Publications by authors named "Leendert Porcelijn"

53 Publications

Biological stratification of clinical disease courses in childhood immune thrombocytopenia.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Jan 1. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Immunohematology Diagnostics, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune bleeding disorder, there is a need for better prediction of individual disease courses and treatment outcomes.

Objective: To predict the response to intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) and ITP disease course using genetic and immune markers.

Methods: Children aged below seven years with newly diagnosed ITP (N = 147) from the TIKI study were included, which randomized children to an IVIg or observation group. A total of 46 variables were available: clinical characteristics, targeted genotyping, lymphocyte immune phenotyping, and platelet autoantibodies.

Results: In the treatment arm, 48/80 children (60%) showed a complete response (platelets ≥100 x 10 /L) that lasted for at least one month (complete sustained response; CSR) and 32 exhibited no or a temporary response (absence of a sustained response; ASR). For a biological risk score, five variables were selected by regularized logistic regression that predicted ASR vs CSR: 1) hemoglobin; 2) platelet count; 3) genetic polymorphisms of FcγRIIc; 4) the presence of IgG anti-platelet antibodies; and 5) preceding vaccination. The ASR sensitivity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.80 - 1.00) and specificity was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.80). In the 67 patients of the observation arm, this biological score was also associated with recovery during one-year follow-up. The addition of the biological score to a predefined clinical score further improved the discrimination of favorable ITP disease courses.

Conclusions: The prediction of disease courses and IVIg treatment responses in ITP is improved by using both clinical and biological stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15232DOI Listing
January 2021

Multicenter Study on Differential Human Neutrophil Antigen 2 Expression and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms.

Transfus Med Hemother 2020 Oct 22;47(5):385-395. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Institute for Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

Background: The human neutrophil antigen 2 (HNA-2), which is expressed on CD177, is undetectable in 3-5% of the normal population. Exposure of these HNA-2null individuals to HNA-2-positive cells can cause immunization and pro-duction of HNA-2 antibodies, which can induce immune neutropenia and transfusion-related acute lung injury. In HNA-2-positive individuals, neutrophils are divided into a CD177pos. and a CD177neg. subpopulation. The molecular background of HNA-2 deficiency and the bimodal expression pattern, however, are not completely decoded.

Study Design: An international collaboration was conducted on the genetic analysis of HNA-2-phenotyped blood samples, including HNA-2-deficient individuals, mothers, and the respective children with neonatal immune neutropenia and regular blood donors.

Results: From a total of 54 HNA-2null individuals, 43 were homozygous for the * substitution. Six carried the * single nucleotide polymorphism. All HNA-2-positive samples with >40% CD177pos. neutrophils carried the * wild-type allele, whereas a lower rate of CD177pos. neutrophils was preferentially associated with * heterozygosity. Interestingly, only the * allele sequence was detected in complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence analysis carried out on all * heterozygous individuals. However, cDNA analysis after sorting of CD177pos. and CD177neg. neutrophil subsets from HNA-2-positive individuals showed identical sequences, which makes regulatory elements within the promoter unlikely to affect gene transcription in different CD177 neutrophil subsets.

Conclusion: This comprehensive study clearly demonstrates the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms on the expression of HNA-2 on the neutrophil surface but challenges the hypothesis of regulatory epigenetic effects being implicated in the bimodal CD177 expression pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590758PMC
October 2020

A clinical prediction score for transient versus persistent childhood immune thrombocytopenia.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 01 27;19(1):121-130. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Immunohematology Diagnostics, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Essentials There is a need for improved tools to predict persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We developed and validated a clinical prediction model for recovery from newly diagnosed ITP. The Childhood ITP Recovery Score predicts transient vs. persistent ITP and response to intravenous immunoglobulins. The score may serve as a useful tool for clinicians to individualize patient care. ABSTRACT: Background Childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder. The prognosis (transient, persistent, or chronic ITP) remains difficult to predict. The morbidity is most pronounced in children with persistent and chronic ITP. Clinical characteristics are associated with ITP outcomes, but there are no validated multivariate prediction models. Objective Development and external validatation of the Childhood ITP Recovery Score to predict transient versus persistent ITP in children with newly diagnosed ITP. Methods Patients with a diagnosis platelet count ≤ 20 × 10 /L and age below 16 years were included from two prospective multicenter studies (NOPHO ITP study, N = 377 [development cohort]; TIKI trial, N = 194 [external validation]). The primary outcome was transient ITP (complete recovery with platelets ≥100 × 10 /L 3 months after diagnosis) versus persistent ITP. Age, sex, mucosal bleeding, preceding infection/vaccination, insidious onset, and diagnosis platelet count were used as predictors. Results In external validation, the score predicted transient versus persistent ITP at 3 months follow-up with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. In patients predicted to have a high chance of recovery, we observed 85%, 90%, and 95% recovered 3, 6, and 12 months after the diagnosis. For patients predicted to have a low chance of recovery, this was 32%, 46%, and 71%. The score also predicted cessation of bleeding symptoms and the response to intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). Conclusion The Childhood ITP Recovery Score predicts prognosis and may be useful to individualize clinical management. In future research, the additional predictive value of biomarkers can be compared to this score. A risk calculator is available (http://www.itprecoveryscore.org).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839442PMC
January 2021

Evolution and Utility of Antiplatelet Autoantibody Testing in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia.

