Publications by authors named "Lawrence W Gimple"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Initial arterial pH as a predictor of neurologic outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A propensity-adjusted analysis.

Resuscitation 2019 06 1;139:76-83. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Lower pH after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been associated with worsening neurologic outcome, with <7.2 identified as an "unfavorable resuscitation feature" in consensus treatment algorithms despite conflicting data. This study aimed to describe the relationship between decremental post-resuscitation pH and neurologic outcomes after OHCA.

Methods: Consecutive OHCA patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) at multiple US centers from 2008 to 2017 were evaluated. Poor neurologic outcome at hospital discharge was defined as cerebral performance category ≥3. The exposure was initial arterial pH after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) analyzed in decremental 0.05 thresholds. Potential confounders (demographics, history, resuscitation characteristics, initial studies) were defined a priori and controlled for via ATT-weighting on the inverse propensity score plus direct adjustment for the linear propensity score.

Results: Of 723 patients, 589 (80%) experienced poor neurologic outcome at hospital discharge. After propensity-adjustment with excellent covariate balance, the adjusted odds ratios for poor neurologic outcome by pH threshold were: ≤7.3: 2.0 (1.0-4.0); ≤7.25: 1.9 (1.2-3.1); ≤7.2: 2.1 (1.3-3.3); ≤7.15: 1.9 (1.2-3.1); ≤7.1: 2.4 (1.4-4.1); ≤7.05: 3.1 (1.5-6.3); ≤7.0: 4.5 (1.8-12).

Conclusions: No increased hazard of progressively poor neurologic outcomes was observed in resuscitated OHCA patients treated with TTM until the initial post-ROSC arterial pH was at least ≤7.1. This threshold is more acidic than in current guidelines, suggesting the possibility that post-arrest pH may be utilized presently as an inappropriately-pessimistic prognosticator.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.03.036DOI Listing
June 2019

: A Validated Scoring System for Early Stratification of Neurologic Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Treated With Targeted Temperature Management.

J Am Heart Assoc 2017 May 20;6(5). Epub 2017 May 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) results in significant morbidity and mortality, primarily from neurologic injury. Predicting neurologic outcome early post-OHCA remains difficult in patients receiving targeted temperature management.

Methods And Results: Retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive OHCA patients receiving targeted temperature management (32-34°C) for 24 hours at a tertiary-care center from 2008 to 2012 (development cohort, n=122). The primary outcome was favorable neurologic outcome at hospital discharge, defined as cerebral performance category 1 to 2 (poor 3-5). Patient demographics, pre-OHCA diagnoses, and initial laboratory studies post-resuscitation were compared between favorable and poor neurologic outcomes with multivariable logistic regression used to develop a simple scoring system (). The score ranges 0 to 5 using equally weighted variables: (): coronary artery disease, known pre-OHCA; (): glucose ≥200 mg/dL; (): rhythm of arrest not ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation; (): age >45; (): arterial pH ≤7.0. A validation cohort (n=344) included subsequent patients from the initial site (n=72) and an external quaternary-care health system (n=272) from 2012 to 2014. The c-statistic for predicting neurologic outcome was 0.82 (0.74-0.90, <0.001) in the development cohort and 0.81 (0.76-0.87, <0.001) in the validation cohort. When subdivided by score, similar rates of favorable neurologic outcome were seen in both cohorts, 70% each for low (0-1, n=60), 22% versus 19% for medium (2-3, n=307), and 0% versus 2% for high (4-5, n=99) scores in the development and validation cohorts, respectively.

Conclusions: stratifies neurologic outcomes following OHCA in patients receiving targeted temperature management (32-34°C) using objective data available at hospital presentation, identifying patient subsets with disproportionally favorable ( ≤1) and poor ( ≥4) prognoses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.116.003821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5524053PMC
May 2017

Endurance Training on Congenital Valvular Regurgitation: An Athlete Case Series.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2016 Jan;48(1):16-9

1Department of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; 2Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC; 3Department of Cardiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; and 4Western Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Grand Junction, CO.

