Publications by authors named "Lei Chen"

4,973 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Potential clinical implications of iron metabolism in ovarian endometriosis.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2022 Jun 11;73:127017. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Medical Research Center of Jilin University Second Hospital, Changchun, 130041, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate iron metabolism indices in ovarian endometriosis (OEMs) and to demonstrate the potential clinical implications in the initiation and development of OEMs.

Methods: Three datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were selected to assess the expression levels of iron metabolites in endometrial tissues from patients with EMs and the health. To evaluate the differential expression of serum iron indices , hospitalized patients with OEMs and health examinees in Jilin University Second Hospital from November 2018 to December 2019 were recruited. Serum samples were obtained from 38 patients with OEMs and 36 health examinees. To compare the iron metabolism between peripheral circulation blood and local ectopic lesion, cyst fluid samples were obtained from 15 patients with ovarian chocolate cyst at the time of surgery. Iron metabolism indices include iron, transferrin (TF), ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC)), which were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer.

Results: The present study indicated the increased levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, in the endometriotic tissues of patients with EMs. The expression of iron and ferritin in cyst fluid of patients with OEMs showed higher than that in serum, the results of TF and UIBC were opposite (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the content of iron metabolites between patients with OEMs and the healthy examinees(P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The ovarian chocolate cyst fluid and endometriotic tissues in patients with OEMs could more directly reflect the pathological changes of local ectopic lesion, which usually manifested as high levels of free iron and/or iron deposits in the ectopic sites. The implications of our work suggest iron metabolites in the serum may have potentially limited value as circulating biomarkers for OEMs. The iron variation in local lesions may be not only regulated by liver that mainly manipulate the systematic iron homeostasis, but also be tuned by the iron regulatory protein (IRP)/ iron responsive element (IRE) system. In summary, the iron metabolites, especially the iron and ferritin in the cyst fluid and endometriotic tissues, are meaningful biomarkers involved in the process of pathophysiology and pathogenesis of OEMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2022.127017DOI Listing
June 2022

A 215-bp indel at intron I of BoFLC2 affects flowering time in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during vernalization.

Theor Appl Genet 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for the Southern Mountains Regions, Ministry of Education, College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Key Message: In response to cold, a 215-bp deletion at intron I of BoFLC2 slows its silencing activity by feedback to the core genes of the PHD-PRC2 complex, resulting in late flowering in cabbage. Cabbage is a plant-vernalization-responsive flowering type. In response to cold, BoFLC2 is an important transcription factor, which allows cabbage plants to remain in the vegetative phase. However, there have been few reports on the detailed and functional effects of genetic variation in BoFLC2 on flowering time in cabbage. Herein, BoFLC2 and BoFLC2, cloned from extremely early and extremely late flowering cabbages, respectively, exhibited a 215-bp indel at intron I, three non-synonymous SNPs and a 3-bp indel at exon II. BoFLC2 was found to be related to late flowering, as verified in 40 extremely early/late flowering accessions, a diverse set of cabbage inbred lines and two F2 generations by using indel-FLC2 marker. Among the genetic variation of BoFLC2, the 215-bp deletion at intron I was the main reason for the delayed flowering time, as verified in the transgenic progenies of seed-vernalization-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana (Col) and rapid cycler B. oleracea (TO1000, boflc2). This is the first report to show that the intron I indel of BoFLC2 affects the flowering time of cabbage. Although the intron I 215-bp indel between BoFLC2 and BoFLC2 did not cause alternative splicing, it slowed BoFLC2 silencing during vernalization and feedback to the core genes of the PHD-PRC2 complex, resulting in their lower transcription levels. Our study not only provides an effective molecular marker-assisted selective strategy for identifying bolting-resistant resources and breeding improved varieties in cabbage, but also provides an entry point for exploring the mechanisms of flowering time in plant-vernalization-responsive plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-022-04149-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Warming-induced increase in carbon uptake is linked to earlier spring phenology in temperate and boreal forests.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 27;13(1):3698. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Under global warming, advances in spring phenology due to rising temperatures have been widely reported. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the advancement in spring phenology still remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of temperature during the previous growing season on spring phenology of current year based on the start of season extracted from multiple long-term and large-scale phenological datasets between 1951 and 2018. Our findings indicate that warmer temperatures during previous growing season are linked to earlier spring phenology of current year in temperate and boreal forests. Correspondingly, we observed an earlier spring phenology with the increase in photosynthesis of the previous growing season. These findings suggest that the observed warming-induced earlier spring phenology is driven by increased photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the previous growing season. Therefore, the vital role of warming-induced changes in carbon assimilation should be considered to accurately project spring phenology and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems under future climate warming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31496-wDOI Listing
June 2022

A Novel Prognostic Signature Based on Glioma Essential Ferroptosis-Related Genes Predicts Clinical Outcomes and Indicates Treatment in Glioma.

Front Oncol 2022 10;12:897702. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Ferroptosis is a form of programmed cell death (PCD) that has been implicated in cancer progression, although the specific mechanism is not known. Here, we used the latest DepMap release CRISPR data to identify the essential ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) in glioma and their role in patient outcomes.

