Publications by authors named "Lei Cai"

478 Publications

Unveiling Crystal Orientation in Quasi-2D Perovskite Films by In Situ GIWAXS for High-Performance Photovoltaics.

Small 2021 Jul 12:e2100972. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

Quasi-2D perovskites are enchanting alternative materials for solar cells due to their intrinsic stability. The manipulation of crystal orientation of quasi-2D perovskites is indispensable to target efficient devices, however, the origin of orientation during the film fabrication process still lacks in-depth understanding and convincing evidence yet, which hinders further boosting the performance of photovoltaic devices. Herein, the crystallizing processes during spin-coating and annealing are probed by in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), and the incident-angle-dependent GIWAXS is conducted to unveil the phase distribution in the films. It is found that undesirable lead iodide sol-gel formed intermediate phase would disturb oriented crystalline growth, resulting in random crystal orientation in poor quasi-2D films. A general strategy is developed via simple additive agent incorporation to suppress the formation of the intermediate phase. Accordingly, highly oriented perovskite films with reduced trap density and higher carrier mobility are obtained, which enables the demonstration of optimized quasi-2D perovskite solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 15.2% as well as improved stability. This work paves a promising way to manipulate the quasi-2D perovskites nucleation and crystallization processes via tuning nucleation stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100972DOI Listing
July 2021

The novel coronavirus and humans: who can dominate who?

Authors:
Lei Cai Lin He

J BioX Res 2021 Jun 25;4(2):45. Epub 2021 May 25.

Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JBR.0000000000000098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237838PMC
June 2021

Clinicopathological and prognostic values of PD-L1 expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of 31 studies with 5368 patients.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Digestive Diseases Center, Wuxi Mingci Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Several immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed death 1 have successfully improved the prognosis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with approval in certain countries. However, whether the expression of PD-L1 is associated with the degree of benefit is unclear yet and a unified standard of antibody and cut-off value of PD-L1 detection is also lacking. The current meta-analysis then aimed to explore the association between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features as well as prognosis in ESCC.A systematic search on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases was performed up to 30 March 2021. The correlation between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features, as well as prognosis in ESCC, was estimated with the random-effects model.A total of 5368 patients from 31 retrospective studies were enrolled. The overexpression of PD-L1 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR 1.342, 95% CI 0.995 to 1.809, p=0.050) and distant metastasis (OR 1.516, 95% CI 1.001 to 2.294, p=0.050). The pooled HR showed that PD-L1 overexpression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS) of patients with ESCC (HR 1.306, 95% CI 1.108 to 1.539, p<0.010) but not disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.180, 95% CI 0.937 to 1.487, p=0.160). Heterogeneity decreased significantly in subgroup analyses. The overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with poor DFS at the cut-off point of ≥1% (HR 1.642, 95% CI 1.367 to 1.973, p<0.010; I=0%) and worse OS at the cut-off point of ≥10% (HR 1.575, 95% CI 1.175 to 2.111, p<0.010; I=0%).The overexpression of PD-L1 was correlated with lymph node and distant metastasis as well as poor survival of ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2021-140029DOI Listing
July 2021

Water-Soluble Trifunctional Binder for Sulfur Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 12;13(28):33066-33074. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Clean Transportation Energy Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Conventional polymer binder in a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), suffers from insufficient ion conductivity, poor polysulfide-trapping ability, weak mechanical property, and requirement of organic solvents, which significantly encumber the industrial application of Li-S battery. Herein, a water-soluble binder with trifunctions, covalently cross-linked quaternary ammonium cationic starch (c-QACS), is developed to confront these issues. Similar to the poly(ethylene oxide) solid electrolytes, the c-QACS binder remarkably improves Li ion transfer capacity. The abundant O actives endow the c-QACS binder with admirable lithium polysulfide-trapping capability to retard the shuttle effect. In addition, the formed 3D network effectively maintains the electrode integrity during cycling. Benefiting from the above merits, the sulfur cathode with the c-QACS binder demonstrates a performance improvement of 300 and 150% compared with sulfur cathode with PVDF and bulk QACS binder after 100 cycles at 0.2C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07901DOI Listing
July 2021

species isolated from golf turfgrass in China, with description of , sp. nov.

Mycologia 2021 Jul 8:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China.

