Publications by authors named "Lauri M Burroughs"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Standardizing Definitions of Hematopoietic Recovery, Graft Rejection, Graft Failure, Poor Graft Function, and Donor Chimerism in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report on Behalf of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):642-649

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for certain hematologic malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. The field of allo-HCT has witnessed significant advances, including broadening indications for transplantation, availability of alternative donor sources, less toxic preparative regimens, new cell manipulation techniques, and novel GVHD prevention methods, all of which have expanded the applicability of the procedure. These advances have led to clinical practice conundrums when applying traditional definitions of hematopoietic recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, because these may vary based on donor type, cell source, cell dose, primary disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and conditioning intensity, among other variables. To address these contemporary challenges, we surveyed a panel of allo-HCT experts in an attempt to standardize these definitions. We analyzed survey responses from adult and pediatric transplantation physicians separately. Consensus was achieved for definitions of neutrophil and platelet recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, but not for delayed engraftment. Here we highlight the complexities associated with the management of mixed donor chimerism in malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases, which remains an area for future research. We recognize that there are multiple other specific, and at times complex, clinical scenarios for which clinical management must be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Correction: Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated IBD Resolves and Does Not Adversely Impact Survival Following Allogeneic HCT.

J Clin Immunol 2020 Nov;40(8):1211-1213

Division of Stem Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained the missing author, Caridad Martinez. The authors would like to correct the list. We apologize for any inconvenience that this may have caused. The correct author list is shown above.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00852-0DOI Listing
November 2020

A study assessing the feasibility of randomization of pediatric and young adult patients between matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation and immune-suppressive therapy for newly diagnosed severe aplastic anemia: A joint pilot trial of the North American Pediatric Aplastic Anemia Consortium and the Pediatric Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Consortium.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 10 9;67(10):e28444. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Recent data show survival after matched unrelated donor (MUD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is similar to matched sibling procedures for young patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Donor delays, risk of transplant-related mortality (TRM), and concern about chronic graft versus host disease raise questions about whether MUD BMT or immune suppression therapy (IST) should be preferred initial therapy for young patients lacking matched sibling donors.

Procedure: We performed a pilot trial to assess the feasibility of randomizing patients under age 26 with newly diagnosed SAA to receive IST versus MUD BMT. Primary aims assessed the acceptability of randomization and timing of BMT. Secondary aims measured toxicities, response, and survival.

Results: Sixty-seven patients with possible SAA were screened at nine centers. Of 57 with confirmed SAA, 23 underwent randomization and received therapy with a median follow-up of 18 months. Of 12 randomized to BMT, 10 started BMT as initial therapy at a median of 36 days after randomization. One BMT recipient experienced secondary graft failure, requiring a second procedure. Six of 11 randomized to IST responded, whereas five with refractory disease underwent successful salvage BMT. One patient achieving complete response relapsed after discontinuation of immune suppression and died of infection after salvage BMT.

Conclusions: This feasibility study showed that a high percentage of patients underwent randomization and received up-front MUD BMT. Our study lays the groundwork for a larger randomized trial that will define best initial therapy for young patients with SAA who have an available MUD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28444DOI Listing
October 2020

Small-Molecule PAPD5 Inhibitors Restore Telomerase Activity in Patient Stem Cells.

Cell Stem Cell 2020 06 21;26(6):896-909.e8. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Stem Cell Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Initiative in RNA Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Genetic lesions that reduce telomerase activity inhibit stem cell replication and cause a range of incurable diseases, including dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Modalities to restore telomerase in stem cells throughout the body remain unclear. Here, we describe small-molecule PAPD5 inhibitors that demonstrate telomere restoration in vitro, in stem cell models, and in vivo. PAPD5 is a non-canonical polymerase that oligoadenylates and destabilizes telomerase RNA component (TERC). We identified BCH001, a specific PAPD5 inhibitor that restored telomerase activity and telomere length in DC patient induced pluripotent stem cells. When human blood stem cells engineered to carry DC-causing PARN mutations were xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice, oral treatment with a repurposed PAPD5 inhibitor, the dihydroquinolizinone RG7834, rescued TERC 3' end maturation and telomere length. These findings pave the way for developing systemic telomere therapeutics to counteract stem cell exhaustion in DC, PF, and possibly other aging-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.03.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275922PMC
June 2020

Excellent outcomes following hematopoietic cell transplantation for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: a PIDTC report.