Methods: RNA-seq and clinical information on glioma cases were obtained from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). FRGs were obtained from the FerrDb database. CRISPR-screened essential genes (CSEGs) in glioma cell lines were downloaded from the DepMap portal. A series of bioinformatic and machine learning approaches were combined to establish FRG signatures to predict overall survival (OS) in glioma patients. In addition, pathways analysis was used to identify the functional roles of FRGs. Somatic mutation, immune cell infiltration, and immune checkpoint gene expression were analyzed within the risk subgroups. Finally, compounds for reversing high-risk gene signatures were predicted using the GDSC and L1000 datasets.

Results: Seven FRGs (ISCU, NFS1, MTOR, EIF2S1, HSPA5, AURKA, RPL8) were included in the model and the model was found to have good prognostic value (p < 0.001) in both training and validation groups. The risk score was found to be an independent prognostic factor and the model had good efficacy. Subgroup analysis using clinical parameters demonstrated the general applicability of the model. The nomogram indicated that the model could effectively predict 12-, 36-, and 60-months OS and progression-free interval (PFI). The results showed the presence of more aggressive phenotypes (lower numbers of IDH mutations, higher numbers of EGFR and PTEN mutations, greater infiltration of immune suppressive cells, and higher expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors) in the high-risk group. The signaling pathways enriched closely related to the cell cycle and DNA damage repair. Drug predictions showed that patients with higher risk scores may benefit from treatment with RTK pathway inhibitors, including compounds that inhibit RTKs directly or indirectly by targeting downstream PI3K or MAPK pathways.

Conclusion: In summary, the proposed cancer essential FRG signature predicts survival and treatment response in glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.897702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9232254PMC
June 2022

Multi-input convolutional network for ultrafast simulation of field evolvement.

Patterns (N Y) 2022 Jun 21;3(6):100494. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA.

There is a compelling need for the regression capability of mapping the initial field and applied conditions to the evolved field, e.g., given current flow field and fluid properties predicting next-step flow field. Such a capability can provide a maximum to full substitute of a physics-based model, enabling fast simulation of various field evolvements. We propose a conceptually simple, lightweight, but powerful multi-input convolutional network (ConvNet), yNet, that merges multi-input signals by manipulating high-level encodings of field/image input. yNet can significantly reduce the model size compared with its ConvNet counterpart (e.g., to only one-tenth for main architecture of 38-layer depth) and is as much as six orders of magnitude faster than a physics-based model. yNet is applied for data-driven modeling of fluid dynamics, porosity evolution in sintering, stress field development, and grain growth. It consistently shows great extrapolative prediction beyond training datasets in terms of temporal ranges, spatial domains, and geometrical shapes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patter.2022.100494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214322PMC
June 2022

Preparation of a bionic lotus leaf microstructured surface and its drag reduction performance.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 6;12(26):16723-16731. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

College of Engineering, Shenyang Agricultural University Shenyang 110866 P. R. China

Reducing machinery surface friction resistance can improve the efficiency of energy utilization. The lotus leaf, as everyone knows, has a strong capacity for self-cleaning and hydrophobicity. In this paper, the bionic surface of the lotus leaf was prepared in large-area, and its drag reduction performance was studied by both numerical simulation and experimental analysis. Experimental results showed that the maximum drag reduction rate of the bionic surface was 6.29% which appeared at a velocity of 3 m s. The contact state between liquid and bionic surface changed from Cassie state to Wenzel state with the increase of water flow velocity. The surface free energies of the bionic surface and smooth surface were 1.09 mJ m and 14.26 mJ m, respectively. In the droplet rolling experiment, the water droplet was a hemisphere when it rolled on the smooth surface, while it was an ellipsoid on the bionic surface. This study provides a theoretical basis for the structural design of bionic drag reduction surfaces, which are expected to be applied in underwater vehicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra01495eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9169552PMC
June 2022

Metal- and base-free tandem sulfonylation/cyclization of 1,5-dienes with aryldiazonium salts the insertion of sulfur dioxide.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 6;12(26):16745-16750. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Dermatology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University Chengdu 610041 China

A metal- and base-free 5--trig sulfonylative cyclization between 1,5-dienes, aryldiazonium salts and SO (from SOgen) is presented. This method could successfully produce sulfonylated pyrrolin-2-ones in one pot with excellent regioselectivity and good-to-excellent yields. This strategy features mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope. Moreover, a scale-up reaction and three synthetic applications demonstrate the practicality of this method. Lastly, control experiments indicate that the 5--trig sulfonylative cyclization may proceed in a radical pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra03034aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170380PMC
June 2022

Dexmedetomidine exerts its protective effect on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in mice by inhibiting ferroptosis.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 May;47(5):600-609

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu Anhui 233030.

Objectives: Stroke is one of the major diseases that can threaten human life and health. The incidence of ischemic stroke accounts for more than 70% of stroke. The mechanism of ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury caused by ischemic stroke is extremely complex. In recent years, dexmedetomidine has been increasingly studied in anti-cerebral IR injury as a common clinical anesthetic adjunct, but its specific mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effects and mechanisms of dexmedetomidine on cerebral IR injury in mice.