Transfus Med Rev 2020 10 16;34(4):258-269. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Immunohematology Diagnostics, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Sanquin Research, Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

To this day, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains a clinical diagnosis made by exclusion of other causes for thrombocytopenia. Reliable detection of platelet autoantibodies would support the clinical diagnosis, but the lack of specificity and sensitivity of the available methods for platelet autoantibody testing limits their value in the diagnostic workup of thrombocytopenia. The introduction of methods for glycoprotein-specific autoantibody detection has improved the specificity of testing and is acceptable for ruling in ITP but not ruling it out as a diagnosis. The sensitivity of these assays varies widely, even between studies using comparable assays. A review of the relevant literature combined with our own laboratory's experience of testing large number of serum and platelet samples makes it clear that this variation can be explained by variations in the characteristics of the tests, including in the glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies, the glycoproteins that are tested, the platelet numbers used in the assay and the cutoff levels for positive and negative results, as well as differences in the tested patient populations. In our opinion, further standardization and optimization of the direct autoantibody detection methods to increase sensitivity without compromising specificity seem possible but will still likely be insufficient to distinguish the often very weak specific autoantibody signals from background signals. Further developments of autoantibody detection methods will therefore be necessary to increase sensitivity to a level acceptable to provide laboratory confirmation of a diagnosis of ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2020.09.003DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of Platelet Responses in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI).

Transfus Med Rev 2020 10 16;34(4):227-233. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Sanquin Research, Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Amsterdam and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Platelets are versatile cells which are capable of eliciting nonhemostatic immune functions, especially under inflammatory conditions. Depending on the specific setting, platelets may be either protective or pathogenic in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Their role in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is less well defined; however, it has been hypothesized that recipient platelets and transfused platelets both play a pathogenic role in TRALI. Overall, despite conflicting findings, it appears that recipient platelets may play a pathogenic role in antibody-mediated TRALI; however, their contribution appears to be limited. It is imperative to first validate the involvement of recipient platelets by standardizing the animal models, methods, reagents, and readouts for lung injury and taking the animal housing environment into consideration. For the involvement of transfused platelets in TRALI, it appears that predominantly lipids such as ceramide in stored platelets are able to induce TRALI in animal models. These studies will also need to be validated, and moreover, the platelet-derived lipid-mediated mechanisms leading to TRALI will need to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2020.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493815PMC
October 2020

Update on the pathophysiology of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

Curr Opin Hematol 2020 11;27(6):386-391

Sanquin Research, Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Amsterdam and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this study was to discuss recent advances regarding the pathogenesis of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), which highlight the pathogenic role of macrophages.

Recent Findings: TRALI remains a leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities, despite the success of the mitigation strategy, and therapeutic approaches are unavailable. Neutrophils (PMNs) are recognized pathogenic cells in TRALI. Macrophages have previously also been suggested to be pathogenic in mice via binding of C5a to their C5a-receptor, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damages the pulmonary endothelium. Recent work has further highlighted the role of macrophages in the TRALI-pathogenesis. It has been shown that the protein osteopontin (OPN) released by macrophages is critical for pulmonary PMN recruitment in mice suffering from TRALI and that targeting OPN prevents the occurrence of TRALI. Another recent study demonstrated the importance of M1-polarized alveolar macrophages in murine TRALI induction by showing that α1-antitrypsin (AAT) overexpression prevented TRALI in mice through decreasing the polarization of alveolar macrophages towards the M1 phenotype.

Summary: Apart from PMNs, macrophages also appear to be important in the pathogenesis of TRALI. Targeting the pathogenic functions of macrophages may be a promising therapeutic strategy to explore in TRALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOH.0000000000000607DOI Listing
November 2020

Biological and structural characterization of murine TRALI antibody reveals increased Fc-mediated complement activation.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(16):3875-3885

Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a leading cause of transfusion-related deaths. In most cases, anti-leukocyte antibodies in the transfusion product trigger TRALI, but not all anti-leukocyte antibodies cause TRALI. It has been shown that the anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antibody 34-1-2S (anti-H-2Kd) causes TRALI in BALB/c mice (MHC class I haplotype H-2Kd), whereas SF1.1.10 (anti-H-2Kd) does not. In C57BL/6 mice (MHC class I haplotype H-2Kb), TRALI only occurs when anti-MHC class I antibody AF6-88.5.5.3 (anti-H-2Kb) is administered together with a high dose of 34-1-2S. It remains unknown which specific antibody characteristics are responsible for eliciting TRALI. We therefore investigated several biological and structural features of 34-1-2S compared with other anti-MHC class I antibodies, which on their own do not cause TRALI: SF1.1.10 and AF6-88.5.5.3. No substantial differences were observed between the TRALI-causing 34-1-2S and the TRALI-resistant SF1.1.10 regarding binding affinity to H-2Kd. Regarding binding affinity to H-2Kb, only AF6-88.5.5.3 potently bound to H-2Kb, whereas 34-1-2S exhibited weak but significant cross-reactivity. Furthermore, the binding affinity to FcγRs as well as the Fc glycan composition seemed to be similar for all antibodies. Similar Fc glycosylation profiles were also observed for human TRALI-causing donor anti-HLA antibodies compared with human anti-HLA antibodies from control donors. 34-1-2S, however, displayed superior complement activation capacity, which was fully Fc dependent and not significantly dependent on Fc glycosylation. We conclude that TRALI induction is not correlated with Fab- and Fc-binding affinities for antigen and FcγRs, respectively, nor with the composition of Fc glycans; but increased Fc-mediated complement activation is correlated with TRALI induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448591PMC
August 2020

HIP (HPA-screening in pregnancy) study: protocol of a nationwide, prospective and observational study to assess incidence and natural history of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and identifying pregnancies at risk.

BMJ Open 2020 07 20;10(7):e034071. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Immunohaematology Diagnostics, Sanquin, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) may lead to severe fetal or neonatal bleeding and/or perinatal death. Maternal alloantibodies, targeted against fetal human platelet antigens (HPAs), can result thrombocytopenia and bleeding complications. In pregnancies with known immunisation, fetal bleeding can be prevented by weekly maternal intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. Without population-based screening, immunisation is only detected after birth of an affected infant. Affected cases that might have been prevented, when timely identified through population-based screening. Implementation is hampered by the lack of knowledge on incidence, natural history and identification of pregnancies at high risk of bleeding. We designed a study aimed to obtain this missing knowledge.

Methods And Analysis: The HIP (HPA-screening in pregnancy) study is a nationwide, prospective and observational cohort study aimed to assess incidence and natural history of FNAIT as well as identifying pregnancies at high risk for developing bleeding complications. For logistic reasons, we invite rhesus D-negative or rhesus c-negative pregnant women, who take part in the Dutch population-based prenatal screening programme for erythrocyte immunisation, to participate in our study. Serological HPA-1a typing is performed and a luminex-based multiplex assay will be performed for the detection of anti-HPA-1a antibodies. Results will not be communicated to patients or caregivers. Clinical data of HPA-1a negative women and an HPA-1a positive control group will be collected after birth. Samples of HPA-1a immunised pregnancies with and without signs of bleeding will be compared with identify parameters for identification of pregnancies at high risk for bleeding complications.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the Medical Ethical Committee Leiden-The Hague-Delft (P16.002). Study enrolment began in March 2017. All pregnant women have to give informed consent for testing according to the protocol. Results of the study will be disseminated through congresses and publication in relevant peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04067375.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375633PMC
July 2020

The association and functional relevance of genetic variation in low-to-medium-affinity Fc-gamma receptors with clinical platelet transfusion refractoriness.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 08 25;18(8):2047-2053. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Inadequate responses to platelet transfusions (i.e., platelet transfusion refractoriness [PLT refractoriness]) are a serious problem. Multiple factors contribute to low yields upon platelet transfusion, among which are platelet-reactive allo-antibodies. Platelet-reactive allo-antibodies occur in up to 30% of patients receiving multiple transfusions, and presumably lead to rapid destruction of the transfused platelets via receptors for IgG, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). Genetic variation in FcγRs is associated with susceptibility to immune thrombocytopenia, in which autoantibodies against platelets cause thrombocytopenia.

Objectives: We hypothesized that genetic variation in FcγRs may also influence PLT refractoriness in allo-immunized patients and could help in identifying the patients at risk.

Patients/methods: Patients with severe PLT refractoriness for whom diagnostic testing for allo-immunization was requested in the period of 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively included. A case-control study was performed comparing patients in whom platelet-reactive antibodies were detected (n = 181) with ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 180) to determine differences in all known functional copy number variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FcγRs.

Results And Conclusions: None of the tested FcγR genetic variations seemed associated with the development of severe PLT refractoriness. In contrast to observations in immune thrombocytopenia, genetic variation in FcγRs does not seem to influence the chance to develop PLT refractoriness. Our results do not support determination of FcγR genetic background as a means to identify patients most at risk for PLT refractoriness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14892DOI Listing
August 2020

Anti-platelet antibody immunoassays in childhood immune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review.

Vox Sang 2020 May 20;115(4):323-333. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Immunohematology Diagnostics, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In adult immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an acquired autoimmune bleeding disorder, anti-platelet autoantibody testing may be useful as a rule-in test. Childhood ITP has different disease characteristics, and the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-platelet antibody testing remains uncertain.