Blood 2020 06;135(23):2094-2105

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the WAS gene, leading to thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the primary curative approach, with the goal of correcting the underlying immunodeficiency and thrombocytopenia. HCT outcomes have improved over time, particularly for patients with HLA-matched sibling and unrelated donors. We report the outcomes of 129 patients with WAS who underwent HCT at 29 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers from 2005 through 2015. Median age at HCT was 1.2 years. Most patients (65%) received myeloablative busulfan-based conditioning. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 91%. Superior 5-year OS was observed in patients <5 vs ≥5 years of age at the time of HCT (94% vs 66%; overall P = .0008). OS was excellent regardless of donor type, even in cord blood recipients (90%). Conditioning intensity did not affect OS, but was associated with donor T-cell and myeloid engraftment after HCT. Specifically, patients who received fludarabine/melphalan-based reduced-intensity regimens were more likely to have donor myeloid chimerism <50% early after HCT. In addition, higher platelet counts were observed among recipients who achieved full (>95%) vs low-level (5%-49%) donor myeloid engraftment. In summary, HCT outcomes for WAS have improved since 2005, compared with prior reports. HCT at a younger age continues to be associated with superior outcomes supporting the recommendation for early HCT. High-level donor myeloid engraftment is important for platelet reconstitution after either myeloablative or busulfan-containing reduced intensity conditioning. (This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02064933.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273831PMC
June 2020

HLA-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Nonmalignant Diseases Using Nonmyeloablative Conditioning and Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 28;26(7):1332-1341. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Division of Hematology and Oncology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is often the only curative therapy for patients with nonmalignant diseases; however, many patients do not have an HLA-matched donor. Historically, poor survival has been seen after HLA-haploidentical HCT because of poor immune reconstitution, increased infections, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and graft failure. Encouraging results have been reported using a nonmyeloablative T cell-replete HLA-haploidentical transplant approach in patients with hematologic malignancies. Here we report the outcomes of 23 patients with various nonmalignant diseases using a similar approach. Patients received HLA-haploidentical bone marrow (n = 17) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (n = 6) grafts after conditioning with cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m, and 2 or 4 Gy total body irradiation. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, ± sirolimus. Median patient age at HCT was 10.8 years. Day 100 transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 0%. Two patients died at later time points, 1 from intracranial hemorrhage/disseminated fungal infection in the setting of graft failure and 1 from infection/GVHD. The estimated probabilities of grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD at day 100 and 2-year National Institutes of Health consensus chronic GVHD were 78%, 26%, and 42%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 2-year overall and event-free rates of survival were 91% and 78%, respectively. These results are encouraging and demonstrate favorable disease-specific lineage engraftment with low TRM in patients with nonmalignant diseases using nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by T cell-replete HLA-haploidentical grafts. However, additional strategies are needed for GVHD prevention to make this a viable treatment approach for patients with nonmalignant diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306430PMC
July 2020

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients With Primary Immune Regulatory Disorders (PIRD): A Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) Survey.

Front Immunol 2020 21;11:239. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Immunology, Allergy, and Retrovirology Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital William T. Shearer Center for Human Immunobiology, Houston, TX, United States.