Methods: The mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was prepared by modified suture method. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into a sham group, an IR group, an IR+D1 group (IR+administered 25 µg/kg dexmedetomidine), an IR+D2 group(IR+administered 50 µg/kg dexmedetomidine), an IR+D3 group (IR+administered 100 µg/kg dexmedetomidine), and an IR+D2+ML385 group (IR+administered 50 µg/kg dexmedetomidine and 30 mg/kg ML385). The neurologic behavior of mice was evaluated by Longa's five-point method. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to detect the percentage of cerebral infarct volume in mice. The protein expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) in the cerebral tissues of mice were detected by Western blotting.Mitochondrial morphology was observed under the transmission electron microscope. The contents of MDA, Fe, and GSH in the cerebral tissues of mice were detected.

Results: Compared with the sham group, neurobehavioral scores, cerebral infarct volume, the contents of MDA and Fe, as well as the protein expression of TFR1 were significantly increased; the contents of GSH and the protein expression of SLC7A11 and GPX4 were significantly reduced (all <0.05); mitochondria in cerebral tissue were wrinkled, cristae were reduced, and membrane density was increased in the IR group. Compared with the IR group, neurobehavioral scores, cerebral infarction volume, MDA and Fe contents, as well as the protein expression of TFR1 were significantly reduced; the contents of GSH and the protein expression of SLC7A11 and GPX4 were significantly increased (all <0.05); mitochondrial damage in cerebral tissue was significantly relieved with the pre-treatment of dexmedetomidine. Compared with the IR+D2 group, neurobehavioral scores, cerebral infarction volume, MDA and Fe contents, as well as the protein expression of TFR1 were significantly increased; the contents of GSH and the protein expression of SLC7A11 and GPX4 were significantly reduced (all <0.05);mitochondria reappeared significantly damaged with the ML385 on the basis of dexmedetomidine pre-treatment.

Conclusions: The protective effect of dexmedetomidine on cerebral IR injury mice is related to its inhibition of ferroptosis, and the mechanism might be related to its regulation of Nrf2 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2022.210443DOI Listing
May 2022

Left atrial epicardial adipose tissue is closely associated with left atrial appendage flow velocity in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 24;12(1):10742. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, 99#, Huaihai West Road, Xuzhou, 221002, China.

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) can play an important role in the occurrence and development of atrial fibrillation and stroke. In this study, we explored the relationship between left atrial epicardial adipose tissue (LA-EAT) and left atrial appendage flow velocity (LAA-FV) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NV-AF). A total of 145 patients with NV-AF who underwent their first radiofrequency ablation were enrolled. They underwent left aortopulmonary vein computed tomography angiography (CTA) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) before AF ablation. Left atrial (LA) electroanatomical mapping was performed intraoperatively to assess left atrial voltage. Univariate regression analysis showed that LAA-FV was lower in patients with a low voltage zone (LAA-FV; 35.02 ± 10.78 cm/s vs. 50.60 ± 12.17 cm/s, P < 0.001). A multiple linear regression model showed that the left atrial low voltage zone (β = - 0.311 P < 0.001), LA-EAT volume (β = - 0.256 P < 0.001), left atrial appendage shape (β = - 0.216 P = 0.041), LAVI (β = - 0.153 P = 0.041), and type of atrial fibrillation (paroxysmal vs. persistence) (β = - 0.146 P < 0.048) were independent predictors of LAA-FV. In NV-AF patients, the increase in LA-EAT volume is related to the decrease in LAA-FV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13988-3DOI Listing
June 2022

Activation of NOTCH signaling via DLL1 is mediated by APE1-redox-dependent NF-κB activation in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Gut 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA

Objective: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) arises in the setting of Barrett's oesophagus, an intestinal metaplastic precursor lesion that can develop in patients with chronic GERD. Here, we investigated the role of acidic bile salts, the mimicry of reflux, in activation of NOTCH signaling in EAC.

Design: This study used public databases, EAC cell line models, L2-IL1β transgenic mouse model and human EAC tissue samples to identify mechanisms of NOTCH activation under reflux conditions.

Results: Analysis of public databases demonstrated significant upregulation of NOTCH signaling components in EAC. In vitro studies demonstrated nuclear accumulation of active NOTCH1 cleaved fragment (NOTCH intracellular domain) and upregulation of NOTCH targets in EAC cells in response to reflux conditions. Additional investigations identified DLL1 as the predominant ligand contributing to NOTCH1 activation under reflux conditions. We discovered a novel crosstalk between APE1 redox function, reflux-induced inflammation and DLL1 upregulation where NF-κB can directly bind to and induce the expression of DLL1. The APE1 redox function was crucial for activation of the APE1-NF-κB-NOTCH axis and promoting cancer cell stem-like properties in response to reflux conditions. Overexpression of APE1 and DLL1 was detected in gastro-oesophageal junctions of the L2-IL1ß transgenic mouse model and human EAC tissue microarrays. DLL1 high levels were associated with poor overall survival in patients with EAC.

