Publications by authors named "Leah S Wilk"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Individualised and non-contact post-mortem interval determination of human bodies using visible and thermal 3D imaging.

Nat Commun 2021 10 14;12(1):5997. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam UMC Location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Determining the time since death, i.e., post-mortem interval (PMI), often plays a key role in forensic investigations. The current standard PMI-estimation method empirically correlates rectal temperatures and PMIs, frequently necessitating subjective correction factors. To overcome this, we previously developed a thermodynamic finite-difference (TFD) algorithm, providing a rigorous method to simulate post-mortem temperatures of bodies assuming a straight posture. However, in forensic practice, bodies are often found in non-straight postures, potentially limiting applicability of this algorithm in these cases. Here, we develop an individualised approach, enabling PMI reconstruction for bodies in arbitrary postures, by combining photogrammetry and TFD modelling. Utilising thermal photogrammetry, this approach also represents the first non-contact method for PMI reconstruction. The performed lab and crime scene validations reveal PMI reconstruction accuracies of 0.26 h ± 1.38 h for true PMIs between 2 h and 35 h and total procedural durations of ~15 min. Together, these findings broaden the potential applicability of TFD-based PMI reconstruction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26318-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517003PMC
October 2021

Amsterdam Research Initiative for Sub-surface Taphonomy and Anthropology (ARISTA) - A taphonomic research facility in the Netherlands for the study of human remains.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Dec 6;317:110483. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam University Medical Centers - location Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, P.O.Box 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; CLHC-Amsterdam Center for Forensic Science and Medicine, Science Park - Building 904 (Room C2.243), 1098 XH, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

A taphonomic research facility for the study of human remains was recently realized in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to systematically investigate the decomposition of the human body under known conditions. Governmental authorization was obtained to make use of the body donation program of the Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location Academic Medical Center, for this specific purpose. In contrast to the small number of comparable initiatives elsewhere, this facility specifically allows for the study of buried bodies e.g. with the use of telemetry and remote sensing. Here, we discuss the concept of body donation in the Netherlands, its role in taphonomic research, and the sequence of events that preceded the realization of this facility, which is the first of its kind in Europe. In addition to offering novel research options to the scientific community, we hope that it will also pave the way for the successful realization of similar initiatives in other locations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110483DOI Listing
December 2020

Reconstructing the time since death using noninvasive thermometry and numerical analysis.

Sci Adv 2020 May 29;6(22):eaba4243. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam UMC, location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The early postmortem interval (PMI), i.e., the time shortly after death, can aid in the temporal reconstruction of a suspected crime and therefore provides crucial information in forensic investigations. Currently, this information is often derived from an empirical model (Henssge's nomogram) describing posthumous body cooling under standard conditions. However, nonstandard conditions necessitate the use of subjective correction factors or preclude the use of Henssge's nomogram altogether. To address this, we developed a powerful method for early PMI reconstruction using skin thermometry in conjunction with a comprehensive thermodynamic finite-difference model, which we validated using deceased human bodies. PMIs reconstructed using this approach, on average, deviated no more than ±38 minutes from their corresponding true PMIs (which ranged from 5 to 50 hours), significantly improving on the ±3 to ±7 hours uncertainty of the gold standard. Together, these aspects render this approach a widely applicable, i.e., forensically relevant, method for thermometric early PMI reconstruction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba4243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259946PMC
May 2020

En-face optical coherence tomography for the detection of cancer in prostatectomy specimens: Quantitative analysis in 20 patients.

J Biophotonics 2020 06 30;13(6):e201960105. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The increase histopathological evaluation of prostatectomy specimens rises the workload on pathologists. Automated histopathology systems, preferably directly on unstained specimens, would accelerate the pathology workflow. In this study, we investigate the potential of quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to separate benign from malignant prostate tissue automatically. Twenty fixated prostates were cut, from which 54 slices were scanned by OCT. Quantitative OCT metrics (attenuation coefficient, residue, goodness-of-fit) were compared for different tissue types, annotated on the histology slides. To avoid misclassification, the poor-quality slides, and edges of annotations were excluded. Accurate registration of OCT data with histology was achieved in 31 slices. After removing outliers, 56% of the OCT data was compared with histopathology. The quantitative data could not separate malignant from benign tissue. Logistic regression resulted in malignant detection with a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.34. Quantitative OCT analysis should be improved before clinical use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201960105DOI Listing
June 2020

Pilot feasibility study of in vivo intraoperative quantitative optical coherence tomography of human brain tissue during glioma resection.

