Publications by authors named "Lawrence Szewczuk"

21 Publications

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Pharmacologic Characterization of JNJ-42226314, [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone, a Reversible, Selective, and Potent Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 03 9;372(3):339-353. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California.

The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation leads to elevation of 2-AG, the most abundant endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors has demonstrated beneficial effects on mood, appetite, pain, and inflammation. Therefore, MAGL inhibitors have the potential to produce therapeutic effects in a vast array of complex human diseases. The present report describes the pharmacologic characterization of [1-(4-fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone (JNJ-42226314), a reversible and highly selective MAGL inhibitor. JNJ-42226314 inhibits MAGL in a competitive mode with respect to the 2-AG substrate. In rodent brain, the compound time- and dose-dependently bound to MAGL, indirectly led to CB1 occupancy by raising 2-AG levels, and raised norepinephrine levels in cortex. In vivo, the compound exhibited antinociceptive efficacy in both the rat complete Freund's adjuvant-induced radiant heat hypersensitivity and chronic constriction injury-induced cold hypersensitivity models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respectively. Though 30 mg/kg induced hippocampal synaptic depression, altered sleep onset, and decreased electroencephalogram gamma power, 3 mg/kg still provided approximately 80% enzyme occupancy, significantly increased 2-AG and norepinephrine levels, and produced neuropathic antinociception without synaptic depression or decreased gamma power. Thus, it is anticipated that the profile exhibited by this compound will allow for precise modulation of 2-AG levels in vivo, supporting potential therapeutic application in several central nervous system disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling activity via inhibition of the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is an appealing strategy in the development of treatments for several disorders, including ones related to mood, pain, and inflammation. [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone is presented in this report to be a novel, potent, selective, and reversible noncovalent MAGL inhibitor that demonstrates dose-dependent enhancement of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol as well as efficacy in models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.119.262139DOI Listing
March 2020

Modular Protein Ligation: A New Paradigm as a Reagent Platform for Pre-Clinical Drug Discovery.

Sci Rep 2019 09 11;9(1):13078. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

GlaxoSmithKline, 1250S Collegeville Rd., Collegeville, Pa, 19426, USA.

Significant resource is spent by drug discovery project teams to generate numerous, yet unique target constructs for the multiple platforms used to drive drug discovery programs including: functional assays, biophysical studies, structural biology, and biochemical high throughput screening campaigns. To improve this process, we developed Modular Protein Ligation (MPL), a combinatorial reagent platform utilizing Expressed Protein Ligation to site-specifically label proteins at the C-terminus with a variety of cysteine-lysine dipeptide conjugates. Historically, such proteins have been chemically labeled non-specifically through surface amino acids. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we first applied MPL to proteins of varying size in different target classes using different recombinant protein expression systems, which were then evaluated in several different downstream assays. A key advantage to the implementation of this paradigm is that one construct can generate multiple final products, significantly streamlining the reagent generation for multiple early drug discovery project teams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49149-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739470PMC
September 2019

Development of a high-content imaging assay for screening compound aggregation.

Anal Biochem 2018 10 21;559:30-33. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Platform of Technology and Science, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S Collegeville Rd, Collegeville, PA, 19426, United States.

Aggregated compounds can promiscuously and nonspecifically associate with proteins resulting in either false inhibition or activation of many different protein target classes. We developed a high-content imaging assay in a 384-well format using fluorescently labeled target proteins and an Operetta cell imager to screen for compound aggregates that interact with target proteins. The high-throughput assay can not only directly detect the interaction between compound aggregators and the target of interest, but also determine the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of a given promiscuous small molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2018.08.019DOI Listing
October 2018

High-Throughput Assessment of Structural Continuity in Biologics.

Anal Chem 2018 02 8;90(4):2970-2975. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Platform Technology and Science, GlaxoSmithKline , 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, United States.

We demonstrate a high-throughput chemoprinting platform that confirms the consistency in the higher-order structure of protein biologics and is sensitive enough to detect single-point mutations. This method addresses the quality and consistency of the tertiary and quaternary structure of biologic drug products, which is arguably the most important, yet rarely examined, parameter. The method described uses specific small-molecule ligands as molecular probes to assess protein structure. Each library of probe molecules provides a "fingerprint" when taken holistically. After proof-of-concept experiments involving enzymes and antibodies, we were able to detect minor conformational perturbations between four 48 kDa protein mutants that only differ by one amino acid residue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b00180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349355PMC
February 2018

Prioritizing multiple therapeutic targets in parallel using automated DNA-encoded library screening.