Conclusion: These findings underscore a unique mechanism that links redox balance, inflammation and embryonic development (NOTCH) into a common pro-tumorigenic pathway that is intrinsic to EAC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2022-327076DOI Listing
June 2022

Short-Term High-Fat Diet Fuels Colitis Progression in Mice Associated With Changes in Blood Metabolome and Intestinal Gene Expression.

Front Nutr 2022 7;9:899829. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Health Sciences Institute, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Clinical cases and animal experiments show that high-fat (HF) diet is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the specific mechanism is not fully clear. A close association between long-term HF-induced obesity and IBD has been well-documented. However, there has been limited evaluation of the impact of short-term HF feeding on the risk of intestinal inflammation, particularly on the risk of disrupted metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we analyzed the metabolic profile and tested the vulnerability of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis after short-term HF feeding in mice. The results showed that compared with the control diet (CD), the fatty acid (FA), amino acid (AA), and bile acid (BA) metabolisms of mice in the HF group were significantly changed. HF-fed mice showed an increase in the content of saturated and unsaturated FAs and a decrease in the content of tryptophan (Trp). Furthermore, the disturbed spatial distribution of taurocholic acid (TCA) in the ileum and colon was identified in the HF group using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). After HF priming, mice on TNBS induction were subjected to more severe colonic ulceration and histological damage compared with their CD counterparts. In addition, TNBS enema induced higher gene expressions of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines under HF priming conditions. Overall, our results show that HF may promote colitis by disturbing lipid, AA, and BA metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory gene expressions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.899829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9209758PMC
June 2022

A Highly Efficient Bismuth Nitrate/Keto-ABNO Catalyst System for Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds under Mild Conditions.

Molecules 2022 Jun 9;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Mineral Salt Deep Utilization, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China.

An efficient and practical catalytic system for the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes/ketones using catalytic amounts of Bi(NO) and Keto-ABNO (9-azabicyclo [3.3.1]nonan-3-one -oxyl) with air as the environmentally benign oxidant was developed. Various primary and secondary alcohols were smoothly oxidized to the corresponding products under mild conditions, and satisfactory yields were achieved. Moreover, this methodology avoids the use of a ligand and base. The gram-scale reaction was demonstrated for the oxidation of 1-phenyl ethanol, and the product of acetophenone was obtained at an isolated yield of about 94%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123727DOI Listing
June 2022

Development of Droplet Digital PCR Assay for Detection of Seed-Borne and Causing Bacterial Panicle Blight Disease of Rice.

Microorganisms 2022 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agricultural and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Bacterial panicle blight of rice or bacterial grain rot of rice is a worldwide rice disease. and are the causal agents. The early and accurate detection of seed-borne and is critical for domestic and international quarantine and effective control of the disease. Here, genomic analyses revealed that contains five phylogroups and the BG1 primer pair designed to target the 3'-end sequence of a gene encoding a Rhs family protein is specific to and two phylogroups within . Using the BG1 primer pair, a 138-bp DNA fragment was amplified only from the tested panicle blight pathogens and . An EvaGreen droplet digital PCR (dPCR) assay on detection and quantification of the two pathogens was developed from a SYBR Green real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The detection limits of the EvaGreen droplet dPCR on the two pathogens were identical at 2 × 10 colony forming units (CFU)∙mL from bacterial suspensions and 2 × 10 CFU∙seed from rice seeds. The EvaGreen droplet dPCR assay showed 10-fold detection sensitivity of the SYBR Green qPCR and could detect a single copy of the target gene in a 20-μL assay. Together, the SYBR Green qPCR assay allows for routine high-throughput detection of the panicle blight pathogens and the EvaGreen droplet dPCR assay provides a high-sensitive and high-accurate diagnostic method for quarantine of the pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061223DOI Listing
June 2022

Identifying COVID-19 Severity-Related SARS-CoV-2 Mutation Using a Machine Learning Method.

Life (Basel) 2022 May 28;12(6). Epub 2022 May 28.

School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

SARS-CoV-2 shows great evolutionary capacity through a high frequency of genomic variation during transmission. Evolved SARS-CoV-2 often demonstrates resistance to previous vaccines and can cause poor clinical status in patients. Mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome involve mutations in structural and nonstructural proteins, and some of these proteins such as spike proteins have been shown to be directly associated with the clinical status of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. In this study, we collected genome-wide mutation information of virulent strains and the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients varying depending on their clinical status. Important protein mutations and untranslated region mutations were extracted using machine learning methods. First, through Boruta and four ranking algorithms (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, light gradient boosting machine, max-relevance and min-redundancy, and Monte Carlo feature selection), mutations that were highly correlated with the clinical status of the patients were screened out and sorted in four feature lists. Some mutations such as D614G and V1176F were shown to be associated with viral infectivity. Moreover, previously unreported mutations such as A320V of nsp14 and I164ILV of nsp14 were also identified, which suggests their potential roles. We then applied the incremental feature selection method to each feature list to construct efficient classifiers, which can be directly used to distinguish the clinical status of COVID-19 patients. Meanwhile, four sets of quantitative rules were set up, which can help us to more intuitively understand the role of each mutation in differentiating the clinical status of COVID-19 patients. Identified key mutations linked to virologic properties will help better understand the mechanisms of infection and will aid in the development of antiviral treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12060806DOI Listing
May 2022

The Endoplasmic Reticulum Cargo Receptor FgErv14 Regulates DON Production, Growth and Virulence in .