Primary Immune Regulatory Disorders (PIRD) are an expanding group of diseases caused by gene defects in several different immune pathways, such as regulatory T cell function. Patients with PIRD develop clinical manifestations associated with diminished and exaggerated immune responses. Management of these patients is complicated; oftentimes immunosuppressive therapies are insufficient, and patients may require hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for treatment. Analysis of HCT data in PIRD patients have previously focused on a single gene defect. This study surveyed transplanted patients with a phenotypic clinical picture consistent with PIRD treated in 33 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers and European centers. Our data showed that PIRD patients often had immunodeficient and autoimmune features affecting multiple organ systems. Transplantation resulted in resolution of disease manifestations in more than half of the patients with an overall 5-years survival of 67%. This study, the first to encompass disorders across the PIRD spectrum, highlights the need for further research in PIRD management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046837PMC
March 2021

Priorities for Improving Outcomes for Nonmalignant Blood Diseases: A Report from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 05 5;26(5):e94-e100. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Nonmalignant blood diseases such as bone marrow failure disorders, immune dysregulation disorders, and hemoglobinopathies often lead to shortened life spans and poor quality of life. Many of these diseases can be cured with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, but patients are often not offered the procedure because of perceived insufficient efficacy and/or excess toxicity. In 2018, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network convened a task force to identify the most urgently needed yet feasible clinical trials with potential to improve the outcomes for patients with nonmalignant diseases. This report summarizes the task force discussions and specifies the network plans for clinical trial development for nonmalignant blood diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062984PMC
May 2020

Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated IBD Resolves and Does Not Adversely Impact Survival Following Allogeneic HCT.

J Clin Immunol 2019 10 2;39(7):653-667. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking.

Methods: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016.

Results: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT.

Conclusions: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00659-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754755PMC
October 2019

The Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index predicts survival after allogeneic transplant for nonmalignant diseases.

Blood 2019 02 13;133(7):754-762. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Despite improvements, mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for nonmalignant diseases remains a significant problem. We evaluated whether pre-HCT conditions defined by the HCT Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) predict probability of posttransplant survival. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we identified 4083 patients with nonmalignant diseases transplanted between 2007 and 2014. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by multivariable Cox regression models. Increasing HCT-CI scores translated to decreased 2-year OS of 82.7%, 80.3%, 74%, and 55.8% for patients with HCT-CI scores of 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and ≥5, respectively, regardless of conditioning intensity. HCT-CI scores of 1 to 2 did not differ relative to scores of 0 (HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.93-1.34]), but HCT-CI of 3 to 4 and ≥5 posed significantly greater risks of mortality (HR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.09-1.63]; and HR, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.79-2.96], respectively). The effect of HCT-CI differed by disease indication. Patients with acquired aplastic anemia, primary immune deficiencies, and congenital bone marrow failure syndromes with scores ≥3 had increased risk of death after HCT. However, higher HCT-CI scores among hemoglobinopathy patients did not increase mortality risk. In conclusion, this is the largest study to date reporting on patients with nonmalignant diseases demonstrating HCT-CI scores ≥3 that had inferior survival after HCT, except for patients with hemoglobinopathies. Our findings suggest that using the HCT-CI score, in addition to disease-specific factors, could be useful when developing treatment plans for nonmalignant diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-09-876284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376282PMC
February 2019

Novel lineage depletion preserves autologous blood stem cells for gene therapy of Fanconi anemia complementation group A.

Haematologica 2018 11 5;103(11):1806-1814. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

A hallmark of Fanconi anemia is accelerated decline in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CD34 +) leading to bone marrow failure. Long-term treatment requires hematopoietic cell transplantation from an unaffected donor but is associated with potentially severe side-effects. Gene therapy to correct the genetic defect in the patient's own CD34 cells has been limited by low CD34 cell numbers and viability. Here we demonstrate an altered ratio of CD34 to CD34 cells in Fanconi patients relative to healthy donors, with exclusive repopulating ability in only CD34 cells, underscoring a need for novel strategies to preserve limited CD34 cells. To address this need, we developed a clinical protocol to deplete lineage(CD3, CD14, CD16 and CD19) cells from blood and marrow products. This process depletes >90% of lineagecells while retaining ≥60% of the initial CD34cell fraction, reduces total nucleated cells by 1-2 logs, and maintains transduction efficiency and cell viability following gene transfer. Importantly, transduced lineage cell products engrafted equivalently to that of purified CD34 cells from the same donor when xenotransplanted at matched CD34 cell doses. This novel selection strategy has been approved by the regulatory agencies in a gene therapy study for Fanconi anemia patients ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.194571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278989PMC
November 2018

Transplant Conditioning with Treosulfan/Fludarabine with or without Total Body Irradiation: A Randomized Phase II Trial in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 20;24(5):956-963. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.