Leptosphaerulina leaf blight occurs on most turfgrasses. Hitherto, species associated with this disease include , and . However, following Koch's postulates, was confirmed as saprobes but not pathogens, and the other three species have not been tested. The pathogenicity of spp. is still questionable. In this study, we isolated 19 strains from diseased golf turfgrasses in China, and they were identified as , and a new species, , through multilocus (ITS, 28S, , and ) phylogenetic analyses and morphological observations. Pathogenicity test revealed that the three species identified in this study cannot infect live/healthy turfgrass tissues of and and only produced pseudothecia on the dead leaves of stressed seedlings. Considering the results of pathogenicity tests in this and previous studies, we speculate that most species isolated from diseased turfgrass are not pathogens but saprobes. Applying proper management practices to prevent severe turfgrass stress is a key measure to reduce or eliminate the effects of on golf turfgrass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2021.1923298DOI Listing
July 2021

Low Negative Pressure Combined With Supertumescence Microliposuction As a New Method For Repairing Facial Fat Overfilling: A Case Series of 32 Patients.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Body Contouring and Fat grafting Center, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Face fat overfilling sometimes occurs and is very difficult to repair unfortunately.

Objectives: The authors report their first experience of micro-liposuction with low negative pressure combined with super-tumescence (LNPST) in a case series of 32 patients.

Methods: The LNPST micro liposuction was performed in 32 patients aged 22 to 41 (mean, 29.6±4.9) years with facial overfilling. Two independent plastic surgeons intraoperatively monitored and recorded discomfort and bleeding using a grading system. All patients were followed up for haematoma within 1 week postoperatively and for skin numbness and muscle paralysis at 1 week and 3 months postoperatively. In addition, 6 months postoperatively, patient satisfaction with the postoperative aesthetic effects was analysed by Face-Q.

Results: All patients successfully completed the operation under local anaesthesia. The intraoperative discomfort and blood-loss scores were 1.69±0.62 and 1.22±0.41, respectively. The haematoma score was 1.13±0.34 within 1 W [other scores: postoperative skin numbness (1 W: 1.96±0.62; 3 M: 1.13±0.33) and postoperative muscle paralysis (1 W: 1.22±0.51; 3 M: 1.0±0)]. Overall, neither skin necrosis nor serious complications requiring revision surgery occurred. Seventy-two percent of the patients (n = 23) answered the Face-Q questionnaire (21.8±1.7), covering satisfaction with the outcome score into a standard score (81.7±15.1, from 0 to 100), which verified the high satisfaction rate.

Conclusions: LNPST technology is a safe and effective method for facial-fat-overfilling repair, with less bleeding, less neuro injury, fewer complications and high patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjab260DOI Listing
June 2021

Flexible and Waterproof 2D/1D/0D Construction of MXene-Based Nanocomposites for Electromagnetic Wave Absorption, EMI Shielding, and Photothermal Conversion.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jun 25;13(1):150. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Shanghai Key Lab of D&A for Metal-Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00673-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233447PMC
June 2021

Digestive properties and effects of Chimonanthus nitens Oliv polysaccharides on antioxidant effects in vitro and in immunocompromised mice.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 22;185:306-316. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Key Lab for Agro-product Processing and Quality Control of Nanchang City, College of Food Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China. Electronic address:

The study was aimed to investigate the simulated digestion behavior of the bioactive polysaccharides from Chimonanthus nitens Oliv (COP1), antioxidant activity in vitro, and prevention against cyclophosphamide (CP) induced oxidative damage in mice. The results showed that COP1 were 18.843 kDa, and consisted of arabinose (56.6 mol%), galactose (24.9 mol%), xylose (11.1 mol%), and glucose (7.4 mol%). Gastrointestinal digestion significantly improved the radical (DPPH, OH, and ABTS) scavenging activities of COP1. Meanwhile, administration of COP1 (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, continuous 16 days) prevented hepatotoxicity in CP-induced mice (reducing liver index and transaminase levels, alleviating liver damage). COP1 also attenuated oxidative stress as evident from as shown by reduced levels of MDA and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px). In addition, COP1 regulated the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway in CP-treated mice, decreasing the upstream factor Keap1 and increasing the upstream factor Nrf2, which in turn enhanced the expression of downstream factors (NQO1, HO-1, GSH-Px, SOD1, and CAT). COP1 also protected the body from CP-induced oxidative damage by down-regulating Bax and caspase3 in the apoptosis pathway and up-regulating Bcl-2 mRNA levels. Overall, COP1 might be harnessed as an effective natural antioxidant for medical and food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.114DOI Listing
June 2021

An Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Deep Learning Algorithm for Visual Acuity Prediction of Highly Myopic Eyes After Cataract Surgery.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:652848. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Eye Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Due to complicated and variable fundus status of highly myopic eyes, their visual benefit from cataract surgery remains hard to be determined preoperatively. We therefore aimed to develop an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based deep learning algorithms to predict the postoperative visual acuity of highly myopic eyes after cataract surgery.