Life (Basel) 2022 May 27;12(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China.

is a plant filamentous pathogenic fungi and the predominant causal agent of head blight (FHB) in cereals worldwide. The regulators of the secretory pathway contribute significantly to fungal mycotoxin synthesis, development, and virulence. However, their roles in these processes in remain poorly understood. Here, we identified and functionally characterized the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cargo receptor FgErv14 in . Firstly, it was observed that FgErv14 is mainly localized in the ER. Then, we constructed the FgErv14 deletion mutant (Δ) and found that the absence of the FgErv14 caused a serious reduction in vegetative growth, significant defects in asexual and sexual reproduction, and severely impaired virulence. Furthermore, we found that the Δ mutant exhibited a reduced expression of genes and defective toxisome generation, both of which are critical for deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis. Importantly, we found the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged FgRud3 was dispersed in the cytoplasm, whereas GFP-FgSnc1-PEM was partially trapped in the late Golgi in Δ mutant. These results demonstrate that FgErv14 mediates anterograde ER-to-Golgi transport as well as late secretory Golgi-to-Plasma membrane transport and is necessary for DON biosynthesis, asexual and sexual reproduction, vegetative growth, and pathogenicity in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12060799DOI Listing
May 2022

A Novel Proteogenomic Integration Strategy Expands the Breadth of Neo-Epitope Sources.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518103, China.

Tumor-specific antigens can activate T cell-based antitumor immune responses and are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy. However, their identification is still challenging. Although mass spectrometry can directly identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA) binding peptides in tumor cells, it focuses on tumor-specific antigens derived from annotated protein-coding regions constituting only 1.5% of the genome. We developed a novel proteogenomic integration strategy to expand the breadth of tumor-specific epitopes derived from all genomic regions. Using the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116 as a model, we accurately identified 10,737 HLA-presented peptides, 1293 of which were non-canonical peptides that traditional database searches could not identify. Moreover, we found eight tumor neo-epitopes derived from somatic mutations, four of which were not previously reported. Our findings suggest that this new proteogenomic approach holds great promise for increasing the number of tumor-specific antigen candidates, potentially enlarging the tumor target pool and improving cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14123016DOI Listing
June 2022

Functional Characterization of the GlcNAc Catabolic Pathway in Cryptococcus deneoformans.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2022 Jun 23:e0043722. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Medical Research Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest Universitygrid.263906.8, Chongqing, China.

The amino sugar -acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is the key constituent of cell wall components and plays an important role in pathogenesis in a wide range of fungi. However, catabolism of GlcNAc has not been studied in basidiomycete fungi. In this study, we identified and characterized a gene cluster essential for GlcNAc utilization in Cryptococcus deneoformans, an environmental human fungal pathogen. The genome contains a GlcNAc transporter (Ngt1), a GlcNAc kinase (Hxk3), a GlcNAc-6-phosphate deacetylase (Dac1), and a glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (Nag1). Their expression levels were highly induced in cultures containing GlcNAc as the sole carbon source, and the corresponding mutants showed severe growth defects in the presence of GlcNAc. Functional and biochemical analyses revealed that encodes a novel GlcNAc kinase. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues of Hxk3 indicated that ATP binding and GlcNAc binding are essential for GlcNAc kinase activities. Taken together, the results from this study provide crucial insights into basidiomycete GlcNAc catabolism. -Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is recognized as not only the building block of chitin but also an important signaling molecule in fungi. The catabolic pathway of GlcNAc also plays an important role in vital biological processes in fungi. However, the utilization pathway of GlcNAc in the phylum , which contains more than 41,000 species, remains unknown. Cryptococcus deneoformans is a representative basidiomycetous pathogen that causes life-threatening meningitis. In this study, we characterized a gene cluster essential for GlcNAc utilization in and identified a novel GlcNAc kinase. The results of this study provide important insights into basidiomycete GlcNAc catabolism and offer a starting point for revealing its role in pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aem.00437-22DOI Listing
June 2022

Editorial: Advances in Tribochemistry.

Front Chem 2022 6;10:925015. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.925015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207764PMC
June 2022

Effects of Total Flavonoids of Epimedium on Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue in Ovariectomized Rats.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 6;13:900816. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Radiology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Bone marrow adipose tissue has brown fat characteristics. Several studies have demonstrated that total flavonoids of Epimedium (TFE) could prevent bone loss and reduce the white adiposity in bone marrow induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in rats. However, the effects of TFE on marrow brown fat in OVX rats remain unclear. In this word, we addressed this question expected to provide a new target for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Thirty-six 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into Sham controls, OVX controls, and OVX treated with TFE. Chemical shift coding magnetic resonance was performed to detect marrow fat fraction at the left femur at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks post-OVX. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femur was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum bone biomarkers by ELISA, trabecular bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia by micro-CT, quantitative parameters of marrow adipocyte by hematoxylin, and eosin staining were evaluated. The marrow adipocyte gene and protein expressions profile were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and immunostaining in whole tibiae. We found that TFE treatment could decrease bone turnover rate and improved bone mineral density and trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats. OVX resulted in marrow adipogenesis as evidenced by increased marrow fat fraction, larger marrow adipocyte size, increased adipocyte number and percentage of adipocyte area, marrow white adipocyte gene, and protein expression, including PPARγ2 and FABP4. These pathological changes induced by estrogen deficiency were restored by TFE treatment. TFE also increased brown adipocyte expressions of the transcription factor Ucp1 and Prdm16 in whole tibiae. There was no detectible protein expression of brown adipocyte markers in the proximal tibia. Taken together, TFE regulation of bone marrow adiposity in OVX rats is mediated, at least in part, maintaining the reciprocity of white and brown adipose tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.900816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207204PMC
June 2022