Objective: To systematically review the diagnostic accuracy of anti-platelet autoantibody testing in childhood ITP.

Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies evaluating immunoassays in childhood ITP. Study quality was assessed (QUADAS2), and evidence was synthesized descriptively.

Results: In total, 40 studies (1606 patients) were identified. Nine studies reported sufficient data to determine diagnostic accuracy measures. Anti-platelet IgG antibody testing showed a moderate sensitivity (0·36-0·80 platelet-associated IgG [direct test]; 0·19-0·39 circulating IgG [indirect test]). In studies that reported control data, including patients with non-immune thrombocytopenia, specificity was very good (0·80-1·00). Glycoprotein-specific immunoassays showed comparable sensitivity (three studies) and predominantly identified IgG anti-GP IIb/IIIa antibodies, with few IgG anti-GP Ib/IX antibodies. Anti-platelet IgM antibodies were identified in a substantial proportion of children (sensitivity 0·62-0·64 for direct and indirect tests).

Conclusion: The diagnostic evaluation of IgG and IgM anti-platelet antibodies may be useful as a rule-in test for ITP. In children with insufficient platelets for a direct test, indirect tests may be performed instead. A negative test does not rule out the diagnosis of ITP. Future studies should evaluate the value of anti-platelet antibody tests in thrombocytopenic children with suspected ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317748PMC
May 2020

IgG-Fc glycosylation before and after rituximab treatment in immune thrombocytopenia.

Sci Rep 2020 02 20;10(1):3051. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Sanquin Research, Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The interactions of antibodies with myeloid Fcγ receptors and the complement system are regulated by an Asn297-linked glycan in the Fc portion of IgG. Alterations of serum IgG-Fc glycosylation have been reported in various autoimmune diseases, and correlate with treatment response and disease activity. We hypothesized that IgG-Fc glycosylation is altered in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and associates with response to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment (rituximab). IgG-Fc glycosylation was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that IgG-Fc glycosylation was identical between refractory ITP patients (HOVON64 trial; N = 108) and healthy controls (N = 120). Two months after rituximab treatment, we observed a shift in Fc glycosylation, with a mean 1.7% reduction in galactosylation for IgG1 and IgG4 and a mean 1.5% increase for bisection in IgG1, IgG2/3 and IgG4 (adjusted p < 1.7 × 10 and p < 2 × 10, respectively). Neither baseline nor longitudinal changes in IgG-Fc glycosylation after rituximab were associated with clinical treatment response. We conclude that IgG-Fc glycosylation in refractory ITP is similar to healthy controls and does not predict treatment responses to rituximab. The observed changes two months after treatment suggest that rituximab may influence total serum IgG-Fc glycosylation. Overall, our study suggests that the pathophysiology of refractory ITP may differ from other autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59651-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033207PMC
February 2020

Anti-platelet antibodies in childhood immune thrombocytopenia: Prevalence and prognostic implications.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 05 12;18(5):1210-1220. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Laboratory for Platelet and Leukocyte Serology, Department of Immunohematology Diagnostics, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Anti-platelet antibody testing may be useful for the diagnosis and management of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

Objectives: Here we aimed to assess the prevalence and prognostic significance of anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies.

Methods: Children with newly diagnosed ITP were included at diagnosis and randomized to an intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) or careful observation group (TIKI trial). In this well-defined and longitudinally followed cohort (N = 179), anti-platelet glycoprotein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were determined by monoclonal antibody-immobilization of platelet antigens.

Results: The dominant circulating anti-platelet antibody class in childhood ITP was IgM (62% of patients); but IgG antibodies were also found (10%). Children without IgM platelet antibodies were older and more often female. There was weak evidence for an association between IgM anti-GP IIb/IIIa antibodies and an increased bleeding severity (P = .03). The IgM and IgG anti-platelet responses partially overlapped, and reactivity was frequently directed against multiple glycoproteins. During 1-year follow-up, children with IgM antibodies in the observation group displayed a faster platelet recovery compared to children without, also after adjustment for age and preceding infections (P = 7.1 × 10 ). The small group of patients with detectable IgG anti-platelet antibodies exhibited an almost complete response to IVIg treatment (N = 12; P = .02), suggesting that IVIg was particularly efficacious in these children.

Conclusions: Testing for circulating anti-platelet antibodies may be helpful for the clinical prognostication and the guidance of treatment decisions in newly diagnosed childhood ITP. Our data suggest that the development of even more sensitive tests may further improve the clinical value of antibody testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318215PMC
May 2020

The Role of Complement in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury.