Background: Both intense endurance training and valvular regurgitation place a volume load on the right and left ventricles, potentially leading to dilation, but their effects in combination are not well-known.

Purpose: The purpose of this case series is to describe the combined volume load of intense endurance athletic training and regurgitant valvular disease as well as the challenging assessment of each component's cardiovascular effect.

Methods: In this article, the clinical course of three elite endurance athletes with congenital valvular disease were reviewed.

Results: A swimmer with aortic regurgitation, a cyclist with aortic regurgitation, and a cyclist with pulmonary regurgitation were found to have severe dilation of the associated ventricles despite continuing to train at an elite level without symptoms.

Conclusions: Because of the cumulative effects of endurance training and valvular regurgitation, each athlete manifested ventricular dilation out of proportion to their valvular disease and symptoms. Although the effects of congenital valvular disease and athletic remodeling on ventricular dilation have been thoroughly studied individually, their cumulative effect is not well understood. This complicates the assessment of athletes with valvular regurgitation and underscores the need for athlete-specific recommendations for valve replacement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000743DOI Listing
January 2016

Plasma chemokine levels are associated with the presence and extent of angiographic coronary collaterals in chronic ischemic heart disease.

PLoS One 2011 22;6(6):e21174. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

Division of Cardiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America.

Background: In patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD), the presence and extent of spontaneously visible coronary collaterals are powerful determinants of clinical outcome. There is marked heterogeneity in the recruitment of coronary collaterals amongst patients with similar degrees of coronary artery stenoses, but the biological basis of this heterogeneity is not known. Chemokines are potent mediators of vascular remodeling in diverse biological settings. Their role in coronary collateralization has not been investigated. We sought to determine whether plasma levels of angiogenic and angiostatic chemokines are associated with of the presence and extent of coronary collaterals in patients with chronic IHD.

Methodology/principal Findings: We measured plasma concentrations of angiogenic and angiostatic chemokine ligands in 156 consecutive subjects undergoing coronary angiography with at least one ≥90% coronary stenosis and determined the presence and extent of spontaneously visible coronary collaterals using the Rentrop scoring system. Eighty-eight subjects (56%) had evidence of coronary collaterals. In a multivariable regression model, the concentration of the angiogenic ligands CXCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL12, hyperlipidemia, and an occluded artery were associated with the presence of collaterals; conversely, the concentration of the angiostatic ligand CXCL11, interferon-γ, hypertension and diabetes were associated with the absence of collaterals (ROC area 0.91). When analyzed according to extent of collateralization, higher Rentrop scores were significantly associated with increased concentration of the angiogenic ligand CXCL1 (p<0.0001), and decreased concentrations of angiostatic ligands CXCL9 (p<0.0001), CXCL10 (p = 0.002), and CXCL11 (p = 0.0002), and interferon-γ (p = 0.0004).

Conclusions/significance: Plasma chemokine concentrations are associated with the presence and extent of spontaneously visible coronary artery collaterals and may be mechanistically involved in their recruitment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0021174PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3120847PMC
November 2011

Coronary angiography is a better predictor of mortality than noninvasive testing in patients evaluated for renal transplantation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2010 Nov;76(6):795-801

Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare whether coronary angiography or noninvasive imaging more accurately identifies coronary artery disease (CAD) and predicts mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under evaluation for transplantation.

Background: CAD is a leading cause of mortality in patients with ESRD. The optimal method for identifying CAD in ESRD patients evaluated for transplantation remains controversial with a paucity of prognostic data currently available comparing noninvasive methods to coronary angiography.

Methods: The study cohort consisted of 57 patients undergoing both coronary angiography and stress perfusion imaging. Severe CAD was defined by angiography as ≥ 70% stenosis, and by noninvasive testing as ischemia in ≥ 1 zone. Follow-up for all cause mortality was 3.3 years.

Results: On noninvasive imaging, 63% had ischemia. On angiography, 40% had at least one vessel with severe stenoses. Abnormal perfusion was observed in 56% of patients without severe disease angiographically. Noninvasive imaging had poor specificity (24%) and poor positive predictive value (43%) for identifying severe disease. Angiography but not noninvasive imaging predicted survival; 3 year survival was 50% and 73% for patients with and without severe CAD by angiography (p<0.05).