J Biophotonics 2019 10 15;12(10):e201900037. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This study investigates the feasibility of in vivo quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human brain tissue during glioma resection surgery in six patients. High-resolution detection of glioma tissue may allow precise and thorough tumor resection while preserving functional brain areas, and improving overall survival. In this study, in vivo 3D OCT datasets were collected during standard surgical procedure, before and after partial resection of the tumor, both from glioma tissue and normal parenchyma. Subsequently, the attenuation coefficient was extracted from the OCT datasets using an automated and validated algorithm. The cortical measurements yield a mean attenuation coefficient of 3.8 ± 1.2 mm for normal brain tissue and 3.6 ± 1.1 mm for glioma tissue. The subcortical measurements yield a mean attenuation coefficient of 5.7 ± 2.1 and 4.5 ± 1.6 mm for, respectively, normal brain tissue and glioma. Although the results are inconclusive with respect to trends in attenuation coefficient between normal and glioma tissue due to the small sample size, the results are in the range of previously reported values. Therefore, we conclude that the proposed method for quantitative in vivo OCT of human brain tissue is feasible during glioma resection surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201900037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065626PMC
October 2019

Estimating the Time of Deposition of Semen Traces using Fluorescence Protein-Lipid Oxidation Signatures.

Anal Chem 2019 03 14;91(5):3204-3208. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam University Medical Centers , University of Amsterdam , Meibergdreef 9 , 1105 AZ Amsterdam , The Netherlands.

In the forensic field, knowledge about the time of deposition of semen traces is extremely valuable to law enforcement agencies to assess the relevance of the traces and the validity of witness testimonies. However, currently, no method exists that is able to estimate the time of deposition of semen stains, due to the complex chemistry of the constituents and variation in degradation patterns. Here, we demonstrate a non-contact age estimation method to assess the time of deposition of semen stains using fluorescence spectroscopy. Protein-lipid oxidation reactions were monitored in semen stains over time using protein fluorescence and fluorescent oxidation product signatures to reveal distinctive aging patterns. On the basis of the relative amounts of these fluorescent products and the rate at which they are converted, successful age estimation was achieved up to a value of 16 days, with a median absolute error of 1.7 days. We demonstrate here a new tool that can fill the current gap in intelligence about the age of semen traces that has been challenging the forensic community worldwide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b05625DOI Listing
March 2019

One-to-one registration of en-face optical coherence tomography attenuation coefficients with histology of a prostatectomy specimen.

J Biophotonics 2019 04 28;12(4):e201800274. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT), enables high-resolution 3D imaging of the morphology of light scattering tissues. From the OCT signal, parameters can be extracted and related to tissue structures. One of the quantitative parameters is the attenuation coefficient; the rate at which the intensity of detected light decays in depth. To couple the quantitative parameters with the histology one-to-one registration is needed. The primary aim of this study is to validate a registration method of quantitative OCT parameters to histological tissue outcome through one-to-one registration of OCT with histology. We matched OCT images of unstained fixated prostate tissue slices with corresponding histology slides, wherein different histologic types were demarcated. Attenuation coefficients were determined by a supervised automated exponential fit (corrected for point spread function and sensitivity roll-off related signal losses) over a depth of 0.32 mm starting from 0.10 mm below the automatically detected tissue edge. Finally, the attenuation coefficients corresponding to the different tissue types of the prostate were compared. From the attenuation coefficients, we produced the squared relative residue and goodness-of-fit metric R . This article explains the method to perform supervised automated quantitative analysis of OCT data, and the one-to-one registration of OCT extracted quantitative data with histopathological outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201800274DOI Listing
April 2019

Needle-based optical coherence tomography for the detection of prostate cancer: a visual and quantitative analysis in 20 patients.

J Biomed Opt 2018 08;23(8):1-11

University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, The Netherlands.

Diagnostic accuracy of needle-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for prostate cancer detection by visual and quantitative analysis is defined. 106 three-dimensional (3-D)-OCT data sets were acquired in 20 prostates after radical prostatectomy and precisely matched with pathology. OCT images were grouped per histological category. Two reviewers performed blind assessments of the OCT images. Sensitivity and specificity for malignancy detection were calculated. Quantitative analyses by automated optical attenuation coefficient calculation were performed. OCT can reliably differentiate between fat, cystic, and regular atrophy and benign glands. The overall sensitivity and specificity for malignancy detection was 79% and 88% for reviewer 1 and 88% and 81% for reviewer 2. Quantitative analysis for differentiation between stroma and malignancy showed a significant difference (4.6  mm  -  1 versus 5.0  mm  -  1 Mann-Whitney U-test p  <  0.0001). A Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant difference in median attenuation coefficient between stroma, inflammation, Gleason 3, and Gleason 4 (4.6, 4.1, 5.9, and 5.0  mm  -  1, respectively). However, attenuation coefficient varied per patient and a related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed no significant difference per patient (p  =  0.17). This study confirmed the one to one correlation of histopathology and OCT. Precise matching showed that most histological tissues categories in the prostate could be distinguished by their unique pattern in OCT images. In addition, the optical attenuation coefficient can play a role in the differentiation between stroma and malignancy; however, a per patient analysis of the optical attenuation coefficient did not show a significant difference.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.23.8.086001DOI Listing
August 2018