Cross-feeding between cyanobacterium Synechococcus and Escherichia coli in an artificial autotrophic-heterotrophic coculture system revealed by integrated omics analysis.

Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod 2022 Jun 22;15(1):69. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Laboratory of Synthetic Microbiology, School of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, People's Republic of China.

Background: Light-driven consortia, which consist of sucrose-secreting cyanobacteria and heterotrophic species, have attracted considerable attention due to their capability for the sustainable production of valuable chemicals directly from CO. In a previous study, we achieved a one-step conversion of sucrose secreted from cyanobacteria to fine chemicals by constructing an artificial coculture system consisting of sucrose-secreting Synechococcus elongateus cscB and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) producing Escherichia coli ABKm. Analyses of the coculture system showed that the cyanobacterial cells grew better than their corresponding axenic cultures. To explore the underlying mechanism and to identify the metabolic nodes with the potential to further improve the coculture system, we conducted integrated transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic analyses.

Results: We first explored how the relieved oxidative stress affected cyanobacterial cell growth in a coculture system by supplementing additional ascorbic acid to CoBG-11 medium. We found that the cell growth of cyanobacteria was clearly improved with an additional 1 mM ascorbic acid under axenic culture; however, its growth was still slower than that in the coculture system, suggesting that the improved growth of Synechococcus cscB may be caused by multiple factors, including reduced oxidative stress. To further explore the cellular responses of cyanobacteria in the system, quantitative transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics were applied to Synechococcus cscB. Analyses of differentially regulated genes/proteins and the abundance change of metabolites in the photosystems revealed that the photosynthesis of the cocultured Synechococcus cscB was enhanced. The decreased expression of the CO transporter suggested that the heterotrophic partner in the system might supplement additional CO to support the cell growth of Synechococcus cscB. In addition, the differentially regulated genes and proteins involved in the nitrogen and phosphate assimilation pathways suggested that the supply of phosphate and nitrogen in the Co-BG11 medium might be insufficient.

Conclusion: An artificial coculture system capable of converting CO to fine chemicals was established and then analysed by integrated omics analysis, which demonstrated that in the coculture system, the relieved oxidative stress and increased CO availability improved the cell growth of cyanobacteria. In addition, the results also showed that the supply of phosphate and nitrogen in the Co-BG11 medium might be insufficient, which paves a new path towards the optimization of the coculture system in the future. Taken together, these results from the multiple omics analyses provide strong evidence that beneficial interactions can be achieved from cross-feeding and competition between phototrophs and prokaryotic heterotrophs and new guidelines for engineering more intelligent artificial consortia in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-022-02163-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Bartha-K61 vaccine protects nursery pigs against challenge with novel european and asian strains of suid herpesvirus 1.

Vet Res 2022 Jun 22;53(1):47. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUT), 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

The present study investigates the pathogenicity of two recently isolated strains of Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV1), the Greek strain Hercules and the Chinese strain HeN1, in unvaccinated pigs and in pigs vaccinated with a Bartha-K61 strain. In an experiment performed in negative pressure kiosks (isolators), 45-day old seronegative pigs previously oronasally /intramuscularly vaccinated with the Bartha-K61 vaccine strain, along with unvaccinated controls, were challenged either with the Hercules strain or the HeN1 strain of SuHV1. All animals were observed daily for clinical signs and body temperature and nasal swabs, faeces, blood and bodyweight were collected up to a maximum period of 20 days post-challenge (dpc). The results showed that, in the unvaccinated pigs, HeN1 strain was more virulent than the Hercules strain, with increased mortality, shorter time to death and higher group clinical score (p < 0.05). However, after vaccination with the Bartha-K61 vaccine, there was a drastic reduction in morbidity, mortality, bodyweight loss and virus excretion to almost a similar extent in both strains (p < 0.05). No significant differences were seen among the pigs of the two vaccinated groups compared to unvaccinated unchallenged controls, except a slight elevation in body temperature and in clinical score in the HeN1 vaccinees at 2 and 3 dpc, while bodyweight gain was similar to that of the negative control pigs. Our study showed that despite differences in virulence, the standard vaccination scheme with the Bartha-K61 strain could equally protect nursery pigs against both the European and Chinese strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-022-01063-8DOI Listing
June 2022

Primary bone marrow Epstein-Barr virus-associated polymorphic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

Int J Lab Hematol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13884DOI Listing
June 2022

Composition tunability of semiconductor radiosensitizers for low-dose X-ray induced photodynamic therapy.