Conclusions: False positive scintigrams limited noninvasive imaging in patients with ESRD. Angiography was a better predictor of mortality compared with noninvasive testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.22656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991378PMC
November 2010

Comparison between angiography and fractional flow reserve versus single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging for determining lesion significance in patients with multivessel coronary disease.

Am J Cardiol 2007 Apr 12;99(7):896-902. Epub 2007 Feb 12.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

We hypothesized that myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) would fail to identify all vascular zones with the potential for myocardial ischemia in patients with multivessel coronary disease (MVD). MPI is based on the concept of relative flow reserve. The ability of these techniques to determine the significance of a particular stenosis in the setting of MVD is questionable. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) can determine the significance of individual stenoses. Thirty-six patients with disease involving 88 arteries underwent angiography, FFR, and MPI. FFR was performed using a pressure wire with hyperemia from intracoronary adenosine. Myocardial perfusion images were analyzed quantitatively and segments assigned to a specific coronary artery. The relation between FFR and perfusion was determined for each vascular zone. Of the 88 vessels, the artery was occluded (n=20) or had an abnormal FFR
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.11.035DOI Listing
April 2007

High left ventricular mass index does not limit the utility of fractional flow reserve for the physiologic assessment of lesion severity.

J Invasive Cardiol 2006 Nov;18(11):544-9

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Objectives: To demonstrate that fractional flow reserve (FFR) of vessels in patients with high left ventricular mass index (LVMI) should be similar to that of matched vessels in patients with normal LVMI.

Background: FFR is a physiologic index of coronary lesion severity. It is not known whether FFR remains useful in the setting of increased LVMI, when microvascular abnormalities may be present.

Methods: LVMI was calculated in 84 patients using contrast left ventriculography after validation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiac risk factors, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), minimal lumen diameter (MLD), percent diameter stenosis (%DS), lesion length and FFR were compared in 22 patients with high LVMI to 62 patients with normal LVMI and angiographically-matched vessels.

Results: LVMI was 126 +/- 21 g/m2 in the high LVMI group and 84 +/- 21 g/m2 in the normal LVMI group. There were no differences in age, LVEF, diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia between groups. Angiographic lesion characteristics were well matched in patients with high versus normal LVMI (MLD 1.3 +/- 0.6 mm vs. 1.3 +/- 0.6 mm, %DS 61 +/- 13% vs. 62 +/- 13%, and lesion length 14.2 +/- 7.0 mm vs. 14.3 +/- 7.0 mm; p = NS for all). Importantly, no difference in FFR was observed (0.79 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.78 +/- 0.16; p = NS) between the groups, and LVMI did not correlate with FFR in a multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: FFR of coronary lesions in patients with high LVMI is no different than FFR of angiographically-matched lesions in patients with normal LVMI, suggesting that high LV mass should not limit the utility of FFR as an index of coronary lesion severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2006

Outcome of patients with acute coronary syndromes and moderate coronary lesions undergoing deferral of revascularization based on fractional flow reserve assessment.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2006 Oct;68(4):544-8

The Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

Objectives: To determine the outcome of consecutive patients with and without acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in whom revascularization was deferred on the basis of fractional flow reserve (FFR).

Background: FFR < 0.75 correlates with ischemia on noninvasive tests and deferral of treatment on the basis of FFR is associated with low event rates in selected populations. Whether these low event rates apply to patients undergoing assessment of moderate stenoses in association with an ACS is not known and is an important clinical question.

Methods: Retrospective analysis and 12 month follow-up of consecutive, moderate (50-70%) de novo coronary lesions assessed with FFR.

Results: Revascularization was deferred in 120 lesions (111 patients) with FFR > or = 0.75. ACS was present in 35 patients (40 lesions). The clinical, angiographic and coronary hemodynamic characteristics of patients with and without ACS were similar. Among the 35 patients with ACS, there were 3 deaths, 1 MI, and 6 target vessel revascularizations (TVRs) (15% of lesions). Among the 76 patients without ACS, there were 5 deaths, 1 MI, and 7 TVR's (9% of lesions).