Transfus Med Rev 2019 10 18;33(4):236-242. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Sanquin Research, Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Amsterdam and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening complication of acute respiratory distress occurring within 6 hours of blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of transfusion-related fatalities and specific therapies are unavailable. Neutrophils are recognized as the major pathogenic cells, whereas T regulatory cells and dendritic cells appear to be important for protection against TRALI. The pathogenesis, however, is complex and incompletely understood. It is frequently postulated that the complement system plays an important role in the TRALI pathogenesis. In this article, we assess the evidence regarding the involvement of complement in TRALI from both human and animal studies. We hypothesize about the potential connection between the complement system and neutrophils in TRALI. Additionally, we draw parallels between TRALI and other acute pulmonary disorders of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome regarding the involvement of complement. We conclude that, even though a role for complement in the TRALI pathogenesis seems plausible, studies investigating the role of complement in TRALI are remarkably limited in number and also present conflicting findings. Different types of TRALI animal models, diverse experimental conditions, and the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota may perhaps all be factors which contribute to these discrepancies. More systematic studies are warranted to shed light on the contribution of the complement cascade in TRALI. The underlying clinical condition of the patient, which influences the susceptibility to TRALI, as well as the transfusion factor (antibody-mediated vs non-antibody-mediated), will be important to take into consideration when researching the contribution of complement. This should significantly increase our understanding of the role of complement in TRALI and may potentially result in promising new treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2019.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127679PMC
October 2019

Fast and low-cost direct ELISA for high-throughput serological HPA-1a typing.

Transfusion 2019 09 22;59(9):2989-2996. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is caused by maternal alloantibodies against fetal human platelet antigens (HPAs), mostly caused by anti-HPA-1a. Population-based screening for FNAIT is still a topic of debate. Logistically and financially, the major challenge for implementation is the typing of pregnant women to recognize the 2% HPA-1a-negative women. Therefore, there is need for a high-throughput and low-cost HPA-1a-typing assay.

Study Design And Methods: A sandwich ELISA was developed, using a monoclonal anti-GPIIIa as coating antibody and horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated recombinant anti-HPA-1a, as detecting antibody. The ELISA results were compared to an allelic discrimination PCR-assay. In phase I, samples from unselected consecutive pregnant women were tested with both assays. Phase II was part of a prospective screening study in pregnancy and genotyping was restricted to samples with an arbitrary set, OD < 0.500.

Results: The ELISA was optimized to require no additional handling (swirling or spinning) of stored tubes. During phase I, 506 samples were tested. In phase II, another 62,171 consecutive samples were phenotyped, with supportive genotyping in 1,902. In total 1,585 HPA-1a negative and 823 HPA-1a positive women were genotyped. The assay reached 100% sensitivity with a cut-off OD from 0.160, corresponding with a 99.9% specificity and a false-HPA-1a negative rate of 0.03.

Conclusion: A high-throughput, low-cost, and reliable HPA-1a phenotyping assay was developed which can be used in population-based screening to select samples for testing of presence of anti-HPA-1a. Because plasma from tubes of 3- to 6-days-old samples can be used, this assay is applicable to settings with suboptimal conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15454DOI Listing
September 2019

Anti-glycoprotein Ibα autoantibodies do not impair circulating thrombopoietin levels in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

Haematologica 2020 04 11;105(4):e172-e174. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Sanquin Research, Department of Experimental Immunohematology and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.228908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109722PMC
April 2020

Transient and chronic childhood immune thrombocytopenia are distinctly affected by Fc-γ receptor polymorphisms.

Blood Adv 2019 07;3(13):2003-2012

Department of Immunohematology Diagnostics, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), anti-platelet autoantibodies mediate platelet clearance through Fc-γ receptor (FcγR)-bearing phagocytes. In 75% to 90% of patients, the disease has a transient, self-limiting character. Here we characterized how polymorphisms of FcγR genes affect disease susceptibility, response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, and long-term recovery from childhood ITP. Genotyping of the locus was performed in 180 children with newly diagnosed ITP, 22 children with chronic ITP, and 180 healthy control children by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Children with newly diagnosed ITP were randomly assigned to a single administration of IVIg or observation, and followed for 1 year (Treatment With or Without IVIg for Kids With ITP [TIKI] trial). We defined transient ITP as a complete recovery (≥100 × 10/L) 3 months after diagnosis, including both self-limiting disease/IVIg responders and chronic ITP as absence of a complete recovery at 12 months. ITP susceptibility, as well as spontaneous recovery and response to IVIg, was associated with the genetic variants *ORF and *27W and the promoter variant 2B.4. These variants were overrepresented in patients with transient (N = 131), but not chronic (N = 43), disease. The presence of *ORF predisposed to transient ITP with an odds ratio of 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-14.3). Chronic ITP was associated with a deletion of (copy number region 1) with an odds ratio of 6.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-24.7). Taken together, susceptibility to transient and chronic ITP is distinctly affected by polymorphic variants of genes. Our data suggest that genotyping of the locus may be useful for prognosis and guidance of treatment decisions in newly diagnosed childhood ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616256PMC
July 2019

Neonatal Alloimmune Neutropenia.