Materials And Methods: The internal dataset consisted of 1,415 highly myopic eyes having cataract surgeries in our hospital. Another external dataset consisted of 161 highly myopic eyes from Heping Eye Hospital. Preoperative macular OCT images were set as the only feature. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 4 weeks after surgery was set as the ground truth. Five different deep learning algorithms, namely ResNet-18, ResNet-34, ResNet-50, ResNet-101, and Inception-v3, were used to develop the model aiming at predicting the postoperative BCVA, and an ensemble learning was further developed. The model was further evaluated in the internal and external test datasets.

Results: The ensemble learning showed the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.1566 logMAR and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.2433 logMAR in the validation dataset. Promising outcomes in the internal and external test datasets were revealed with MAEs of 0.1524 and 0.1602 logMAR and RMSEs of 0.2612 and 0.2020 logMAR, respectively. Considerable sensitivity and precision were achieved in the BCVA < 0.30 logMAR group, with 90.32 and 75.34% in the internal test dataset and 81.75 and 89.60% in the external test dataset, respectively. The percentages of the prediction errors within ± 0.30 logMAR were 89.01% in the internal and 88.82% in the external test dataset.

Conclusion: Promising prediction outcomes of postoperative BCVA were achieved by the novel OCT-trained deep learning model, which will be helpful for the surgical planning of highly myopic cataract patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.652848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187805PMC
May 2021

Orientated Immobilization of FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase on Electrode by Carbohydrate-Binding Module Fusion for Efficient Glucose Assay.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biosensors, Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250103, China.

The discovery or engineering of fungus-derived FAD-dependent glucose 1-dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) is especially important in the fabrication and performance of glucose biosensors. In this study, a novel FAD-GDH gene, phylogenetically distantly with other FAD-GDHs from species, was identified. Additionally, the wild-type GDH enzyme, and its fusion enzyme (GDH-NL-CBM2) with a carbohydrate binding module family 2 (CBM2) tag attached by a natural linker (NL), were successfully heterogeneously expressed. In addition, while the GDH was randomly immobilized on the electrode by conventional methods, the GDH-NL-CBM2 was orientationally immobilized on the nanocellulose-modified electrode by the CBM2 affinity adsorption tag through a simple one-step approach. A comparison of the performance of the two electrodes demonstrated that both electrodes responded linearly to glucose in the range of 0.12 to 40.7 mM with a coefficient of determination R > 0.999, but the sensitivity of immobilized GDH-NL-CBM2 (2.1362 × 10 A/(M*cm)) was about 1-fold higher than that of GDH (1.2067 × 10 A/(M*cm)). Moreover, a lower detection limit (51 µM), better reproducibility (<5%) and stability, and shorter response time (≈18 s) and activation time were observed for the GDH-NL-CBM2-modified electrode. This facile and easy immobilization approach used in the preparation of a GDH biosensor may open up new avenues in the development of high-performance amperometric biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197230PMC
May 2021

Fungal diversity driven by bark features affects phorophyte preference in epiphytic orchids from southern China.

Sci Rep 2021 May 28;11(1):11287. Epub 2021 May 28.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Epiphytic orchids exhibit varying degrees of phorophyte tree specificity. We performed a pilot study to investigate why epiphytic orchids prefer or avoid certain trees. We selected two orchid species, Panisea uniflora and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum co-occurring in a forest habitat in southern China, where they showed a specific association with Quercus yiwuensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia trees, respectively. We analysed a number of environmental factors potentially influencing the relationship between orchids and trees. Difference in bark features, such as water holding capacity and pH were recorded between Q. yiwuensis and P. weinmannifolia, which could influence both orchid seed germination and fungal diversity on the two phorophytes. Morphological and molecular culture-based methods, combined with metabarcoding analyses, were used to assess fungal communities associated with studied orchids and trees. A total of 162 fungal species in 74 genera were isolated from bark samples. Only two genera, Acremonium and Verticillium, were shared by the two phorophyte species. Metabarcoding analysis confirmed the presence of significantly different fungal communities on the investigated tree and orchid species, with considerable similarity between each orchid species and its host tree, suggesting that the orchid-host tree association is influenced by the fungal communities of the host tree bark.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90877-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163780PMC
May 2021

Correction for Zhu et al., "Bacteria and Metabolic Potential in Karst Caves Revealed by Intensive Bacterial Cultivation and Genome Assembly".