Feasibility of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Intra-Operative Detection of Blood Flow during Gastric Tube Reconstruction.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Apr 25;18(5). Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In this study; an OCT-based intra-operative imaging method for blood flow detection during esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction is investigated. Change in perfusion of the gastric tube tissue can lead to ischemia; with a high morbidity and mortality as a result. Anastomotic leakage (incidence 5⁻20%) is one of the most severe complications after esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction. Optical imaging techniques provide for minimal-invasive and real-time visualization tools that can be used in intraoperative settings. By implementing an optical technique for blood flow detection during surgery; perfusion can be imaged and quantified and; if needed; perfusion can be improved by either a surgical intervention or the administration of medication. The feasibility of imaging gastric microcirculation in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) during surgery of patients with esophageal cancer by visualizing blood flow based on the speckle contrast from M-mode OCT images is studied. The percentage of pixels exhibiting a speckle contrast value indicative of flow was quantified to serve as an objective parameter to assess blood flow at 4 locations on the reconstructed gastric tube. Here; it was shown that OCT can be used for direct blood flow imaging during surgery and may therefore aid in improving surgical outcomes for patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18051331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5982600PMC
April 2018

Correction for the Hematocrit Bias in Dried Blood Spot Analysis Using a Nondestructive, Single-Wavelength Reflectance-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method.

Anal Chem 2018 02 17;90(3):1795-1804. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University , Ottergemse-steenweg 460, Ghent 9000, Belgium.

The hematocrit (Hct) effect is one of the most important hurdles currently preventing more widespread implementation of quantitative dried blood spot (DBS) analysis in a routine context. Indeed, the Hct may affect both the accuracy of DBS methods as well as the interpretation of DBS-based results. We previously developed a method to determine the Hct of a DBS based on its hemoglobin content using noncontact diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Despite the ease with which the analysis can be performed (i.e., mere scanning of the DBS) and the good results that were obtained, the method did require a complicated algorithm to derive the total hemoglobin content from the DBS's reflectance spectrum. As the total hemoglobin was calculated as the sum of oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemichrome, the three main hemoglobin derivatives formed in DBS upon aging, the reflectance spectrum needed to be unmixed to determine the quantity of each of these derivatives. We now simplified the method by only using the reflectance at a single wavelength, located at a quasi-isosbestic point in the reflectance curve. At this wavelength, assuming 1-to-1 stoichiometry of the aging reaction, the reflectance is insensitive to the hemoglobin degradation and only scales with the total amount of hemoglobin and, hence, the Hct. This simplified method was successfully validated. At each quality control level as well as at the limits of quantitation (i.e., 0.20 and 0.67) bias, intra- and interday imprecision were within 10%. Method reproducibility was excellent based on incurred sample reanalysis and surpassed the reproducibility of the original method. Furthermore, the influence of the volume spotted, the measurement location within the spot, as well as storage time and temperature were evaluated, showing no relevant impact of these parameters. Application to 233 patient samples revealed a good correlation between the Hct determined on whole blood and the predicted Hct determined on venous DBS. The bias obtained with Bland and Altman analysis was -0.015 and the limits of agreement were -0.061 and 0.031, indicating that the simplified, noncontact Hct prediction method even outperforms the original method. In addition, using caffeine as a model compound, it was demonstrated that this simplified Hct prediction method can effectively be used to implement a Hct-dependent correction factor to DBS-based results to alleviate the Hct bias.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b03784DOI Listing
February 2018

Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

Int J Legal Med 2017 Jul 23;131(4):1165-1177. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Physiology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-017-1546-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491595PMC
July 2017

A Novel, Nondestructive, Dried Blood Spot-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method Using Noncontact Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy.

Anal Chem 2016 06 3;88(12):6538-46. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University , Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is recognized as a valuable alternative sampling strategy both in research and in clinical routine. Although many advantages are associated with DBS sampling, its more widespread use is hampered by several issues, of which the hematocrit effect on DBS-based quantitation remains undoubtedly the most widely discussed one. Previously, we developed a method to derive the approximate hematocrit from a nonvolumetrically applied DBS based on its potassium content. Although this method yielded good results and was straightforward to perform, it was also destructive and required sample preparation. Therefore, we now developed a nondestructive method which allows to predict the hematocrit of a DBS based on its hemoglobin content, measured via noncontact diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The developed method was thoroughly validated. A linear calibration curve was established after log/log transformation. The bias, intraday and interday imprecision of quality controls at three hematocrit levels and at the lower and upper limit of quantitation (0.20 and 0.67, respectively) were less than 11%. In addition, the influence of storage and the volume spotted was evaluated, as well as DBS homogeneity. Application of the method to venous DBSs prepared from whole blood patient samples (n = 233) revealed a good correlation between the actual and the predicted hematocrit. Limits of agreement obtained after Bland and Altman analysis were -0.076 and +0.018. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated good method reproducibility. In conclusion, mere scanning of a DBS suffices to derive its approximate hematocrit, one of the most important variables in DBS analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01321DOI Listing
June 2016
-->