Transfus Med Hemother 2018 Oct 24;45(5):311-316. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Immunohematology Diagnostic Services, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (NAIN, NAIN or NIN) is a neutrophil blood group antagonism, analogous to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) and fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). A limited number of prospective screening studies showed that granulocyte-specific antibodies were detectable in 0.35-1.1% of random postnatal maternal samples and that the incidence of NAIN was below 0.1%. Symptoms vary from none to mild skin infections, omphalitis or more severe infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Treatment of neonatal infection with antibiotics and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is advised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000492949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6489100PMC
October 2018

Plasma thrombopoietin levels as additional tool in clinical management of thrombocytopenic neonates.

Platelets 2020 13;31(1):62-67. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Immunohematology Diagnostic Services Amsterdam, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Plasma thrombopoietin (Tpo) levels distinguish thrombocytopenia resulting from increased platelet destruction or decreased platelet production. We investigated whether measuring plasma Tpo levels in thrombocytopenic newborns is of diagnostic value to establish the underlying mechanism of thrombocytopenia.Tpo levels were measured with in-house developed ELISA in samples referred to our center because of thrombocytopenia noticed in the first 10 days of life. Clinical data were collected.Plasma Tpo levels <128 AU/ml were found in the majority (92%) of 121 newborns with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia ( = 104) and thrombocytopenia due to bacterial infections ( = 7); increased plasma Tpo levels (≥128 AU/ml) were found in thrombocytopenic newborns with severe asphyxia ( = 24). Highly increased plasma Tpo levels (>200 AU/ml) were found in thrombocytopenic neonates with congenital viral infections ( = 22) or amegakaryocytosis ( = 6). A plasma Tpo level <128 AU/ml excludes (negative predictive value 96%, 95% CI 90-99) severe asphyxia, congenital viral infections and amegakaryocytosis as the cause for thrombocytopenia in newborns.Increased plasma Tpo levels indicate that thrombocytopenia in newborns, as a result of various nonimmune disorders, is often caused by (temporary) bone marrow suppression/failure. Measurement of plasma Tpo levels provides the clinician with an additional tool to decide on the differential diagnosis, the necessity for subsequent diagnostics and treatment in neonates with thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2019.1572877DOI Listing
April 2020

Anti-HLA antibodies with complementary and synergistic interaction geometries promote classical complement activation on platelets.

Haematologica 2019 02 27;104(2):403-416. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Immunohaematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center

High titers of HLA antibodies are associated with platelet refractoriness, causing poor platelet increments after transfusions in a subset of patients with HLA antibodies. Currently, we do not know the biological mechanisms that explain the variability in clinical responses in HLA alloimmunized patients receiving platelet transfusions. Previously we showed that a subset of anti-HLA IgG-antibodies induces FcγRIIa-dependent platelet activation and enhanced phagocytosis. Here, we investigated whether anti-HLA IgG can induce complement activation on platelets. We found that a subset of anti-HLA IgG induced complement activation via the classical pathway, causing C4b and C3b deposition and formation of the membrane-attack complex. This resulted in permeabilization of platelet membranes and increased calcium influx. Complement activation also caused enhanced α-granule release, as measured by CD62P surface exposure. Blocking studies revealed that platelet activation was caused by FcγRIIa-dependent signaling as well as HLA antibody induced complement activation. Synergistic complement activation employing combinations of monoclonal IgGs suggested that assembly of oligomeric IgG complexes strongly promoted complement activation through binding of IgGs to different antigenic determinants on HLA. In agreement with this, we observed that preventing anti-HLA-IgG hexamer formation using an IgG-Fc:Fc blocking peptide, completely inhibited C3b and C4b deposition. Our results show that HLA antibodies can induce complement activation on platelets including membrane attack complex formation, pore formation and calcium influx. We propose that these events can contribute to fast platelet clearance in patients refractory to platelet transfusions with HLA alloantibodies, who may benefit from functional-platelet matching and treatment with complement inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.201665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355480PMC
February 2019

Intravenous immunoglobulin vs observation in childhood immune thrombocytopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

Blood 2018 08 26;132(9):883-891. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) consists of careful observation or immunomodulatory treatment. Observational studies suggest a lower risk for chronic ITP in children after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment. In this multicenter randomized trial, children aged 3 months to 16 years with newly diagnosed ITP, platelet counts 20 × 10/L or less, and mild to moderate bleeding were randomly assigned to receive either a single infusion of 0.8 g/kg IVIg or careful observation. Primary outcome was development of chronic ITP, which at the time of study initiation was defined as a platelet count lower than 150 × 10/L after 6 months. Two hundred six children were allocated to receive IVIg (n = 102) or careful observation (n = 104). Chronic ITP occurred in 18.6% of the patients in the IVIg group and 28.9% in the observation group (relative risk [RR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-1.08). Platelet counts lower than 100 × 10/L at 12 months (current definition of chronic ITP) were observed in 10% of children in the IVIg group and 12% in the observation group (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.38-1.84). Complete response rates in the first 3 months were significantly higher in the IVIg group. Immunoglobulin G Fc receptor IIb genetic variations were associated with early complete response in both groups. Grade 4 to 5 bleeding occurred in 9% of the patients in the observation group vs 1% in the IVIg group. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR 1563.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-02-830844DOI Listing
August 2018

A subset of anti-HLA antibodies induces FcγRIIa-dependent platelet activation.