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 26;87(12):e0057721. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00577-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207960PMC
May 2021

Seasonal dynamics of mycoplankton in the Yellow Sea reflect the combined effect of riverine inputs and hydrographic conditions.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jul 8;30(14):3624-3637. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Little is known about how multiple factors including land-based inputs and ocean currents affect the spatiotemporal distribution of the mycoplankton in coastal regions. To explore the seasonal changes of mycoplanktonic communities and potential environmental drivers, we collected water samples from the Yellow Sea, used here as a model for subtropical sea habitats, in different seasons over two years. Compared with winter and spring, summer exhibited higher levels of fungal richness and community heterogeneity in the water column. The seasonal shifts in mycoplankton diversity and community composition were mainly ascribed to freshwater inputs, the Cold Water Mass and invasion of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Among the physicochemical variables tested, temperature was the primary determinant of fungal diversity and showed contrasting influences on fungal richness in the surface and bottom waters during summer. In addition, we provide evidence for the community similarity and dissolved nutrients of different water bodies to highlight the potential origin of the Cold Water Mass. Our findings bring new understanding on the factors determining the dynamics of mycoplankton communities by modelling the influence of physicochemical variables and tracking the geographical distribution of certain fungal taxa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15986DOI Listing
July 2021

Line Graph Neural Networks for Link Prediction.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 May 14;PP. Epub 2021 May 14.

We consider the graph link prediction task, which is a classic graph analytical problem with many real-world applications. With the advances of deep learning, current link prediction methods commonly compute features from subgraphs centered at two neighboring nodes and use the features to predict the label of the link between these two nodes. In this formalism, a link prediction problem is converted to a graph classification task. In order to extract fixed-size features for classification, graph pooling layers are necessary in the deep learning model, thereby incurring information loss. To overcome this key limitation, we propose to seek a radically different and novel path by making use of the line graphs in graph theory. In particular, each node in a line graph corresponds to a unique edge in the original graph. Therefore, link prediction problems in the original graph can be equivalently solved as a node classification problem in its corresponding line graph, instead of a graph classification task. Experimental results on fourteen datasets from different applications demonstrate that our proposed method consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, while it has fewer parameters and high training efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3080635DOI Listing
May 2021

Extremely sensitive multi-order mode refractive index sensor using TiO nanograss film and weakly bounded waveguide modes.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):13520-13529

An extremely sensitive multi-order mode refractive index (RI) sensor was fabricated by coupling titanium dioxide nanograss film coated FTO conductive glass with Kretschmann prism. Both calculation and experimental studies were carried out. Theoretical analysis by employing resonant waveguide modes indicated that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved when the mode worked at the weakly-bounded condition. The experimental results showed that for p-polarized and s-polarized light, the sensor exhibited a maximum RI sensitivity of 2938.21 nm/RI unit (RIU) and 1484.39 nm/RIU in the 1 order mode, respectively. Its maximum figure of merit was as high as 77.77. The proposed sensor is promising to be applied in environmental monitoring, immune analysis, nucleic acid test, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.421691DOI Listing
April 2021

Intra-articular silencing of periostin via nanoparticle-based siRNA ameliorates post-traumatic osteoarthritis in mice.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Musculoskeletal Research Center, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Objective: Recent evidence delineates an emerging role of Periostin (Postn) in osteoarthritis (OA) as its expression subsequent to knee injury is detrimental to the articular cartilage. We hypothesize that intra-articular knockdown of Postn in a murine model of post-traumatic OA would ameliorate OA.

Methods: Post-traumatic OA was induced in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n=24) by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) and analyzed 8-week post-surgery. Intra-articular Postn was inhibited by siRNA using a novel peptide-nucleotide polyplex. Cartilage degeneration (OARSI score) and synovitis were assessed histologically. Bone changes were measured by μCT. The effect and mechanism of Postn silencing were investigated in human chondrocytes treated with IL-1β with or without IKK2 inhibitor, SC-514.

Results: Peptide-siRNA nanoplatform significantly abolished Postn expression. OARSI score was significantly less in mice receiving Postn siRNA (10.94±0.66) compared to both untreated (22.38±1.30,P=0.002) and scrambled siRNA (22.69±0.87,P=0.002) treatment. No differences were observed in synovitis. Subchondral bone sclerosis, BV/TV, vBMD, and heterotopic ossification were significantly low in Postn siRNA treatment. Immunostaining of cartilage revealed that Postn knockdown reduced the DMM-induced MMP-13 intensity, phosphorylation of p65, and immunoreactivity of aggrecan neoepitope, DIPEN. Postn knockdown also suppressed IL-1β-induced MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 in chondrocytes. Mechanistically, Postn-induced MMP-13 was abrogated by SC-514 demonstrating a link between Postn and NF-κB.

Conclusion: Intra-articular delivery of Postn siRNA nanocomplex represents a promising clinical approach to mitigate the severity of joint degeneration and provides an unequivocal scientific rationale for longitudinal studies. Employing a cartilage-specific gene knockout strategy will further illuminate the functional role of Postn in OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41794DOI Listing
May 2021

(Balsaminaceae), a new species from Southeast Yunnan, China.

PhytoKeys 2021 16;176:43-53. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Integrative Conservation of Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations / Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China Yunnan University Kunming China.

