Publications by authors named "LeeAnn Tan"

7 Publications

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Prevalence study of epilepsy in Malaysia.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Feb 6;170:106551. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia.

Introduction: The lifetime prevalence of epilepsy varies greatly from 1.5-14.0 per 1000 persons among the Asian countries. We aim to study the prevalence of epilepsy in Malaysia to have a better insight into the burden of disease in the country.

Methods: A population-based door-to-door survey was carried out throughout the country, using questionnaire for brief screening in ascertainment of epilepsy, using a questionnaire and its validated multilingual versions. Respondents who were screened positive underwent second-stage diagnostic phone interview by neurologists/ research assistants.

Results: A total 16, 686 respondents participated in the survey and 646 (3.8 %) respondents were screened positive during the first stage interview. A total of 185 consented for second stage diagnostic interview and 118 (63.8 %) respondents were contacted successfully for the second stage diagnostic phone interview, of which 17 (14.4 %) respondents were diagnosed to have epilepsy. An additional 68 (57.6 %) respondents had febrile seizures only. After applying a weighting factor to each respondent to adjust for non-response and for the varying probabilities of selection, the adjusted lifetime epilepsy prevalence was 7.8 in 1000 population, and the adjusted prevalence for active epilepsy was 4.2 in 1000 population in Malaysia.

Conclusion: The prevalence of lifetime epilepsy in Malaysia is 7.8 per 1000 persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106551DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Physical Abuse at Home Among School-Going Adolescents in Malaysia: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 3;31(8_suppl):88S-96S. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Violence and Injury Prevention Unit, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

We assessed the current situation of physical abuse among adolescents at home in Malaysia. A total of 27 497 school-going adolescents answered a self-administered questionnaire during the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017. A complex sampling analysis was applied to identify factors associated with physical abuse among adolescents using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of physical abuse at home among students was 11.8%. Our result shows that adolescents aged 13 years had significantly higher odds of such abuse, with odds decreasing as the adolescents age. Girls and adolescents from Indian ethnicity (minority ethnic group) had higher odds of such abuse. Other associated factors were mental health problems, substance abuse, and problems at school. Physical abuse among adolescents at home should be countered with appropriate measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519883139DOI Listing
November 2019

Body Weight, Body Weight Perception, and Bullying Among Adolescents in Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 16;31(8_suppl):38S-47S. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Body weight is a factor, with body weight perception a mediator, toward being a victim of bullying. This study aimed to explore the association between body weight, body weight perception, and bullying among students 13 to 17 years of age in Malaysia. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling design was used, and 212 schools across Malaysia were selected for this survey. Body weight was measured and body weight perception was the student's reflection of their body weight. The prevalence of being bullied among adolescents in Malaysia was 16.2%. Being too thin or being obese increased the probability of being bullied. Students with a normal body mass index, but with a misperception of their body weight, also had increased odds of being bullied. Obesity prevention, together with instilling positive body weight perception, should be part of all programs directed toward tackling the problem of bullying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519879339DOI Listing
November 2019

Bullying Victimization Among School-Going Adolescents in Malaysia: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 30;31(8_suppl):18S-29S. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying victimization from a nationwide school-based survey among 27 458 students aged 13 to 17 years. The overall prevalence of having been bullied in the past 30 days was 16.2%; this decreased with age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that factors most strongly associated with bullying victimization were exposure to physical attacks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17-2.79), illicit drug use (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.78-3.34), involvement in physical fights (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.74-2.23), being younger than 14 years (aOR =1.95, 95% CI = 1.59-2.38), and having ever attempted suicide (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51-2.21). Other significantly associated factors include loneliness, truancy, making suicidal plans, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Exposure to bullying victimization can result in negative lifelong sequelae and important associated factors should be considered in planning effective school-based anti-bullying interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519870665DOI Listing
November 2019