Haematologica 2018 10 1;103(10):1741-1752. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Immunohaematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

HLA antibodies are associated with refractoriness to platelet transfusion, leading to rapid platelet clearance, sometimes coinciding with clinical side effects such as fever and chills. The presence of HLA antibodies is not always manifested by clinical symptoms. It is currently unclear why refractoriness to platelet transfusion is only observed in a subset of patients. Here, we utilized the availability of a unique panel of human monoclonal antibodies to study whether these were capable of activating platelets. Three out of eight human HLA-specific monoclonal antibodies induced activation of HLA-matched platelets from healthy donors as evidenced by enhanced α-granule release, aggregation, and αb activation. The propensity of HLA monoclonal antibodies to activate platelets was independent of the HLA subtype to which they were directed, but was dependent on the recognized epitope. Activation was fully inhibited either by blocking FcγRIIa, or by blocking FcγRIIa-dependent signaling with Syk inhibitor IV. Furthermore, activation required the presence of the IgG-Fc part, as F(ab') fragments of HLA monoclonal antibodies were unable to induce platelet activation. Mixing experiments revealed that activation of platelets occurred in an intra-platelet dependent manner. Accordingly, a proportion of sera from refractory patients with HLA antibodies induced FcγRIIa-dependent platelet activation. Our data show that a subset of HLA antibodies is capable of crosslinking HLA and FcγRIIa thereby promoting platelet activation and enhancing these cells' phagocytosis by macrophages. Based on these findings we suggest that FcγRIIa-dependent platelet activation may contribute to the decreased platelet survival in platelet-transfusion-dependent patients with HLA antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.189365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165798PMC
October 2018

Detection of platelet autoantibodies to identify immune thrombocytopenia: state of the art.

Br J Haematol 2018 08 29;182(3):423-426. Epub 2018 May 29.

Immunohaematology Diagnostic Services, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) is diagnosed by exclusion of other causes for thrombocytopenia. Reliable detection of platelet autoantibodies would support the clinical diagnosis of ITP and prevent misdiagnosis. We optimized our diagnostic algorithm for suspected ITP using the direct monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens assay (MAIPA), which evaluates the presence of platelet autoantibodies on the glycoproteins (GP) IIb/IIIa, Ib/IX and V bound on the patient platelets. The direct MAIPA was shown to be a valuable technique for the detection of platelet autoantibodies and could possibly become a guide for optimizing therapy towards a more personalized treatment of ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15404DOI Listing
August 2018

Treatment and outcomes of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a nationwide cohort study in newly detected cases.

Br J Haematol 2019 03 16;184(6):1026-1029. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15216DOI Listing
March 2019

Low levels of interleukin-10 in patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury.

Ann Transl Med 2017 Aug;5(16):339

Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2017.04.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566739PMC
August 2017

Lack of detectable platelet autoantibodies is correlated with nonresponsiveness to rituximab treatment in ITP patients.

Blood 2017 06 3;129(25):3389-3391. Epub 2017 May 3.

Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, Leiden, The Netherlands; and.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-11-751719DOI Listing
June 2017

T regulatory cells and dendritic cells protect against transfusion-related acute lung injury via IL-10.

Blood 2017 05 15;129(18):2557-2569. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science and.

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities and is characterized by acute respiratory distress following blood transfusion. Donor antibodies are frequently involved; however, the pathogenesis and protective mechanisms in the recipient are poorly understood, and specific therapies are lacking. Using newly developed murine TRALI models based on injection of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibodies, we found CD4CD25FoxP3 T regulatory cells (Tregs) and CD11c dendritic cells (DCs) to be critical effectors that protect against TRALI. Treg or DC depletion in vivo resulted in aggravated antibody-mediated acute lung injury within 90 minutes with 60% mortality upon DC depletion. In addition, resistance to antibody-mediated TRALI was associated with increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, and IL-10 levels were found to be decreased in mice suffering from TRALI. Importantly, IL-10 injection completely prevented and rescued the development of TRALI in mice and may prove to be a promising new therapeutic approach for alleviating lung injury in this serious complication of transfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-12-758185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418638PMC
May 2017

Prevalence of granulocyte antibodies in never allo-exposed female and male donors.

Eur J Haematol 2017 Mar 25;98(3):250-253. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Department of Platelet and Leucocyte Serology, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Foetal/neonatal allo-immune neutropenia (FNAIN) is a serious condition usually resulting from immunisation of the mother to paternally inherited neutrophil antigens of the foetus. Understanding the biology of female immunisation against neutrophils could help predict or prevent FNAIN.

Objectives: To quantify differences in the prevalence of specific and pan-reactive granulocyte antibodies, between allo-exposed and never allo-exposed male and female blood donors.