R.L. Liao & Lei Cai, a new species from Southeast Yunnan, China, is here described and illustrated. This new species is most similar to S.X. Yu & Y.T. Hou in its racemose inflorescences, its four lateral sepals, the leaf arrangement, and in having yellow flowers. However, it differs in the height of the plants, the length of the petiole, the size and shape of the leaf blade, the shape of the spur, and the number of flowers in each inflorescence. A detailed description, color photographs, and a provisional IUCN red list assessment are provided, and its geographical distribution, ecology, and morphological relationship with relevant similar species are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.176.58825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065009PMC
April 2021

How to publish a new fungal species, or name, version 3.0.

IMA Fungus 2021 May 3;12(1):11. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

It is now a decade since The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) produced an overview of requirements and best practices for describing a new fungal species. In the meantime the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) has changed from its former name (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and introduced new formal requirements for valid publication of species scientific names, including the separation of provisions specific to Fungi and organisms treated as fungi in a new Chapter F. Equally transformative have been changes in the data collection, data dissemination, and analytical tools available to mycologists. This paper provides an updated and expanded discussion of current publication requirements along with best practices for the description of new fungal species and publication of new names and for improving accessibility of their associated metadata that have developed over the last 10 years. Additionally, we provide: (1) model papers for different fungal groups and circumstances; (2) a checklist to simplify meeting (i) the requirements of the ICNafp to ensure the effective, valid and legitimate publication of names of new taxa, and (ii) minimally accepted standards for description; and, (3) templates for preparing standardized species descriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00063-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091500PMC
May 2021

Genetic evidence suggests posttraumatic stress disorder as a subtype of major depressive disorder.

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, United States of America.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid and exhibit strong correlations with one another. We aimed to investigate mechanisms of underlying relationships between PTSD and three kinds of depressive phenotypes, namely, MDD, depressed affect (DAF), and depression (DEP, including both MDD and the broad definition of depression).

Methods: Genetic correlations between PTSD and the depressive phenotypes were tested using linkage disequilibrium score regression. Polygenic overlap analysis was used to estimate shared and trait-specific causal variants across a pair of traits. Causal relationships between PTSD and the depressive phenotypes were investigated using Mendelian randomization. Shared genomic loci between PTSD and MDD were identified using cross-trait meta-analysis.

Results: Genetic correlations of PTSD with the depressive phenotypes were in the range of 0.71~0.80. The estimated numbers of causal variants were 14,565, 12,965, 10,565, and 4,986 for MDD, DEP, DAF, and PTSD, respectively. In each case, causal variants contributing to PTSD were completely or largely covered by causal variants defining each of the depressive phenotypes. Mendelian randomization analysis indicates that the genetically determined depressive phenotypes confer a causal effect on PTSD (b = 0.21~0.31). Notably, genetically determined PTSD confers a causal effect on DEP (b = 0.14) and DAF (b = 0.15), but not MDD. Cross-trait meta-analysis of MDD and PTSD identifies 47 genomic loci, including 29 loci shared between PTSD and MDD.

Conclusion: Evidence from shared genetics suggests that PTSD is a subtype of MDD. This study provides support to the efforts in reducing diagnostic heterogeneity in psychiatric nosology.

Funding: The National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1314300) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81471364 and 81971255).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI145942DOI Listing
April 2021

Early Intervention with Autologous Fat Grafting to Reduce Hypertrophic Scar Formation: A Prelimilary Study.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 33 Badachu Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, 100144, China.

Background: Once an early-stage immature scar develops into a hypertrophic scar, it is difficult to achieve satisfactory improvement with existing treatments. Therefore, the prevention of hypertrophic scar formation should be given priority. Fat grafting was previously proven to be an effective treatment for mature scars, but it has not been used in the early-stages of (less than three months) scar formation.

Objectives: We present our experience with the use of combined grafting of macro fat and emulsified fat for prevention of hypertrophic scar formation in patients.

Methods: Thirty-five patients who received fat grafting for facial scar repair were included as a treatment group and another 35 patients without particular interventions were classified as the control group. Patients in both groups were followed up every three months during one year, and the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was used for evaluation of the clinical outcomes at baseline (within one to three months after trauma, burn or surgery) and after 12 months of follow-up.

Results: All patients in the treatment group achieved a marked improvement after their first fat grafting procedure. Thirteen patients (37.1%) underwent the second procedure and seven (20%) underwent the third procedure. Statistical analysis of average VSS score also showed significant differences between the treatment and control groups.

Conclusion: The results of this retrospective study suggest that treatment of immature scars with combined grafting of macro fat and emulsified fat can successfully prevent the formation of hypertrophic scars.