In this prospective, randomized, phase II "pick the winner" trial we assessed the efficacy of transplant conditioning with treosulfan/fludarabine ± 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) in reducing post-transplant relapse in 100 patients, aged 2 to 70 years (median, 57), with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 51) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 49). Patients received i.v. treosulfan, 14 g/m/day on days -6 to -4 and i.v. fludarabine, 30 mg/m/day on days -6 to -2, alone or combined with 2 Gy TBI (day 0). Donors were related (n = 43) or unrelated (n = 57). When a planned interim analysis showed superior progression-free survival in the TBI arm (P = .04), all subsequent patients received TBI. With a follow-up of 12 to 40 months (median, 20), the 1-year overall survival was 80% for the TBI arm and 69% for the non-TBI arm. The 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 22% and 34%, respectively (P = .06). Among patients with low-risk disease the 1-year relapse incidence was 15% and 31% (P = .20) and for patients with high-risk disease, 26% and 36% (P = .18), respectively. Among MDS patients the 1-year relapse incidence was 27% versus 33% (P = .49) and among AML patients 16% versus 35% (P = .05), respectively. The largest difference was among patients with unfavorable cytogenetics, with 1-year relapse incidences of 31% and 63% (P = .18), respectively. Nonrelapse mortality in this high-risk patient population was 9% at 6 months and did not differ between arms. Thus, treosulfan/fludarabine/low-dose TBI provided effective conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in high-risk patients up to 70 years of age. The addition of TBI had a more profound effect in patients with AML than in those with MDS. High-risk disease features were associated with a lower overall success rate. Further studies are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.12.785DOI Listing
May 2018

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Treosulfan-Based Conditioning for Treatment of Marrow Failure Disorders.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Oct 7;23(10):1669-1677. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Hematology-Oncology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is effective in the treatment of inherited marrow failure disorders and other nonmalignant diseases. Conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens have been associated with high transplant-related mortality, particularly in patients with comorbid conditions. Here we report on 14 patients with marrow failure disorders (Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, n = 3; Diamond Blackfan anemia, n = 4; GATA2 deficiency, n = 2; paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, n = 4; and an undefined marrow failure disorder, n = 1) who underwent HCT on a prospective, phase II, multicenter clinical trial. Patients were given HLA-matched related (n = 2) or unrelated (n = 12) grafts after conditioning with treosulfan (42 g/m), fludarabine (150 mg/m), ± thymoglobulin (n = 11; 6 mg/kg). All patients engrafted. At a median follow-up of 3 years, 13 patients are alive with complete correction of their underlying disease. These results indicate that the combination of treosulfan, fludarabine, and thymoglobulin is effective at establishing donor engraftment with a low toxicity profile and excellent disease-free survival in patients with marrow failure disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605451PMC
October 2017

Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) update.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 08 22;138(2):375-85. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Pediatric Immunology and Pediatrics, Mother and Child Ste-Justine Hospital, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a collaboration of 41 North American centers studying therapy for rare primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDs), including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). An additional 3 European centers have partnered with the PIDTC to study CGD. Natural history protocols of the PIDTC analyze outcomes of treatment for rare PIDs in multicenter longitudinal retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. Since 2009, participating centers have enrolled more than 800 subjects on PIDTC protocols for SCID, and enrollment in the studies on WAS and CGD is underway. Four pilot projects have been funded, and 12 junior investigators have received fellowship awards. Important publications of the consortium describe the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for SCID during 2000-2009, diagnostic criteria for SCID, and the pilot project of newborn screening for SCID in the Navajo Nation. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshops provide an opportunity to strengthen collaborations with junior investigators, patient advocacy groups, and international colleagues. Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, the PIDTC has recently received renewal for another 5 years. Here we review accomplishments of the group, projects underway, highlights of recent workshops, and challenges for the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.01.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4986691PMC
August 2016