Conclusions: Deferral of revascularization based on FFR in patients with ACS and moderate coronary stenoses is associated with acceptable and low event rates at 1 year.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20748DOI Listing
October 2006

Prevalence of unfavorable angiographic characteristics for percutaneous intervention in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2006 Sep;68(3):357-62

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with left main coronary disease (LMCD) with unfavorable characteristics for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Published series suggest that LMCD can be treated percutaneously, however, the proportion of patients in whom PCI is an option based on angiographic criteria is unknown.

Methods: In 13,228 consecutive coronary angiograms, 476 (3.6%) patients had < or =60% stenosis of the left main. In 232 patients with unprotected LMCD, the clinical characteristics and angiograms were reviewed with six features chosen as "unfavorable" for PCI: (1) Bifurcation LMCD, (2) occlusion of a major coronary, (3) ejection fraction <30%, (4) occlusion of a dominant RCA, (5) left dominant circulation, and (6) coexisting three-vessel disease. Treatment modality and 1 year mortality were determined.

Results: The mean age was 69 years and 68% were male. Unfavorable characteristics were common with at least one unfavorable characteristic seen in 80%. Bifurcation disease was the most common unfavorable characteristic observed (53%) and coexisting three-vessel disease was seen in 38%. Treatment consisted of CABG in 205 (88%), medical therapy in 24 (10%) and PCI in 3 (1%). Among patients referred for CABG, 1 year survival was 88% with similar rates of survival for those with favorable characteristics (86%) compared to those with at least one unfavorable characteristic (88%).

Conclusions: Most patients with LMCD have at least one unfavorable characteristic for PCI suggesting that PCI may be a technically difficult option for most patients with LMCD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20709DOI Listing
September 2006

Coronary flow reserve abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus who have end-stage renal disease and normal epicardial coronary arteries.

Am Heart J 2004 Jun;147(6):1017-23

Cardiovascular Division, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, Va 22908-0158, USA.

Background: Diabetic nephropathy is associated with increased cardiovascular events. Coronary atherosclerosis is responsible for many of these events, but other mechanisms such as impaired flow reserve may be involved. The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence and mechanism of abnormal coronary velocity reserve (CVR) in patients with diabetes mellitus who have nephropathy and a normal coronary artery.

Methods: Patients undergoing catheterization for clinical purposes were enrolled. CVR was measured with a Doppler ultrasound scanning wire in a normal coronary in 32 patients without diabetes mellitus, 11 patients with diabetes mellitus who did not have renal failure, and 21 patients with diabetes mellitus who had nephropathy. A CVR <2.0 was considered to be abnormal.

Results: Patients with diabetes mellitus who had renal failure had a higher incidence of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The average peak velocity (APV) at baseline was higher in patients with diabetes mellitus who had renal failure. At peak hyperemia, APV increased in all 3 groups, with no difference between groups. The mean CVR for patients without diabetes was 2.8 +/- 0.8 and was not different from that in patients with diabetes mellitus who did not have renal failure (2.7 +/- 0.7), but was lower than that in patients with diabetes mellitus who had renal failure (1.6 +/- 0.5; P < 0.001). Abnormal CVR was observed in 9% of patients without diabetes mellitus, 18% of patients with diabetes mellitus who did not have renal failure, and 57% of patients with diabetes mellitus who had renal failure, and abnormal CVR was caused by an elevation of baseline APV in 66% of these cases. The baseline heart rate and the presence of diabetes mellitus with renal failure were independent predictors of abnormal CVR by multivariable analysis.

Conclusions: Patients with diabetic nephropathy have abnormalities in CVR in the absence of angiographically evident coronary disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2003.07.029DOI Listing
June 2004

Effect of acute myocardial infarction on the utility of fractional flow reserve for the physiologic assessment of the severity of coronary artery narrowing.