Nat Commun 2017 07 17;8:16081. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

GlaxoSmithKline, Severo Ochoa 2, Tres Cantos, Madrid 28760, Spain.

The identification and prioritization of chemically tractable therapeutic targets is a significant challenge in the discovery of new medicines. We have developed a novel method that rapidly screens multiple proteins in parallel using DNA-encoded library technology (ELT). Initial efforts were focused on the efficient discovery of antibacterial leads against 119 targets from Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. The success of this effort led to the hypothesis that the relative number of ELT binders alone could be used to assess the ligandability of large sets of proteins. This concept was further explored by screening 42 targets from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Active chemical series for six targets from our initial effort as well as three chemotypes for DHFR from M. tuberculosis are reported. The findings demonstrate that parallel ELT selections can be used to assess ligandability and highlight opportunities for successful lead and tool discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms16081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5520047PMC
July 2017

Discovery of a Novel 2,6-Disubstituted Glucosamine Series of Potent and Selective Hexokinase 2 Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2016 Mar 28;7(3):217-22. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Cancer Metabolism Chemistry; Cancer Metabolism Biology; and Platform Technology & Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline , 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426-0989, United States.

A novel series of potent and selective hexokinase 2 (HK2) inhibitors, 2,6-disubstituted glucosamines, has been identified based on HTS hits, exemplified by compound 1. Inhibitor-bound crystal structures revealed that the HK2 enzyme could adopt an "induced-fit" conformation. The SAR study led to the identification of potent HK2 inhibitors, such as compound 34 with greater than 100-fold selectivity over HK1. Compound 25 inhibits in situ glycolysis in a UM-UC-3 bladder tumor cell line via (13)CNMR measurement of [3-(13)C]lactate produced from [1,6-(13)C2]glucose added to the cell culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4789681PMC
March 2016

Development of a high-throughput screen to detect inhibitors of TRPS1 sumoylation.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2013 Jun;11(5):308-25

Molecular Discovery Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) belongs to the family of ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) that can be reversibly conjugated to target-specific lysines on substrate proteins. Although covalently sumoylated products are readily detectible in gel-based assays, there has been little progress toward the development of robust quantitative sumoylation assay formats for the evaluation of large compound libraries. In an effort to identify inhibitors of ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9)-dependent sumoylation, a high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay was developed, which allows detection of Lys-1201 sumoylation, corresponding to the major site of functional sumoylation within the transcriptional repressor trichorhino-phalangeal syndrome type I protein (TRPS1). A minimal hexapeptide substrate peptide, TMR-VVK₁₂₀₁TEK, was used in this assay format to afford high-throughput screening of the GlaxoSmithKline diversity compound collection. A total of 728 hits were confirmed but no specific noncovalent inhibitors of Ubc9 dependent trans-sumoylation were found. However, several diaminopyrimidine compounds were identified as inhibitors in the assay with IC₅₀ values of 12.5 μM. These were further characterized to be competent substrates which were subject to sumoylation by SUMO-Ubc9 and which were competitive with the sumoylation of the TRPS1 peptide substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/adt.2012.501DOI Listing
June 2013

Co-oxidation by cyclooxygenases.

Curr Protoc Toxicol 2009 ;Chapter 4:Unit4.30

GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA.

Cyclooxygenases (COXs; prostaglandin H(2) synthases) catalyze the bis-dioxygenation of arachidonic acid (AA) to generate prostaglandin (PG) G(2) followed by the peroxidative cleavage of PGG(2) to yield PGH(2), the precursor to all of the vasoactive PGs. These enzymes utilize a Fe-protoporhyrin IX (heme) co-factor to catalyze peroxide bond cleavage, which puts the Fe at a higher oxidation state (Fe(3+) → Fe(5+)). The heme Fe requires two electrons (e(-)) to return to its resting state (Fe(3+)) for the next round of catalysis. Peroxide bond cleavage thus occurs via compound I and compound II, observed for horseradish peroxidase. To return to Fe(3+), electrons come from "co-reductants" and their subsequent oxidation by the enzyme is known as "co-oxidation". The protocols in this unit are aimed at characterizing this side reaction of COXs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471140856.tx0430s42DOI Listing
February 2013

Protein phosphorylation by semisynthesis: from paper to practice.