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) presenting with neonatal aplastic anemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015 Nov 22;62(11):2047-9. Epub 2015 May 22.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Aplastic anemia in the neonate is rare. We report a case of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) presenting with neonatal aplastic anemia. This report highlights the importance of considering SCID early in the evaluation of neonatal aplastic anemia prior to the development of infectious complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583355PMC
November 2015

Treosulfan-based conditioning and hematopoietic cell transplantation for nonmalignant diseases: a prospective multicenter trial.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Dec 6;20(12):1996-2003. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with nonmalignant diseases and for many is the only known cure. Conventional myeloablative regimens have been associated with unacceptably high early transplant-related mortality (TRM), particularly in patients with comorbid conditions. This prospective multicenter trial was designed to determine the safety and engraftment efficacy of treosulfan-based conditioning in patients with nonmalignant diseases. Thirty-one patients received HLA-matched related (n = 4) or unrelated (n = 27) grafts after conditioning with treosulfan (total dose, 42 g/m(2)), fludarabine (total dose, 150 mg/m(2)), ± thymoglobulin (6 mg/kg; n = 22). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. All patients engrafted. Day-100 TRM was 0%. With a median follow-up of 2 years, the 2-year survival was 90%. Three patients died of GVHD, recurrent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and a surgical complication, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD at day 100 and chronic GVHD at 2 years were 62%, 10%, and 21%, respectively. Patients who received thymoglobulin had a significantly lower incidence of grades III to IV acute GVHD (0% versus 33%; P = .005). These results indicate that the combination of treosulfan, fludarabine, and thymoglobulin is effective at establishing donor engraftment with low toxicity and improved survival in patients with nonmalignant diseases and support the need for future disease-specific clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4324724PMC
December 2014

Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014 Feb 15;133(2):335-47. Epub 2013 Oct 15.

Wiskott-Aldrich Foundation, Smyrna, Ga.

The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease through retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to encourage training of junior investigators, establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues, work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness, and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for primary immunodeficiency diseases. To date, the PIDTC has funded 2 pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans and B-cell reconstitution in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first 2 PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.07.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3960312PMC
February 2014

Success of allogeneic marrow transplantation for children with severe aplastic anaemia.

Br J Haematol 2012 Jul 26;158(1):120-8. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA.

Allogeneic marrow transplantation offers curative therapy for children with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA). We report the outcomes of 148 children with SAA who received human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related marrow grafts between 1971 and 2010. Patients were divided into three groups, reflecting changes in conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens that occurred over time. Patients in Group 1 were conditioned with cyclophosphamide (CY; 200 mg/kg) followed by 'long' (102 d) methotrexate (MTX). Patients in Groups 2 and 3 received CY alone (Group 2) or combined with anti-thymocyte globulin (Group 3) followed by 'short' (days 1, 3, 6, and 11) MTX and ciclosporin (until day 180). With a median follow-up of 25 years, the 5-year survivals were 66%, 95%, and 100% for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (overall P < 0·0001). The 3-year estimates of graft rejection were 22%, 32%, and 7%, respectively. The probabilities of grades III-IV acute and 2-year chronic GVHD were 15%, 0%, and 3%, and 21%, 21%, and 10%, respectively. Advances in preparative and GVHD prophylaxis regimens, and supportive care during the past 40 years have led to improved outcomes for children with SAA. These results confirm the use of allogeneic marrow transplantation for children with SAA who have HLA-matched related donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2012.09130.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3693852PMC
July 2012

Outcomes and duration of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia therapy in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012 Jan;31(1):95-7

Division of Infectious Diseases, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.

This retrospective review of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) evaluated the relationship between duration of therapy to treat PCP and overall survival. We found that 80% of patients receiving only 21 days of antibiotics survived to 12 months beyond hematopoietic cell transplant, whereas only 25% of patients who required longer treatment for PCP survived to stem cell engraftment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31822db772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3244569PMC
January 2012

Stable hematopoietic cell engraftment after low-intensity nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010 Nov;126(5):1000-5

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash 98109-1024, USA.

