Publications by authors named "Laurent Argiro"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

-dependent coordination of mouse cardiac progenitor cell patterning and differentiation.

Elife 2020 08 17;9. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, Marseille Medical Genetics, Marseille, France.

Perturbation of addition of second heart field (SHF) cardiac progenitor cells to the poles of the heart tube results in congenital heart defects (CHD). The transcriptional programs and upstream regulatory events operating in different subpopulations of the SHF remain unclear. Here, we profile the transcriptome and chromatin accessibility of anterior and posterior SHF sub-populations at genome-wide levels and demonstrate that Hoxb1 negatively regulates differentiation in the posterior SHF. Spatial mis-expression of in the anterior SHF results in hypoplastic right ventricle. Activation of in embryonic stem cells arrests cardiac differentiation, whereas -deficient mouse embryos display premature cardiac differentiation. Moreover, ectopic differentiation in the posterior SHF of embryos lacking both and its paralog results in atrioventricular septal defects. Our results show that Hoxb1 plays a key role in patterning cardiac progenitor cells that contribute to both cardiac poles and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462617PMC
August 2020

A severe clinical phenotype of Noonan syndrome with neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the second case worldwide with RAF1 S259Y neomutation.

Genet Res (Camb) 2019 04 29;101:e6. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Aix Marseille Univ,INSERM,MMG,U1251,Marseille Medical Genetics,Marseille,France.

Noonan syndrome and related disorders are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions caused by mutations in genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Noonan syndrome causes multiple congenital anomalies, which are frequently accompanied by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We report here a Tunisian patient with a severe phenotype of Noonan syndrome including neonatal HCM, facial dysmorphism, severe failure to thrive, cutaneous abnormalities, pectus excavatum and severe stunted growth, who died in her eighth month of life. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation in exon 7 of the RAF1 gene: c.776C > A (p.Ser259Tyr). This mutation affects a highly conserved serine residue, a main mediator of Raf-1 inhibition via phosphorylation. To our knowledge the c.776C > A mutation has been previously reported in only one case with prenatally diagnosed Noonan syndrome. Our study further supports the striking correlation of RAF1 mutations with HCM and highlights the clinical severity of Noonan syndrome associated with a RAF1 p.Ser259Tyr mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0016672319000041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045029PMC
April 2019

Low plasma haptoglobin is a risk factor for life-threatening childhood severe malarial anemia and not an exclusive consequence of hemolysis.

Sci Rep 2018 12 3;8(1):17527. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Severe Malarial Anemia (SMA), a life-threatening childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria syndrome requiring urgent blood transfusion, exhibits inflammatory and hemolytic pathology. Differentiating between hypo-haptoglobinemia due to hemolysis or that of genetic origin is key to understand SMA pathogenesis. We hypothesized that while malaria-induced hypo-haptoglobinemia should reverse at recovery, that of genetic etiology should not. We carried-out a case-control study of children living under hyper-endemic holoendemic malaria burden in the sub-Saharan metropolis of Ibadan, Nigeria. We show that hypo-haptoglobinemia is a risk factor for childhood SMA and not solely due to intravascular hemolysis from underlying schizogony. In children presenting with SMA, hypo-haptoglobinemia remains through convalescence to recovery suggesting a genetic cause. We identified a haptoglobin gene variant, rs12162087 (g.-1203G > A, frequency = 0.67), to be associated with plasma haptoglobin levels (p = 8.5 × 10). The Homo-Var:(AA) is associated with high plasma haptoglobin while the reference Homo-Ref:(GG) is associated with hypo-haptoglobinemia (p = 2.3 × 10). The variant is associated with SMA, with the most support for a risk effect for Homo-Ref genotype. Our insights on regulatory haptoglobin genotypes and hypo-haptoglobinemia suggest that haptoglobin screening could be part of risk-assessment algorithms to prevent rapid disease progression towards SMA in regions with no-access to urgent blood transfusion where SMA accounts for high childhood mortality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35944-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277387PMC
December 2018

Exome Sequencing Identifies Two Variants of the Alkylglycerol Monooxygenase Gene as a Cause of Relapses in Visceral Leishmaniasis in Children, in Sudan.

J Infect Dis 2017 07;216(1):22-28

INSERM UMR906, GIMP, Labex ParaFrap, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar, KA) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, characterized by fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. During an outbreak of KA in Babar El Fugara (Sudan), 5.7% of cured patients displayed relapses, with familial clustering in half the cases.

Methods: We performed whole-exome sequencing on 10 relapsing individuals and 11 controls from 5 nuclear families.

Results: Rare homozygous and compound-heterozygous nonsense (c.1213C > T, rs139309795, p.Arg405*) and missense (c.701A > G, rs143439626, p.Lys234Arg) mutations of the alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO) gene were associated with KA relapse in 3 families. Sequencing in additional family members confirmed the segregation of these mutations with relapse and revealed an autosomal dominant mode of transmission. These mutations were detected heterozygous in 2 subjects among 100 unrelated individuals with KA who never relapsed after cure, suggesting incomplete penetrance of AGMO deficiency. AGMO is expressed in hematopoietic cells, and is strongly expressed in the liver. AGMO modulates PAF production by mouse macrophages, suggesting that it may act through the PAF/PAF receptor pathway previously shown to have anti-Leishmania activity.

Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that relapses after a first episode of KA are due to differences in human genetic susceptibility and not to modifications of parasite pathogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix277DOI Listing
July 2017

A Functional IL22 Polymorphism (rs2227473) Is Associated with Predisposition to Childhood Cerebral Malaria.

Sci Rep 2017 01 31;7:41636. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, GIMP, Labex ParaFrap, Marseille, France.

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and may have protective or pathogenic effects, depending on the tissue and disease state. We evaluated whether polymorphisms (n = 46) of IL22 and IL22RA2 were associated with CM in children from Nigeria and Mali. Two SNPs of IL22, rs1012356 (P = 0.016, OR = 2.12) and rs2227476 (P = 0.007, OR = 2.08) were independently associated with CM in a sample of 115 Nigerian children with CM and 160 controls. The association with rs2227476 (P = 0.01) was replicated in 240 nuclear families with one affected child from Mali. SNP rs2227473, in linkage disequilibrium with rs2227476, was also associated with CM in the combined cohort for these two populations, (P = 0.004, OR = 1.55). SNP rs2227473 is located within a putative binding site for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a master regulator of IL-22 production. Individuals carrying the aggravating T allele of rs2227473 produced significantly more IL-22 than those without this allele. Overall, these findings suggest that IL-22 is involved in the pathogenesis of CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5282577PMC
January 2017

The IL17F and IL17RA Genetic Variants Increase Risk of Cerebral Malaria in Two African Populations.

Infect Immun 2016 02 14;84(2):590-7. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Aix-Marseille Université, UMR_S 906, Marseille, France Inserm, U906, Marseille, France.

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum that is partly caused by cytokine-mediated inflammation. It is not known whether interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokines, which regulate inflammation, control the development of CM. To evaluate the involvement of IL-17 cytokines in CM, we analyzed 46 common polymorphisms in IL17A, IL17F, and IL17RA (which encodes the common receptor chain of the members of the IL-17 family) in two independent African populations. A case-control study involving 115 Nigerian children with CM and 160 controls from the community (CC) showed that IL17F reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6913472 (rs6913472) (P = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 3.12), IL17F rs4715291 (P = 0.004; OR = 2.82), IL17RA rs12159217 (P = 0.01; OR = 2.27), and IL17RA rs41396547 (P = 0.026; OR = 3.15) were independently associated with CM. A replication study was performed in 240 nuclear Malian family trios (two parents with one CM child). We replicated the association for 3 SNPs, IL17F rs6913472 (P = 0.03; OR = 1.39), IL17RA rs12159217 (P = 0.01; OR = 1.52), and IL17RA rs41396547 (P = 0.04; OR = 3.50). We also found that one additional SNP, IL17RA rs41433045, in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs41396547, was associated with CM in both Nigeria and Mali (P = 0.002; OR = 4.12 in the combined sample). We excluded the possibility that SNPs outside IL17F and IL17RA, in strong LD with the associated SNPs, could account for the observed associations. Furthermore, the results of a functional study indicated that the aggravating GA genotype of IL17F rs6913472 was associated with lower IL-17F concentrations. Our findings show for the first time that IL17F and IL17RA polymorphisms modulate susceptibility to CM and provide evidence that IL-17F protects against CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00671-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730560PMC
February 2016

Potential Use of Interleukin-10 Blockade as a Therapeutic Strategy in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

J Immunol Res 2015 1;2015:152741. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Immunology, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, 38025-180 Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Interleukin-10 overproduction has been associated with worse prognosis in human cutaneous leishmaniasis, while IFN-γ-dependent responses are associated with parasite killing and host protection. Innovative strategies are needed to overcome therapeutic failure observed in endemic areas. The use of monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy targeting IL-10 cytokine was evaluated here. Partial IL-10 blockade in Leishmania braziliensis whole soluble antigen-stimulated cells from endemic area CL patients with active or healed lesions and asymptomatic controls was evaluated. Overall decrease in IL-10, IL-4, and TNF-α production was observed in all groups of subjects. Only patients with active lesions still produced some levels of TNF-α after anti-IL-10 stimulation in association with Leishmania antigens. Moreover, this strategy showed limited modulatory effects on IFN-γ-dependent chemokine CXCL10 production. Results suggest the potential immunotherapeutic use of partial IL-10 blockade in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/152741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606169PMC
May 2016

IL2RA genetic variants reduce IL-2-dependent responses and aggravate human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

J Immunol 2015 Mar 11;194(6):2664-72. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Aix Marseille Université, Génétique et Immunologie des Maladies Parasitaires, Unité Mixte de Recherche S906, 13385 Marseille, France; INSERM, Unité 906, 13385 Marseille, France;