Methods Enzymol 2009 ;462:1-24

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Deconvolution of specific phosphorylation events can be complicated by the reversibility of modification. Protein semisynthesis with phosphonate analogues offers an attractive approach to functional analysis of signaling pathways. In this technique, N- and C-terminal synthetic peptides containing nonhydrolyzable phosphonates at target residues can be ligated to recombinant proteins of interest. The resultant semisynthetic proteins contain site specific, stoichiometric phosphonate modifications and are completely resistant to phosphatases. Control of stoichiometry, specificity, and reversibility allows for complex signaling systems to be broken down into individual events and discretely examined. This chapter outlines the general methods and considerations for designing and carrying out phosphoprotein semisynthetic projects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(09)62001-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074177PMC
November 2009

Analysis of serotonin N-acetyltransferase regulation in vitro and in live cells using protein semisynthesis.

Biochemistry 2008 Sep 5;47(39):10407-19. Epub 2008 Sep 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Serotonin N-acetyltransferase [arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] is a key circadian rhythm enzyme that drives the nocturnal production of melatonin in the pineal. Prior studies have suggested that its light and diurnal regulation involves phosphorylation on key AANAT Ser and Thr residues which results in 14-3-3zeta recruitment and changes in catalytic activity and protein stability. Here we use protein semisynthesis by expressed protein ligation to systematically explore the effects of single and dual phosphorylation of AANAT on acetyltransferase activity and relative affinity for 14-3-3zeta. AANAT Thr31 phosphorylation on its own can enhance catalytic efficiency up to 7-fold through an interaction with 14-3-3zeta that lowers the substrate K m. This augmented catalytic profile is largely abolished by double phosphorylation at Thr31 and Ser205. A possible basis for this difference is the dual anchoring of doubly phosphorylated AANAT via one 14-3-3zeta heterodimer. We have developed a novel solution phase assay for accurate K D measurements of 14-3-3zeta-AANAT interaction using 14-3-3zeta fluorescently labeled with rhodamine by expressed protein ligation. We have also generated a doubly fluorescently labeled AANAT which can be used to assess the stability of this protein in a live cell, real-time assay by fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured by microscopic imaging. These studies offer new insights into the molecular basis of melatonin regulation and 14-3-3zeta interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi801189dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2682328PMC
September 2008

De novo discovery of serotonin N-acetyltransferase inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2007 Nov 9;50(22):5330-8. Epub 2007 Oct 9.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) is a member of the GCN5 N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily and catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of melatonin; a large daily rhythm in AANAT activity drives the daily rhythm in circulating melatonin. We have used a structure-based computational approach to identify the first druglike and selective inhibitors of AANAT. Approximately 1.2 million compounds were virtually screened by 3D high-throughput docking into the active site of X-ray structures for AANAT, and in total 241 compounds were tested as inhibitors. One compound class, containing a rhodanine scaffold, exhibited low micromolar competitive inhibition against acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and proved to be effective in blocking melatonin production in pineal cells. Compounds from this class are predicted to bind as bisubstrate inhibitors through interactions with the AcCoA and serotonin binding sites. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of using virtual screening to identify small molecules that are selective inhibitors of AANAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm0706463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2531295PMC
November 2007

Structural basis for the inhibition of the LSD1 histone demethylase by the antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine.

Biochemistry 2007 Jul 15;46(27):8058-65. Epub 2007 Jun 15.

Departments of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

Histone modifications, such as acetylation and methylation, are important epigenetic marks that regulate diverse biological processes that use chromatin as the template, including transcription. Dysregulation of histone acetylation and methylation leads to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and contributes to cancer progression. Inhibitors of enzymes that catalyze the addition and removal of these epigenetic marks thus have therapeutic potential for treating cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first discovered histone lysine demethylase and, with the help of its cofactor CoREST, specifically demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3-K4), thus repressing transcription. Because LSD1 belongs to the family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidases, certain inhibitors of monoamine oxidases (MAOs), including the clinically used antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (PCPA; tranylcypromine; Parnate), are also capable of inhibiting LSD1. In this study, we have further measured the kinetic parameters of the inhibition of LSD1 by PCPA and determined the crystal structure of LSD1-CoREST in the presence of PCPA. Our structural and mass spectrometry analyses are consistent with PCPA forming a covalent adduct with FAD in LSD1 that is distinct from the FAD-PCPA adduct of MAO B. The structure also reveals that the phenyl ring of the FAD-PCPA adduct in LSD1 does not form extensive interactions with active-site residues. This study thus provides the basis for designing more potent inhibitors of LSD1 that contain substitutions on the phenyl ring of PCPA to fully engage neighboring residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi700664yDOI Listing
July 2007

Structural basis for the inhibition of the LSD1 histone demethylase by the antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine.