Level Of Evidence Iii: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02277-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Synergistic Effect of Dielectric Property and Energy Transfer on Charge Separation in Non-Fullerene-Based Solar Cells.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 24;60(27):15054-15062. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren'ai Road, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

In non-fullerene-based photovoltaic devices, it is unclear how excitons efficiently dissociate into charge carriers under small driving force. Here, we developed a modified method to estimate dielectric constants of PM6 donor and non-fullerene acceptors. Surprisingly, most non-fullerene acceptors and blend films showed higher dielectric constants. Moreover, they exhibited larger dielectric constants differences at the optical frequency. These results are likely bound to reduced exciton binding energy and bimolecular recombination. Besides, the overlap between the emission spectrum of donor and absorption spectra of non-fullerene acceptors allowed the energy transfer from donor to acceptors. Hence, based on the synergistic effect of dielectric property and energy transfer resulting in efficient charge separation, our finding paves an alternative path to elucidate the physical working mechanism in non-fullerene-based photovoltaic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103357DOI Listing
June 2021

The safety and efficacy of neoadjuvant programmed death 1 inhibitor therapy with surgical resection in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(6):486

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital of the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Hangzhou, China.

Background: Lung cancer ranks as the most prevalent solid cancer in the world. The non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) histological subtype accounts for the largest proportion of lung cancers. Even though neoadjuvant therapy has shown encouraging efficacy for resectable NSCLC, there is a lack of clinical data on the treatment of stage IIIA NSCLC patients. Therefore, we carried out an evaluation of the safety and efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor as an addition to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Methods: This prospective study involved 72 treatment-naive adult subjects with stage IIIA NSCLC between September 2019 and July 2020. Two circles PD-1 inhibitor with chemotherapy (Albumin paclitaxel 100 mg/m d1,8 + Carboplatin AUC 5 d1) were administered intravenously every 3 weeks. The patients were operated on between 3 and 5 weeks following the second cycle. Feasibility and safety served as the primary endpoints for this study. The rates of pathologic complete response, complete resection, response rate, and operative and postoperative complications among the patients were also analyzed.

Results: Seventy-two patients with untreated stage IIIA NSCLC were enrolled. The postoperative pathological specimens of 21 (29.1%) and 47 (65.2%) patients suggested pathologic complete response and partial remission, respectively. Neoadjuvant PD-1 inhibitor with chemotherapy had an acceptable side effect profile, and none of the subjects withdrew from the study preoperatively due to disease progression or toxicity. According to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RESIST), responses evaluated by CT scan before surgery, 21 and 47 patients achieved complete response (CR) and partial response (PR), respectively, and a single patient was evaluated as stable disease (SD). There were no postoperative deaths.

Conclusions: The outcomes of PD-1 inhibitor with chemotherapy as a novel treatment for stage IIIA NSCLC in the neoadjuvant setting are satisfactory with respect to the high R0 resection rate and low toxicity profile. Prospective comparative and longer follow-up trials are needed to confirm the long-term outcomes of this novel treatment and to reach definitive conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039669PMC
March 2021

Periostin loss-of-function protects mice from post-traumatic and age-related osteoarthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 04 8;23(1):104. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital MS 8233, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Elevated levels of periostin (Postn) in the cartilage and bone are associated with osteoarthritis (OA). However, it remains unknown whether Postn loss-of-function can delay or prevent the development of OA. In this study, we sought to better understand the role of Postn in OA development and assessed the functional impact of Postn deficiency on post-traumatic and age-related OA in mice.

Methods: The effects of Postn deficiency were studied in two murine experimental OA models using Postn (n = 32) and littermate wild-type (wt) mice (n = 36). Post-traumatic OA was induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in 10-week-old mice (n = 20); age-related OA was analyzed in 24-month-old mice (n = 13). Cartilage degeneration was assessed histologically using the OARSI scoring system, and synovitis was evaluated by measuring the synovial lining cell layer and the cells density in the synovial stroma. Bone changes were measured by μCT analysis. Serum levels of Postn were determined by ELISA. Expression of Postn and collagenase-3 (MMP-13) was measured by immunostaining. RNA-seq was performed on chondrocytes isolated from 21-day old Postn (n = 3) and wt mice (n = 3) to discover genes and pathways altered by Postn knockout.

Results: Postn mice exhibited significantly reduced cartilage degeneration and OARSI score relative to wt mice in post-traumatic OA after 8 weeks (maximum: 2.37 ± 0.74 vs. 4.00 ± 1.20, P = 0.011; summed: 9.31 ± 2.52 vs. 21.44 ± 6.01, P = 0.0002) and spontaneous OA (maximum: 1.93 ± 0.45 vs. 3.58 ± 1.16, P = 0.014; summed: 6.14 ± 1.57 vs. 11.50 ± 3.02, P = 0.003). Synovitis was significantly lower in Postn mice than wt only in the DMM model (1.88 ± 1.01 vs. 3.17 ± 0.63; P = 0.039). Postn mice also showed lower trabecular bone parameters such as BV/TV, vBMD, Tb.Th, and Tb.N and high Tb. Sp in both models. Postn mice had negligible levels of serum Postn compared with wt. Immunofluorescent studies of cartilage indicated that Postn mice expressed lower MMP-13 levels than wt mice. RNA-seq revealed that cell-cell-adhesion and cell-differentiation processes were enriched in Postn mice, while those related to cell-cycle and DNA-repair were enriched in wt mice.