Am J Cardiol 2004 May;93(9):1102-6

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been shown to be a useful physiologic index of coronary lesion severity in myocardial beds of patients without prior infarction and in those with remote infarction. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causes myocardial necrosis and microvascular stunning, embolization, and damage. Whether FFR remains a useful index of epicardial flow in the setting of recent myocardial infarction is not established. Cardiac risk factors, serum troponin I, angiographic minimal lumen diameter (MLD), percent diameter stenosis (DS), lesion length, vessel reference diameter, hyperemic central aortic pressure, hyperemic pressure distal to stenosis, and FFR were compared in 43 vessels subtending recent AMI beds to 25 control vessels, matched by lesion length and MLD, in patients without AMI. There were no differences in DS, MLD, lesion length, or reference diameter between AMI and non-AMI groups. Patients with AMI had mean troponin I levels of 91.8 +/- 162 ng/ml. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in patients with than without AMI (55 +/- 9% vs 62 +/- 8%, p <0.05). There were no significant differences in hyperemic central aortic pressure (92 +/- 13 vs 99 +/- 15 mm Hg, p = NS), hyperemic pressure distal to the stenosis (62 +/- 17 vs 66 +/- 19 mm Hg, p = NS), or FFR (0.67 +/- 17 vs 0.68 +/- 17, p = NS) between recent AMI and non-AMI control patients. There was a significant correlation between DS and FFR for both patients with (p <0.001) and without (p = 0.003) infarctions. Thus, FFR and the relation between FFR and DS of lesions subtending AMI was not significantly different from FFR of angiographically matched lesions in patients without AMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.01.035DOI Listing
May 2004

Percutaneous treatment of focal vs. diffuse in-stent restenosis: a prospective randomized comparison of conventional therapies.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2004 Mar;61(3):344-9

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

Few randomized studies compare outcomes for focal vs. diffuse in-stent restenosis (ISR) using conventional treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) for focal vs. diffuse ISR using conventional techniques. One hundred thirteen patients with ISR were prospectively classified as focal (< 10 mm) or diffuse (> 10 mm). Focal ISR was randomized to balloon angioplasty (n = 29) or restenting (n = 29) and diffuse ISR randomized to rotational atherectomy (n = 30) or restenting (n = 25). At 9 months, patients with focal ISR had higher survival free of MACEs than patients with diffuse ISR (86% vs. 63%; P < 0.005), with no difference between techniques. Only the presence of diffuse ISR was an independent predictor of MACE at 9 months. Thus, focal ISR has a low rate of MACE compared to diffuse ISR, which carries a high event rate regardless of treatment employed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.10779DOI Listing
March 2004

Comparison between visual assessment and quantitative angiography versus fractional flow reserve for native coronary narrowings of moderate severity.

Am J Cardiol 2002 Aug;90(3):210-5

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville 22908, USA.

We tested the hypothesis that experienced interventional cardiologists can identify patients with fractional flow reserve (FFR) <0.75 either by visual assessment of the angiogram or by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Estimation of the significance of moderate lesions is difficult. FFR can determine the physiologic significance of a stenosis. Data comparing visual assessment and QCA of moderate lesions with FFR are limited. FFR was measured in 83 moderate lesions defined as having a 40% to 70% stenosis by visual inspection. An FFR <0.75 was considered "significant." Lesions were visually assessed by 3 experienced interventional cardiologists and their significance estimated. QCA was performed. Both analyses were compared with FFR. FFR averaged 0.82 +/- 0.11 and was <0.75 in 15 of 83 lesions (18%). The reviewers' classification was concordant with the FFR in about half the lesions. Concordance between reviewers was poor (Spearman's rho = 0.36). Visual assessment resulted in good sensitivity (80%) and negative predictive value (91%), but poor specificity (47%) and positive predictive value (25%) compared with FFR. By QCA, no patient with stenosis <60% or minimal luminal diameter >1.4 mm had FFR <0.75. QCA did not discriminate the significance of lesions outside of these parameters. Thus, neither visual assessment of an angiogram by experienced interventional cardiologists nor QCA can accurately predict the significance of most moderate narrowings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9149(02)02456-6DOI Listing
August 2002