Being Bullied Is Associated With Depression Among Malaysian Adolescents: Findings From a Cross-Sectional Study in Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 12;31(8_suppl):30S-37S. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Limited evidence on the association of being bullied with depression among adolescents was found in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the association of being bullied and depression among Malaysian school-going adolescents. Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017, a cross-sectional study conducted from March to May 2017, was analyzed using descriptive and multiple logistic regression analysis. A validated tool, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 was used to categorize those with moderate or higher levels of depressive symptoms as having depression. A total of 27 399 school-going adolescents participated and 18.3% were found depressed. Adolescents of Indian ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.02, < .001), those with parents living apart (aOR = 1.41, < .001), and those who were being bullied (aOR = 2.98, < .001) were more likely to have depression. This study demonstrated the association between being bullied and having depression. Comprehensive preventive strategies should be implemented taking into consideration the findings from this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519867796DOI Listing
November 2019

Validation of Malay brief screening instrument for ascertainment of epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 08 26;97:206-211. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia.

Introduction: Prevalence studies of epilepsy in Asia revealed a prevalence ranging from 1.5 to 14.0 per 1000 among Asian populations. However, the prevalence of epilepsy in Malaysia is not available for comparison with other countries. This study aimed to translate and validate a Malay brief screening instruments for ascertainment of epilepsy.

Method: We translated into Malay a brief screening instrument for ascertainment of epilepsy designed and validated by Ottman et al., using the three-stage cross-cultural adaptation process developed by the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) project. We then administered the translated questionnaire via online survey to 162 cases (patients with epilepsy under follow-up care at the neurology clinic in University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur) and 146 controls with no known history of epilepsy for validation.

Results: Applying the most liberal definition for a positive screen, we obtained a sensitivity of 96.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.8-98.5%), with a specificity of 66.4% (95% CI: 58.1-73.0%) and positive predictive value (PPV) of 2.0%. The most stringent definition for a positive screen (only epilepsy) resulted in a sensitivity of 97.4% (95% CI: 62.0-72.6%), specificity of 98.6% (95% CI: 94.6-99.7%), and PPV of 26.6%. Narrowing the definition of a positive screen decreased sensitivity but improved PPVs. When compared to the original English questionnaire, the sensitivities were similar for all four definitions of a positive screen.

Conclusion: This is the first validated epilepsy screening questionnaire in the Malay language and represents a useful tool for the ascertainment of epilepsy in population-based studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.05.033DOI Listing
August 2019

What's on YouTube? A Case Study on Food and Beverage Advertising in Videos Targeted at Children on Social Media.

Child Obes 2018 07 9;14(5):280-290. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

3 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University , Subang Jaya, Malaysia .

Background: Unhealthy food marketing to children is a key risk factor for childhood obesity. Online video platforms have surpassed television as the primary choice for screen viewing among children but the extent of food marketing through such media is relatively unknown. We aimed to examine food and beverage advertisements (ads) encountered in YouTube videos targeting children in Malaysia.

Methods: The social media analytics site SocialBlade.com was used to identify the most popular YouTube videos (nā€‰=ā€‰250) targeting children. Ads encountered while viewing these videos were recorded and analyzed for type of product promoted and ad format (video vs. overlay). Food and beverage ads were further coded based on food category and persuasive marketing techniques used.

Results: In total 187 ads were encountered in sampled videos. Food and beverage ads were the most common at 38% (n=71), among which 56.3% (nā€‰=ā€‰40) promoted noncore foods. Ads for noncore foods were more commonly delivered as video rather than overlay ads. Among ads promoting noncore foods, the most commonly employed persuasive marketing techniques found were taste appeal (42.3%), uniqueness/novelty (32.4%), the use of animation (22.5%), fun appeal (22.5%), use of promotional characters (15.5%), price (12.7%), and health and nutrition benefits (8.5%).

Conclusions: Similar to television, unhealthy food ads predominate in content aimed toward children on YouTube. Policies regulating food marketing to children need to be extended to cover online content in line with a rapidly-evolving digital media environment. Service providers of social media can play a part in limiting unhealthy food advertising to children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2018.0037DOI Listing
July 2018