Biochemistry 2007 Jul 15;46(27):8058-65. Epub 2007 Jun 15.

Departments of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

Histone modifications, such as acetylation and methylation, are important epigenetic marks that regulate diverse biological processes that use chromatin as the template, including transcription. Dysregulation of histone acetylation and methylation leads to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and contributes to cancer progression. Inhibitors of enzymes that catalyze the addition and removal of these epigenetic marks thus have therapeutic potential for treating cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first discovered histone lysine demethylase and, with the help of its cofactor CoREST, specifically demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3-K4), thus repressing transcription. Because LSD1 belongs to the family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidases, certain inhibitors of monoamine oxidases (MAOs), including the clinically used antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (PCPA; tranylcypromine; Parnate), are also capable of inhibiting LSD1. In this study, we have further measured the kinetic parameters of the inhibition of LSD1 by PCPA and determined the crystal structure of LSD1-CoREST in the presence of PCPA. Our structural and mass spectrometry analyses are consistent with PCPA forming a covalent adduct with FAD in LSD1 that is distinct from the FAD-PCPA adduct of MAO B. The structure also reveals that the phenyl ring of the FAD-PCPA adduct in LSD1 does not form extensive interactions with active-site residues. This study thus provides the basis for designing more potent inhibitors of LSD1 that contain substitutions on the phenyl ring of PCPA to fully engage neighboring residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi700664yDOI Listing
July 2007

Structural basis for the inhibition of the LSD1 histone demethylase by the antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine.

Biochemistry 2007 Jul 15;46(27):8058-65. Epub 2007 Jun 15.

Departments of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

Histone modifications, such as acetylation and methylation, are important epigenetic marks that regulate diverse biological processes that use chromatin as the template, including transcription. Dysregulation of histone acetylation and methylation leads to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and contributes to cancer progression. Inhibitors of enzymes that catalyze the addition and removal of these epigenetic marks thus have therapeutic potential for treating cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first discovered histone lysine demethylase and, with the help of its cofactor CoREST, specifically demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3-K4), thus repressing transcription. Because LSD1 belongs to the family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidases, certain inhibitors of monoamine oxidases (MAOs), including the clinically used antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (PCPA; tranylcypromine; Parnate), are also capable of inhibiting LSD1. In this study, we have further measured the kinetic parameters of the inhibition of LSD1 by PCPA and determined the crystal structure of LSD1-CoREST in the presence of PCPA. Our structural and mass spectrometry analyses are consistent with PCPA forming a covalent adduct with FAD in LSD1 that is distinct from the FAD-PCPA adduct of MAO B. The structure also reveals that the phenyl ring of the FAD-PCPA adduct in LSD1 does not form extensive interactions with active-site residues. This study thus provides the basis for designing more potent inhibitors of LSD1 that contain substitutions on the phenyl ring of PCPA to fully engage neighboring residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi700664yDOI Listing
July 2007

A mechanism-based inactivator for histone demethylase LSD1.

J Am Chem Soc 2006 Apr;128(14):4536-7

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Histone demethylase LSD1 is a flavin-dependent amine oxidase that catalyzes the oxidative removal of one or two methyl groups from the methyl-lysine-4 side chain of histone H3. We have designed and synthesized two peptide-based inhibitor analogues that block LSD1. One of these inhibitors, compound 1, contains a propargylamine functionality and shows time-dependent inactivation of LSD1. Peptide substrate, diMeK4H3-21, protected LSD1 against inactivation by 1 in a concentration-dependent fashion. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that 1 forms a covalent interaction with FAD. Compound 1 did not detectably inhibit monoamine oxidase B in the concentration range studied. Compound 1 is thus a selective, mechanism-based inactivator of LSD1 and is likely to serve as a useful tool in the study of histone modifications and chromatin remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0602748DOI Listing
April 2006

Formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo) by PAH o-quinones: involvement of reactive oxygen species and copper(II)/copper(I) redox cycling.