Background: Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is characterized by severe systemic autoimmunity caused by mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is currently the only viable option for long-term survival, but patients are frequently very ill and may not tolerate traditional myeloablative conditioning regimens.

Objective: Here we present the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation using a low-intensity, nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen in 2 patients with IPEX syndrome and significant pretransplant risk factors.

Methods: Two high-risk patients with IPEX syndrome received HLA-matched related bone marrow or unrelated peripheral blood stem cell grafts following conditioning with 90 mg/m(2) fludarabine and 4 Gy total body irradiation. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine. Immune reconstitution and immune function was evaluated by measurement of donor chimerism, regulatory T-cell numbers, absolute lymphocyte subsets, and T-cell proliferation assays.

Results: Both patients experienced minimal conditioning toxicity and successfully engrafted after hematopoietic cell transplantation. With a follow-up of 4 and 1 years, respectively, patients 1 and 2 have full immune function and normal FOXP3 protein expression.

Conclusion: A low-intensity, nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen can establish stable engraftment and correct the life-threatening immune deficiency and enteropathy of IPEX syndrome despite the presence of comorbidities that preclude conventional hematopoietic cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.05.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2962731PMC
November 2010

Immunologic reconstitution during PEG-ADA therapy in an unusual mosaic ADA deficient patient.

Clin Immunol 2009 Feb 25;130(2):162-74. Epub 2008 Oct 25.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.

We report detailed genetic and immunologic studies in a patient diagnosed with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency and combined immune deficiency at age 5 years. At the time of diagnosis, although all other lymphocyte subsets were depleted, circulating CD8(+) T cells with a terminally differentiated phenotype were abundant and expressed normal ADA activity due to a reversion mutation in a CD8(+) T cell or precursor. Over the first 9 months of replacement therapy with PEG-ADA, the patient steadily accumulated mature naïve CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, as well as CD4(+)/FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells, consistent with restoration of a functional cellular immune system. While CD19(+) naïve B cells also accumulated in response to PEG-ADA therapy, a high proportion of these B cells exhibited an immature surface marker phenotype even after 9 months, and immunization with neoantigen bacteriophage varphiX174 demonstrated a markedly subnormal humoral immune response. Our observations in this single patient have important implications for gene therapy of human ADA deficiency, as they indicate that ADA expression within even a large circulating lymphocyte population may not be sufficient to support adequate immune reconstitution. They also suggest that an immature surface marker phenotype of the peripheral B cell compartment may be a useful surrogate marker for incomplete humoral immune reconstitution during enzyme replacement, and possibly other forms of hematopoietic cell therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2008.08.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2727638PMC
February 2009

Comparison of outcomes of HLA-matched related, unrelated, or HLA-haploidentical related hematopoietic cell transplantation following nonmyeloablative conditioning for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008 Nov;14(11):1279-87

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

We compared the outcome of nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) based on donor cell source. Ninety patients with HL were treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by HCT from HLA-matched related, n=38, unrelated, n=24, or HLA-haploidentical related, n=28 donors. Patients were heavily pretreated with a median of 5 regimens and most patients had failed autologous HCT (92%) and local radiation therapy (83%). With a median follow-up of 25 months, 2-year overall survivals, progression-free survivals (OS)/(PFS), and incidences of relapsed/progressive disease were 53%, 23%, and 56% (HLA-matched related), 58%, 29%, and 63% (unrelated), and 58%, 51%, and 40% (HLA-haploidentical related), respectively. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was significantly lower for HLA-haploidentical related (P=.02) recipients compared to HLA-matched related recipients. There were also significantly decreased risks of relapse for HLA-haploidentical related recipients compared to HLA-matched related (P=.01) and unrelated (P=.03) recipients. The incidences of acute grades III-IV and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) were 16%/50% (HLA-matched related), 8%/63% (unrelated), and 11%/35% (HLA-haploidentical related). These data suggested that salvage allogeneic HCT using nonmyeloablative conditioning provided antitumor activity in patients with advanced HL; however, disease relapse/progression continued to be major problems. Importantly, alternative donor stem cell sources are a viable option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2647369PMC
November 2008
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