Conclusions: Postn deficiency protects against DMM-induced post-traumatic and age-related spontaneous OA. RNA-seq findings warrant further investigations to better understand the mechanistic role of Postn and its potential as a therapeutic target in OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02477-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028178PMC
April 2021

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 signaling.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Aug 31;519:32-39. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, Hunan International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Base of Arteriosclerotic Disease, Hengyang Medical College, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, China. Electronic address:

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid which regulates a series of physiological and pathological processes via binding to five S1P receptors (S1PR1-5). Although S1PR1-3 are widely expressed, the study of S1PRs, however, mainly addressed S1PR1 and S1PR2, and few studies focus on S1PR3-5. In recent years, a growing number of studies have shown that S1PR3 plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration, but its function is still controversial. This is the first comprehensive review paper about the role of S1PR3 signaling in cardiovascular function, tissue fibrosis, cancer, immune response, and neurological function. In addition, existing S1PR3 agonists and antagonists are listed at the end of the article, and we also put forward our opinion on the dispute of S1PR3 function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.03.025DOI Listing
August 2021

The genomic landscape of young and old lung cancer patients highlights age-dependent mutation frequencies and clinical actionability in young patients.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

The aim of the study was to investigate age-dependent tendency of genomic alterations in lung cancer, and also to examine mutational profiles and its association with clinical treatment outcomes in young adenocarcinoma patients. By studying 7858 lung cancer samples using targeted-gene sequencing, we investigated genomic differences and clinical on-treatment time (OTT) to different therapies between young (≤ 45 years) and old (> 45 years) patients. The age-dependent trend test for genomic alterations in all patients revealed steady increases in tumor mutation burden and alterations in a number of genes with age, including KRAS, MET, CDKN2A, PIK3CA and MDM2, while the frequencies of ALK, ROS1 and RET fusions and ERBB2 mutations were decreasing. The highest rate of EGFR alterations was observed in the 45 ~ 50 years age group. Comparisons of young and old adenocarcinoma patients found that young patients were characterized by a higher prevalence of ALK, ROS1 and RET fusions, and ERBB2 exon-20 insertions and EGFR exon-19 deletions. Actionable mutations were highly prevalent in young adenocarcinoma patients, with 88% of patients harboring at least one actionable genetic alteration. First-line therapies in EGFR-positive patients (n = 979) by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors or chemotherapy resulted in similar OTT between young and old patients. Somatic interaction analyses implied that young EGFR-positive patients were more likely to also have PIK3CA, MET, TP53 and RB1 mutations than old patients. Lung cancer in young patients, and especially those with adenocarcinoma, exhibited different clinical features and genomic attributes compared to old patients, which should be considered for therapeutic decision-making purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33583DOI Listing
April 2021

Cnngeno: A high-precision deep learning based strategy for the calling of structural variation genotype.

Comput Biol Chem 2020 Nov 21:107417. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Genotype plays a significant role in determining characteristics in an organism and genotype calling has been greatly accelerated by sequencing technologies. Furthermore, most parametric statistical models are unable to effectively call genotype, which is influenced by the size of structural variations and the coverage fluctuations of sequencing data. In this study, we propose a new method for calling deletions' genotypes from the next-generation data, called Cnngeno. Cnngeno can convert sequencing data into images and classifies the genotypes from these images using the convolutional neural network(CNN). Moreover, Cnngeno adopted the convolutional bootstrapping strategy to improve the anti-noisy label's ability. The results show that Cnngeno performs better in terms of precision for calling genotype when compared with other existing methods. The Cnngeno is an open-source method, available at https://github.com/BRF123/Cnngeno.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2020.107417DOI Listing
November 2020

The Differences in the Whole-Brain Functional Network between Cantonese-Mandarin Bilinguals and Mandarin Monolinguals.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China.

Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals are logographic-logographic bilinguals that provide a unique population for bilingual studies. Whole brain functional connectivity analysis makes up for the deficiencies of previous bilingual studies on the seed-based approach and helps give a complete picture of the brain connectivity profiles of logographic-logographic bilinguals. The current study is to explore the effect of the long-term logographic-logographic bilingual experience on the functional connectivity of the whole-brain network. Thirty Cantonese-Mandarin bilingual and 30 Mandarin monolingual college students were recruited in the study. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was performed to investigate the whole-brain functional connectivity differences by network-based statistics (NBS), and the differences in network efficiency were investigated by graph theory between the two groups (false discovery rate corrected for multiple comparisons, = 0.05). Compared with the Mandarin monolingual group, Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals increased functional connectivity between the bilateral frontoparietal and temporal regions and decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral occipital cortex and between the right sensorimotor region and bilateral prefrontal cortex. No significant differences in network efficiency were found between the two groups. Compared with the Mandarin monolinguals, Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals had no significant discrepancies in network efficiency. However, the Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals developed a more strongly connected subnetwork related to language control, inhibition, phonological and semantic processing, and memory retrieval, whereas a weaker connected subnetwork related to visual and phonology processing, and speech production also developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000089PMC
March 2021

The Effects of Lipoaspirate-Derived Fibrous Tissue on Survival Quality and Mechanical Property of Fat Grafts.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Fat Grafting Department, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Department of Dermatology, Hospital of Renmin University of China, Beijing, China.

Background: Fibrous connective tissue (referred to as fiber) in lipoaspirates would be discarded before lipotransfer in case of cannula blockage. However, the fiber contains extracellular matrix which provide structure support and is rich in stromal vascular fractions (SVFs). Removal of the fiber might theoretically affect the survival quality and mechanical properties of fat grafts. But there is few evidence in vivo and vitro about how the fiber affects the fat grafts.

Objective: To assess the effect of fibers on the survival quality and mechanical property of fat grafts.

Methods: The SVFs in both fat and fiber were obtained by collagenase digestion for cells counting and comparison. Three groups were designed according to the different proportions of fat and fiber: the fat group (100% fat), the mixed group (50% fat, 50% fiber in volume ratio), and the fiber group (100% fiber). Three groups of grafts were transplanted in vivo to evaluate the differences in volume retention rate, histological characteristics and mechanical properties.

Results: The amount of SVF cells in fibers (3.47 ± 1.49 × 104 cells/mL) was significantly lower than that in fat (12.3 ± 4.95 × 104 cells/mL) (P < 0.05). Grafts in the mixed group and the fiber group showed an increase of volume retention at week 4, but the fiber content showed no significant effects on the volume retention of grafts in three groups at week 12. Elasticity modulus of grafts in the fat group was higher than that in the fiber group and the mixed group at week 4 and 8, the fiber content showed no significant effects on the elasticity modulus of grafts in three groups at week 12. The addition of the fiber reduced the inflammation, cysts, fibrosis, and capillaries density of the grafts.

Conclusions: There were few SVF cells in the fiber. When it was mixed with fat in different proportions and transplanted in vivo, the content of fiber showed no significantly different effects on the long-term volume retention and mechanical property of fat grafts. Due to the risk of blockage, it is recommended to discard the fiber in lipoaspirates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007540DOI Listing
March 2021

No-waiting segmentectomy: an optimized approach for segmentectomy.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):784-788

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Hangzhou, China.

Background: Currently, modified inflation-deflation is considered the easiest way to identify the intersegmental plane during pulmonary segmentectomy. However, this approach requires a wait of about 10-20 min during the operative procedure. Therefore, we optimized the procedure, which we call no-waiting segmentectomy. In this study, we compared no-waiting segmentectomy with the modified inflation-deflation method.

Methods: We studied 123 consecutive patients with pulmonary ground-glass nodules who underwent segmentectomy by uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in a single medical group from January 2019 to April 2020. Forty-five patients underwent the modified inflation-deflation method and 78 patients underwent the no-waiting method. The no-waiting procedure involved severing of the target segmental pulmonary artery, inflating the lung with atmospheric air, dissecting the hilum, and dividing the target segmental bronchus. The entire procedure could be performed at a stretch and no pause was needed. We compared the two methods for surgery time, bleeding volume, drainage time, and postoperative hospital stay. Propensity-score matching was used to adjust the baseline characteristics.

Results: Thirty-three pairs of 123 patients were successfully matched. Before propensity-score matching, there was no difference between the two methods in terms of surgery time, bleeding volume, drainage time, and postoperative hospital stay. After propensity-score matching, the surgery time in the no-waiting group was significantly shorter than that in the modified inflation-deflation method group (80.12±35.53 . 102.97±48.07 min, P=0.03). There was no difference between the two methods in terms of bleeding volume, drainage time, and postoperative hospital stay.

Conclusions: No-waiting segmentectomy was associated with a reduced surgery time, compared to that associated with modified inflation-deflation segmentectomy. Furthermore, no-waiting segmentectomy did not increase bleeding volume, drainage time, and postoperative hospital stay. Thus, no-waiting segmentectomy is an optional optimized approach for segmentectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947514PMC
February 2021
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