Chem Res Toxicol 2005 Jun;18(6):1026-37

Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and procarcinogens that require activation by host metabolism. Metabolic activation of PAHs by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to formation of reactive and redox active o-quinones, which may cause oxidatively generated DNA damage. Spectrophotometric assays showed that NADPH caused PAH o-quinones to enter futile redox cycles, which result in the depletion of excess cofactor. Copper(II) amplified NADPH-dependent redox cycling of the o-quinones. Concurrent with NADPH oxidation, molecular oxygen was consumed, indicating the production of ROS. To determine whether PAH o-quinones can cause 8-oxo-dGuo formation in salmon testis DNA, three prerequisite experimental conditions were satisfied. Quantitative complete enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA was achieved, adventitious oxidation of dGuo was eliminated by the use of chelex and desferal, and basal levels of less than 2.0 8-oxo-dGuo/10(5) dGuo were obtained. The HPLC-ECD analytical method was validated by spiking the DNA with standard 8-oxo-dGuo and demonstrating quantitative recovery. HPLC-ECD analysis revealed that in the presence of NADPH and Cu(II), submicromolar concentrations of PAH o-quinones generated >60.0 8-oxo-dGuo adducts/10(5) dGuo. The rank order of 8-oxo-dGuo generated in isolated DNA was NP-1,2-dione > BA-3,4-dione > 7,12-DMBA-3,4-dione > BP-7,8-dione. The formation of 8-oxo-dGuo by PAH o-quinones was concentration-dependent. It was completely or partially inhibited when catalase, tiron, or a Cu(I) specific chelator, bathocuproine, was added, indicating the requirement for H(2)O(2), O(2)(-), and Cu(I), respectively. Methional, which is a copper-hydroperoxo complex [Cu(I)OOH] scavenger, also suppressed 8-oxo-dGuo formation. By contrast, mannitol, sodium benzoate, and sodium formate, which act as hydroxyl radical scavengers, did not block its formation. Sodium azide, which can act as both a hydroxyl radical and a (1)O(2) scavenger, abolished the formation of 8-oxo-dGuo. These data showed that the production of 8-oxo-dGuo was dependent on Cu(II)/Cu(I) catalyzed redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to produce ROS and that the immediate oxidant was not hydroxyl radical or Cu(I)OOH and that it is more likely (1)O(2), which can produce a 4,8-endoperoxide-dGuo intermediate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx050001aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1314988PMC
June 2005

Viniferin formation by COX-1: evidence for radical intermediates during co-oxidation of resveratrol.

J Nat Prod 2005 Jan;68(1):36-42

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Resveratrol (1) is a polyphenolic natural product, which functions as both a mechanism-based inactivator and a co-reductant of the COX-1 peroxidase. These functions are mediated through different moieties on the molecule, namely, the m-hydroquinone moiety (mechanism-based inactivator) and the phenol moiety (co-reductant). Implicit in this bifunctionality is the notion that resveratrol is oxidized at the peroxidase active site of COX-1, resulting in the formation of two hypothetical radical species. Oxidation of the m-hydroquinone moiety can generate a hypothetical m-semiquinone radical, which is unstabilized and leads to irreversible enzyme inactivation. Oxidation of the phenol moiety can generate a hypothetical phenoxy radical, which is stabilized and leads to co-reduction during peroxidase catalysis. These two radicals have been trapped as the resveratrol dimers, cis-epsilon-viniferin (4, trapped m-semiquinone radical) and trans-delta-viniferin (5, trapped phenoxy radical), and identified by liquid chromatography (LC), absorbance spectroscopy, and LC/tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) methods. Methoxy-resveratrol analogues, in which either the m-hydroquinone or the phenol moiety were protected as methyl ethers, were used to confirm the proposed mechanism of viniferin production by COX-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np049702iDOI Listing
January 2005

Mechanism-based inactivation of COX-1 by red wine m-hydroquinones: a structure-activity relationship study.

