivity of species to drought.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148103DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of assisted reproductive technology, germline de novo mutations and congenital heart defects in a prospective birth cohort study.

Cell Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Emerging evidence suggests that children conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART) have a higher risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) even when there is no family history. De novo mutation (DNM) is a well-known cause of sporadic congenital diseases; however, whether ART procedures increase the number of germline DNM (gDNM) has not yet been well studied. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1137 individuals from 160 families conceived through ART and 205 families conceived spontaneously. Children conceived via ART carried 4.59 more gDNMs than children conceived spontaneously, including 3.32 paternal and 1.26 maternal DNMs, after correcting for parental age at conception, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise behaviors. Paternal DNMs in offspring conceived via ART are characterized by C>T substitutions at CpG sites, which potentially affect protein-coding genes and are significantly associated with the increased risk of CHD. In addition, the accumulation of non-coding functional mutations was independently associated with CHD and 87.9% of the mutations were originated from the father. Among ART offspring, infertility of the father was associated with elevated paternal DNMs; usage of both recombinant and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and high-dosage human chorionic gonadotropin trigger was associated with an increase of maternal DNMs. In sum, the increased gDNMs in offspring conceived by ART were primarily originated from fathers, indicating that ART itself may not be a major reason for the accumulation of gDNMs. Our findings emphasize the importance of evaluating the germline status of the fathers in families with the use of ART.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00521-wDOI Listing
June 2021
-->