Publications by authors named "Lawrence Goodwin"

5 Publications

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12th GCC Closed Forum: critical reagents; oligonucleotides; CoA; method transfer; HRMS; flow cytometry; regulatory findings; stability and immunogenicity.

Bioanalysis 2019 Jun 19;11(12):1129-1138. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

WuXi Apptec, Plainsboro, NJ 08536, USA.

The 12th GCC Closed Forum was held in Philadelphia, PA, USA, on 9 April 2018. Representatives from international bioanalytical Contract Research Organizations were in attendance in order to discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The issues discussed at the meeting included: critical reagents; oligonucleotides; certificates of analysis; method transfer; high resolution mass spectrometry; flow cytometry; recent regulatory findings and case studies involving stability and nonclinical immunogenicity. Conclusions and consensus from discussions of these topics are included in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0131DOI Listing
June 2019

Recommendations for classification of commercial LBA kits for biomarkers in drug development from the GCC for bioanalysis.

Bioanalysis 2019 Apr 17;11(7):645-653. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

WuXi Apptec, Plainsboro, NJ, USA.

Over the last decade, the use of biomarker data has become integral to drug development. Biomarkers are not only utilized for internal decision-making by sponsors; they are increasingly utilized to make critical decisions for drug safety and efficacy. As the regulatory agencies are routinely making decisions based on biomarker data, there has been significant scrutiny on the validation of biomarker methods. Contract research organizations regularly use commercially available immunoassay kits to validate biomarker methods. However, adaptation of such kits in a regulated environment presents significant challenges and was one of the key topics discussed during the 12th Global Contract Research Organization Council for Bioanalysis (GCC) meeting. This White Paper reports the GCC members' opinion on the challenges facing the industry and the GCC recommendations on the classification of commercial kits that can be a win-win for commercial kit vendors and end users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0072DOI Listing
April 2019

Distributed Drug Discovery, Part 2: global rehearsal of alkylating agents for the synthesis of resin-bound unnatural amino acids and virtual D(3) catalog construction.

J Comb Chem 2009 Jan-Feb;11(1):14-33

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3274, USA.

Distributed Drug Discovery (D(3)) proposes solving large drug discovery problems by breaking them into smaller units for processing at multiple sites. A key component of the synthetic and computational stages of D(3) is the global rehearsal of prospective reagents and their subsequent use in the creation of virtual catalogs of molecules accessible by simple, inexpensive combinatorial chemistry. The first section of this article documents the feasibility of the synthetic component of Distributed Drug Discovery. Twenty-four alkylating agents were rehearsed in the United States, Poland, Russia, and Spain, for their utility in the synthesis of resin-bound unnatural amino acids 1, key intermediates in many combinatorial chemistry procedures. This global reagent rehearsal, coupled to virtual library generation, increases the likelihood that any member of that virtual library can be made. It facilitates the realistic integration of worldwide virtual D(3) catalog computational analysis with synthesis. The second part of this article describes the creation of the first virtual D(3) catalog. It reports the enumeration of 24,416 acylated unnatural amino acids 5, assembled from lists of either rehearsed or well-precedented alkylating and acylating reagents, and describes how the resulting catalog can be freely accessed, searched, and downloaded by the scientific community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cc800184vDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2651687PMC
February 2009

Distributed Drug Discovery, Part 3: using D(3) methodology to synthesize analogs of an anti-melanoma compound.

J Comb Chem 2009 Jan-Feb;11(1):34-43

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3274, USA.

For the successful implementation of Distributed Drug Discovery (D(3)) (outlined in the accompanying Perspective), students, in the course of their educational laboratories, must be able to reproducibly make new, high quality, molecules with potential for biological activity. This article reports the successful achievement of this goal. Using previously rehearsed alkylating agents, students in a second semester organic chemistry laboratory performed a solid-phase combinatorial chemistry experiment in which they made 38 new analogs of the most potent member of a class of antimelanoma compounds. All compounds were made in duplicate, purified by silica gel chromatography, and characterized by NMR and LC/MS. As a continuing part of the Distributed Drug Discovery program, a virtual D(3) catalog based on this work was then enumerated and is made freely available to the global scientific community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cc800185zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2651688PMC
February 2009

Selective reduction of N-oxides to amines: application to drug metabolism.

Drug Metab Dispos 2004 Sep;32(9):966-72

Drug Disposition, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

Phase I oxidative metabolism of nitrogen-containing drug molecules to their corresponding N-oxides is a common occurrence. There are instances where liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectometry techniques are inadequate to distinguish this pathway from other oxidation processes, including C-hydroxylations and other heteroatom oxidations, such as sulfur to sulfoxide. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize an efficient and practical chemical method to selectively convert N-oxides to their corresponding amines suitable for drug metabolism applications. Our results indicated that efficient conversion of N-oxides to amines could be achieved with TiCl(3) and poly(methylhydrosiloxane). Among them, we found TiCl(3) to be a facile and easy-to-use reagent, specifically applicable to drug metabolism. There are a few reports describing the use of TiCl(3) to reduce N-O bonds in drug metabolism studies, but this methodology has not been widely used. Our results indicated that TiCl(3) is nearly as efficient when the reductions were carried out in the presence of biological matrices, including plasma and urine. Finally, we have shown a number of examples where TiCl(3) can be successfully used to selectively reduce N-oxides in the presence of sulfoxides and other labile groups.
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September 2004