J Nat Prod 2004 Nov;67(11):1777-82

Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Resveratrol (1) is a m-hydroquinone found in red wine, which has antiinflammatory, cardiovascular protective (antiplatelet), and cancer chemopreventive properties. It is a potent peroxidase-dependent mechanism-based inactivator of COX-1, a desired target for antiplatelet agents, and has no similar effect on COX-2. Much attention has focused on resveratrol (1) as being the sole agent responsible for the cardioprotective effects associated with red wine consumption (commonly known as the "French paradox"). In this study we show that other red wine constituents, namely, the catechins (2, 3) and epicatechins (4, 5), act as peroxidase mediated mechanism-based inactivators of COX-1 but not of COX-2. Structure-activity relationships identify these agents as being as effective as resveratrol with respect to their ability to specifically inactivate COX-1. We show that resorcinol (6) is the minimum structure necessary for mechanism-based inactivation of COX-1. These findings imply that resveratrol is not the sole agent responsible for the antiplatelet activity of red wine and suggest that all dietary m-hydroquinones should be examined for cardioprotective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np0498410DOI Listing
November 2004

Development of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug analogs and steroid carboxylates selective for human aldo-keto reductase isoforms: potential antineoplastic agents that work independently of cyclooxygenase isozymes.

Mol Pharmacol 2005 Jan 8;67(1):60-8. Epub 2004 Oct 8.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 130C John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6084, USA.

Human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) regulate nuclear receptors by controlling ligand availability. Enzymes implicated in regulating ligand occupancy and trans-activation of the nuclear receptors belong to the AKR1C family (AKR1C1-AKR1C3). Nuclear receptors regulated by AKR1C members include the steroid hormone receptors (androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors) and the orphan peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARgamma). In human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells, ligand access to PPARgamma is regulated by AKR1C3, which diverts PGD(2) metabolism away from J-series prostanoids (Desmond et al., 2003). Inhibition of AKR1C3 by indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), caused PPARgamma-mediated terminal differentiation of the HL-60 cells. To discriminate between antineoplastic effects of NSAIDs that are mediated by either AKR1C or cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes, selective inhibitors are required. We report a structural series of N-phenylanthranilic acid derivatives and steroid carboxylates that selectively inhibit recombinant AKR1C isoforms but do not inhibit recombinant COX-1 or COX-2. The inhibition constants, IC(50), K(I) values, and inhibition patterns were determined for the NSAID analogs and steroid carboxylates against AKR1C and COX isozymes. Lead compounds, 4-chloro-N-phenylanthranilic acid and 4-benzoyl-benzoic acid for the N-phenylanthranilic acid analogs and most steroid carboxylates, exhibited IC(50) values that had greater than 500-fold selectivity for AKR1C isozymes compared with COX-1 and COX-2. Crystallographic and molecular modeling studies showed that the carboxylic acid of the inhibitor ligand was tethered by the catalytic Tyr55-OH(2)(+) and explained why A-ring substituted N-phenylanthranilates inhibited only AKR1C enzymes. These compounds can be used to dissect the role of the AKR1C isozymes in neoplastic diseases and may have cancer chemopreventive roles independent of COX inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.104.006569DOI Listing
January 2005

Resveratrol is a peroxidase-mediated inactivator of COX-1 but not COX-2: a mechanistic approach to the design of COX-1 selective agents.

J Biol Chem 2004 May 12;279(21):22727-37. Epub 2004 Mar 12.

Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a phytoalexin found in grapes that has anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular protective, and cancer chemopreventive properties. It has been shown to target prostaglandin H(2) synthase (COX)-1 and COX-2, which catalyze the first committed step in the synthesis of prostaglandins via sequential cyclooxygenase and peroxidase reactions. Resveratrol discriminates between both COX isoforms. It is a potent inhibitor of both catalytic activities of COX-1, the desired drug target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, but only a weak inhibitor of the peroxidase activity of COX-2, the isoform target for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We have investigated the unique inhibitory properties of resveratrol. We find that it is a potent peroxidase-mediated mechanism-based inactivator of COX-1 only (k(inact) = 0.069 +/- 0.004 s(-1), K(i(inact)) = 1.52 +/- 0.15 microm), with a calculated partition ratio of 22. Inactivation of COX-1 was time- and concentration-dependent, it had an absolute requirement for a peroxide substrate, and it was accompanied by a concomitant oxidation of resveratrol. Resveratrol-inactivated COX-1 was devoid of both the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities, neither of which could be restored upon gel-filtration chromatography. Inactivation of COX-1 by [(3)H]resveratrol was not accompanied by stable covalent modification as evident by both SDS-PAGE and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Structure activity relationships on methoxy-resveratrol analogs showed that the m-hydroquinone moiety was essential for irreversible inactivation of COX-1. We propose that resveratrol inactivates COX-1 by a "hit-and-run" mechanism, and offers a basis for the design of selective COX-1 inactivators that work through a mechanism-based event at the peroxidase active site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M314302200DOI Listing
May 2004