J Nanobiotechnology 2022 Jun 21;20(1):293. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular, Diagnostics & Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, People's Republic of China.

Radiation therapy is one of the most commonly used methods in clinical cancer treatment, and radiosensitizers could achieve enhanced therapeutic efficacy by incorporating heavy elements into structures. However, the secondary excitation of these high-Z elements-doped nanosensitizers still imply intrinsic defects of low efficiency. Herein, we designed Bi-doped titanium dioxide nanosensitizers in which high-Z Bi ions with adjustable valence state (Bi or Bi) replaced some positions of Ti of anatase TiO, increasing both X-rays absorption and oxygen vacancies. The as-prepared TiO:Bi nanosensitizers indicated high ionizing radiation energy-transfer efficiency and photocatalytic activity, resulting in efficient electron-hole pair separation and reactive oxygen species production. After further modification with cancer cell targeting peptide, the obtained nanoplatform demonstrated good performance in U87MG cell uptakes and intracellular radicals-generation, severely damaging the vital subcellular organs of U87MG cells, such as mitochondrion, membrane lipid, and nuclei etc. These combined therapeutic actions mediated by the composition-tunable nanosensitizers significantly inhibited the U87MG tumor growth, providing a refreshing strategy for X-ray induced dynamic therapy of malignant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-022-01494-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Comprehensive silk gland multi-omics comparison illuminates two alternative mechanisms in silkworm heterosis.

Zool Res 2022 Jul;43(4):585-596

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Insect Development Regulation and Application Research, Institute of Insect Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510631, China.

Heterosis is a common phenomenon in plants and animals with diverse underlying mechanisms. Here, we applied two widely used silkworm hybrid systems and performed multi-omics analysis to identify possible intrinsic associations between different hybrid strategies and epigenetic mechanisms with silkworm heterosis. We found significant differences in the silk gland transcriptomic landscape between the two systems, including differentially expressed genes and expression patterns in the hybrid offspring compared to their parents. In the quaternary hybrid system, hybrid vigor was primarily due to up-regulated genes and the parent-dominant up-regulated expression pattern, involving multiple transport processes, cellular nitrogen compound catabolism, glucose metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In the binary system, hybrid vigor was mainly due to the down-regulated genes and transgressively down-regulated expression pattern, mainly involving basic nitrogen synthesis metabolism and body function. We also demonstrated that DNA methylation may affect hybrid vigor by regulating the expression of several heterosis-related genes. Thus, this study revealed two alternative mechanisms that may contribute to silkworm heterosis, both of which facilitate the efficient utilization of energy and nitrogen for silk production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.065DOI Listing
July 2022

International student perceptions of online medical education during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

This study aimed to investigate how international students enrolled on medical and surgical bachelor's degree programs (MBBS) in China perceived online medical education course, compared to native Chinese students during the Covid-19 pandemic. The perceptions of 38 MBBS and 31 Chinese sophomores were surveyed using the Chaoxing platform. The international student group's mean satisfaction with online teaching was 2.737 on a 5-point scale, much lower than the Chinese students' mean score of 4.355 (p < 0.05). Similarly, the international students expressed less satisfaction than the Chinese learners with other aspects of the course, including the teacher's level, at 3.964 ± 0.818 versus 4.445 ± 0.548 (p < 0.05); curriculum organization, at 3.651 ± 0.848 versus 4.333 ± 0.568 (p < 0.05); and self-learning level, at 3.634 ± 0.996 versus 3.686 ± 0.949 (p > 0.05), respectively. There were also noteworthy differences between the progress made by the international students in Chinese language learning, which was positively correlated with satisfaction with teaching on the online medical education (p < 0.05). The results suggest that, while online teaching was a necessary response to the Covid-19 pandemic, satisfaction with this mode of education is lower among international students than their Chinese counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmb.21641DOI Listing
June 2022

Potential influence of overwintering benthic algae on water quality.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 24;117:58-70. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Overwintering benthic algae not only directly impact drinking water safety, but also affect the algae recruitment in warm spring seasons. Thus, understanding the characteristics of overwintering benthic algae can provide scientific references for formulating preventative strategies of reasonable water resource. However, they have received less attention. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation of benthic algae and their harmful secondary metabolites were studied from autumn to summer in Qingcaosha Reservoir. Benthic algae (picophytobenthos accounting for 55.42%) had a high biomass during overwintering, and the groups of overwintering benthic algae included pico-Cyanobacteria, pico-Cryptomonas, pico-Chlorophyta, pico-Diatoms, Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, Cryptomonas and Diatoms, which were consistent with the planktonic algae species in warm seasons. In oligotrophic or mesotrophic water bodies, micronutrients of iron and manganese were key nutrient factors influencing the biomass of benthic algae. Furthermore, picophytobenthos were important potential contributors of harmful secondary metabolites. The content of microcystins, anatoxin-a, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in sediment were 15.75 µg/kg·FW, 48.16 µg/kg·FW, 3.91 ng/kg·FW, and 11.76 ng/kg·FW during winter, which had potential to be released into water bodies to impact water quality. These findings indicate that water quality monitoring programs need to consider sediment in winter as a potential source of toxins and preventative measures to prevent excessive proliferation of algae should be implemented in winter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2022.01.021DOI Listing
July 2022

Application of ZIF-8 nanocomposite membrane in microbial desalination cells for simultaneous heavy metal removal and biofouling prevention.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 17:135386. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, No.1 Xikang Road, Nanjin, 210098, China.