Methods/materials: We previously reported the prevalence of granulocyte antibodies in healthy male and female blood donors. Here, we compare specific vs. pan-reactive antibodies.

Results: The prevalence of specific granulocyte antibodies was similar in male [1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.4] and female nulliparous blood donors (0.87%; CI: 0.029-1.7) and doubled after pregnancies (1.8%; CI: 0.52-3.0). In contrast, pan-reactive antibodies were almost three times less common in male (0.81%; CI: 0.50-1.1) compared to female nulliparous blood donors (2.3%; CI: 0.91-3.8) and were half as high after pregnancies (1.1%; CI: 0.58-1.7).

Conclusion: We found unexpected differences between male and female blood donors. Determining the clinical relevance of the pan-reactive antibodies requires further research, but none of the tested blood donors experienced any symptoms of neutropenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12823DOI Listing
March 2017

Elevation of C-reactive protein levels in patients with transfusion-related acute lung injury.

Oncotarget 2016 Nov;7(47):78048-78054

Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities and is characterized by the onset of acute respiratory distress within six hours following blood transfusion. In most cases, donor antibodies are suggested to be involved, however, the pathogenesis is poorly understood. A two-hit model is generally assumed to underlie TRALI pathogenesis where the first hit consists of a patient predisposing factor such as inflammation and the second hit is due to donor antibodies present in the transfused blood. We recently demonstrated that the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) could enhance murine anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-mediated TRALI. Whether CRP is increased in human TRALI patients which would support its role as a risk factor for human TRALI, is currently unknown. For that purpose, we measured CRP levels in the plasma of human TRALI patients and found CRP levels to be significantly elevated compared to transfused control patients. These data support the notion that CRP may be a novel first hit risk factor in human TRALI and that modulation of CRP levels could be an effective therapeutic strategy for this serious adverse event of transfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5363642PMC
November 2016

A multicenter validation of recombinant β3 integrin-coupled beads to detect human platelet antigen-1 alloantibodies in 498 cases of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

Transfusion 2015 Nov 14;55(11):2742-51. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics Laboratories, National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), Colindale, London, UK.

Background: Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) is caused by human platelet (PLT) antigen (HPA) incompatibility. Beads coupled with recombinant β3 integrins, displaying the biallelic HPA-1 epitopes (rHPA-1), have been shown to detect HPA-1a alloantibodies implicated in FMAIT. This report describes a multicenter validation of the beads using the results of well-characterized samples to define the optimum parameters for analysis of a large cohort of 498 clinical samples.

Study Design And Methods: Fifty-one blinded quality assurance (QA) samples were tested by six laboratories to standardize the rHPA-1 bead assay and to develop an algorithm for sample classification. Five laboratories retrieved samples from 498 independent FMAIT cases, previously tested by the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of PLT antigens (MAIPA) assay, from their local archives for testing with the rHPA-1 beads. The results were evaluated using a mathematical algorithm developed to classify the samples.

Results: The QA samples gave a mean concordance of 94% between the bead and MAIPA assays, while 97% concordance was observed with the FMAIT samples. Of the 15 discrepant samples, seven were positive by the beads but negative by MAIPA, while the contrary was observed for eight samples. Overall, the bead assay achieved 98% sensitivity for HPA-1a antibody detection in FMAIT and 98.7% specificity compared to the local MAIPA.

Conclusion: The rHPA-1 bead assay is a rapid 3-hour assay for the sensitive detection of HPA-1 antibodies. Its ease of use would enable prompt detection of maternal HPA-1a antibodies in suspected FMAIT cases, which is important supportive evidence for treatment by transfusion with HPA-1b1b PLTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.13222DOI Listing
November 2015

C-reactive protein enhances IgG-mediated phagocyte responses and thrombocytopenia.

Blood 2015 Mar 29;125(11):1793-802. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Immune-mediated platelet destruction is most frequently caused by allo- or autoantibodies via Fcγ receptor-dependent phagocytosis. Disease severity can be predicted neither by antibody isotype nor by titer, indicating that other factors play a role. Here we show that the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP), a ligand for Fc receptors on phagocytes, enhances antibody-mediated platelet destruction by human phagocytes in vitro and in vivo in mice. Without antiplatelet antibodies, CRP was found to be inert toward platelets, but it bound to phosphorylcholine exposed after oxidation triggered by antiplatelet antibodies, thereby enhancing platelet phagocytosis. CRP levels were significantly elevated in patients with allo- and autoantibody-mediated thrombocytopenias compared with healthy controls. Within a week, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia led to significant decrease of CRP levels, increased platelet numbers, and clinically decreased bleeding severity. Furthermore, the higher the level of CRP at diagnosis, the longer it took before stable platelet counts were reached. These data suggest that CRP amplifies antibody-mediated platelet destruction and may in part explain the aggravation of thrombocytopenia on infections. Hence, targeting CRP could offer new therapeutic opportunities for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-05-579110DOI Listing
March 2015