Microbial desalination cells (MDC) syndicate the advantage of physical separation by using membranes to create conditions required for Bioelectrochemical processes for the treatment of various domestic and industrial wastewater, while simultaneously desalinating saline water and generating bioenergy. However, since the introduction of this technology, heavy metal removal has been a challenge, and membrane fouling has become a major bottleneck limiting the optimum performance and efficiency of this technology. This study incorporated the use of ZIF-8 nanocomposite membrane via phase inversion mechanism in MDC for simultaneous heavy metal removal and membrane biofouling prevention. The study was conducted in two MDC systems; MDC-Control (without the ZIF-8 nanocomposite membrane) and MDC with ZIF-8 nanocomposite membrane. The results from the experiment shown that maximum removal efficiency of 85.7%, 84.3%, 84.0%, and 90.61% was obtained for Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd respectively in MDC-ZIF-8, while MDC control showed 54.17%, 59.71%, 51.94%, and 54.17%. The results were well fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with correlation coefficients (R) > 0.99 in all cases for MDC-ZIF-8. A maximum adsorption capacity (Q) of 292 mg g was attained for all four metal ions in MDC-ZIF-8. Besides, after 38 days of continuous operation with two complete desalination for both systems, the SEM-EDS characterization analysis, polarization characteristics, and power generation revealed antifouling characteristics of ZIF-8 nanocomposite membrane incorporated in MDC. The integration of the ZIF-8 nanocomposite membrane proved to be simultaneously efficient in biofouling prevention and heavy metal removal without jeopardizing the system's ability for wastewater treatment, bioelectricity generation, and desalination processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135386DOI Listing
June 2022

Correlation Between Retinal Microstructure Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography and Best Corrected Visual Acuity in Diabetic Retinopathy Macular Edema.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 1;13:831909. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and retinal microstructural parameters detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in diabetic retinopathy macular edema (DRME).

Methods: Thirty-nine patients (64 eyes) with DRME were enrolled in this study. These patients underwent OCT to measure the fracture distance of the external limiting membrane (ELM), junction between the inner and outer segments (IS/OS), central foveal thickness (CFT), and edema layer. The correlation between the above parameters and BCVA was discussed.

Results: CFT and the fracture distances of the ELM and IS/OS layers were negatively correlated with BCVA (p<0.05 for all). There was significant difference in Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) BCVA among patients with inner retinal edema, outer retinal edema, and mixed retinal edema (F = 5.57, p = 0.01). The LogMAR BCVA of inner retinal edema was the lowest (p < 0.05), and the LogMAR BCVA of outer retinal edema and mixed retinal edema were comparable (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: In eyes with DRME, thin CFT, intact ELM and IS/OS layers, and edema in inner retina is closely correlated with good BCVA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.831909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198249PMC
June 2022

PGC-1-Mediated Mitochondrial Quality Control: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Heart Failure.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 27;10:871357. Epub 2022 May 27.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Mitochondria with structural and functional integrity are essential for maintaining mitochondrial function and cardiac homeostasis. It is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 (PGC-1), acted as a transcriptional cofactor, is abundant in the heart, which modulates mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy to sustain a steady-state of mitochondria. Cumulative evidence suggests that dysregulation of PGC-1 is closely related to the onset and progression of heart failure. PGC-1 deficient-mice can lead to worse cardiac function under pressure overload compared to sham. Here, this review mainly focuses on what is known about its regulation in mitochondrial functions, as well as its crucial role in heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.871357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9199988PMC
May 2022

Physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate and alkaline soluble polysaccharide from sugar beet pulp conjugates formed by Maillard reaction and genipin crosslinking reaction: A comparison study.

Food Chem X 2022 Jun 6;14:100358. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

School of Food Sciences and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

This study aim to investigate the effect of alkaline soluble polysaccharide from sugar beet pulp (ASP2) grafted with whey protein isolate (WPI) by two linking models (grafting on amino group or carbonyl group) on its emulsifying properties. Results demonstrated that the value of WPI, M-AW, M-AA, G-AW and G-AA stabilized emulsions was 0.18 μm, 0.28 μm, 0.72 μm, 0.56 μm and 0.83 μm, respectively, suggesting the higher emulsifying activity of the products prepared by Maillard reaction compared with the products obtained from genipin crosslinking reaction. After storage, the increment was 1.05 μm, 0.21 μm, 0.31 μm, 0.2 μm and 0.15 μm for WPI, M-AW, M-AA, G-AW and G-AA stabilized emulsions, respectively, indicating that the new generated polymers held stronger emulsifying stability compared with WPI. However, the aggregates emerged in high calcium emulsions system indicated that grafting with WPI could not efficiently reduce the sensitivity of ASP2 to calcium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fochx.2022.100358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198312PMC
June 2022
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