The outcome of Leishmania infections varies substantially, depending on the host and the parasite strain; infection may be asymptomatic or cause mild or severe skin ulcers (cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL]), limited or disseminated lesions, or lethal visceral disease. We previously reported an association between IL-2R mutations and susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in children infected with Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we evaluated the possible role of IL-2 signaling in human CL. We first showed that the transcripts of several genes of the IL-2 pathway were abundant in skin lesions caused by Leishmania braziliensis. We then carried out a genetic analysis, focusing on major genes of the IL-2 pathway. We used a family-based approach and found that polymorphisms of several genes appeared to be associated with CL in a Brazilian population. Moreover, two polymorphisms of the IL2RA gene were significantly and independently associated with CL. We confirmed this result in a second Brazilian sample (also exposed to L. braziliensis) and in Iranians infected with Leishmania tropica: IL2RA rs10905669 T (Pcombined = 6 × 10(-7)) and IL2RA rs706778 T (Pcombined = 2 × 10(-9)) were associated with greater susceptibility to lesion development. These alleles were also correlated with a poor IFN-γ response and poor FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell activation. Thus, IL-2 plays a crucial role in protection against the cutaneous ulcers caused by Leishmania, and the IL-2 pathway is a potential target for strategies aiming to control Leishmania-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1402047DOI Listing
March 2015

IL-22 and IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) regulate fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C virus and schistosome infections.

Hepatology 2015 Apr 10;61(4):1321-31. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Aix-Marseille Université, UMR_S 906, Marseille, France; Inserm, U906, Marseille, France.

Unlabelled: Interleukin (IL)-22 acts on epithelia, hepatocytes, and pancreatic cells and stimulates innate immunity, tissue protection, and repair. IL-22 may also cause inflammation and abnormal cell proliferation. The binding of IL-22 to its receptor is competed by IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP), which may limit the deleterious effects of IL-22. The role of IL-22 and IL-22BP in chronic liver diseases is unknown. We addressed this question in individuals chronically infected with schistosomes or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We first demonstrate that schistosome eggs stimulate production of IL-22 transcripts and inhibit accumulation of IL22-BP transcripts in schistosome-infected mice, and that schistosome eggs selectively stimulate production of IL-22 in cultures of blood leukocytes from individuals chronically infected with Schistosoma japonicum. High IL-22 levels in cultures correlated with protection against hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. To test further the implication of IL-22/IL-22BP in hepatic disease, we analyzed common genetic variants of IL22RA2, which encodes IL-22BP, and found that the genotypes, AA, GG of rs6570136 (P = 0.003; odds ratio [OR] = 2), and CC, TT of rs2064501 (P = 0.01; OR = 2), were associated with severe fibrosis in Chinese infected with S. japonicum. We confirmed this result in Sudanese (rs6570136 GG [P = 0.0007; OR = 8.2], rs2064501 TT [P = 0.02; OR = 3.1]), and Brazilians (rs6570136 GG [P = 0.003; OR = 26], rs2064501 TC, TT (P = 0.03; OR = 11]) infected with S. mansoni. The aggravating genotypes were associated with high IL22RA2 transcripts levels. Furthermore, these same variants were also associated with HCV-induced fibrosis and cirrhosis (rs6570136 GG, GA [P = 0.007; OR = 1.7], rs2064501 TT, TC (P = 0.004; OR = 2.4]).

Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that IL-22 protects against and IL-22BP aggravates liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in humans with chronic liver infections. Thus, pharmacological modulation of IL-22 BP may be an effective strategy to limit cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.27629DOI Listing
April 2015

Genome-wide association study identifies variants associated with progression of liver fibrosis from HCV infection.

Gastroenterology 2012 Nov 27;143(5):1244-1252.e12. Epub 2012 Jul 27.

Service d'Hépato-gastroentérologie, Hôpital Saint-Joseph, Marseilles, France.

Background & Aims: Polymorphisms in IL28B were shown to affect clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Only a fraction of patients with chronic HCV infection develop liver fibrosis, a process that might also be affected by genetic factors. We performed a 2-stage GWA study of liver fibrosis progression related to HCV infection.

Methods: We studied well-characterized HCV-infected patients of European descent who underwent liver biopsies before treatment. We defined various liver fibrosis phenotypes on the basis of METAVIR scores, with and without taking the duration of HCV infection into account. Our GWA analyses were conducted on a filtered primary cohort of 1161 patients using 780,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We genotyped 96 SNPs with P values <5 × 10(-5) from an independent replication cohort of 962 patients. We then assessed the most interesting replicated SNPs using DNA samples collected from 219 patients who participated in separate GWA studies of HCV clearance.

Results: In the combined cohort of 2342 HCV-infected patients, the SNPs rs16851720 (in the total sample) and rs4374383 (in patients who received blood transfusions) were associated with fibrosis progression (P(combined) = 8.9 × 10(-9) and 1.1 × 10(-9), respectively). The SNP rs16851720 is located within RNF7, which encodes an antioxidant that protects against apoptosis. The SNP rs4374383, together with another replicated SNP, rs9380516 (P(combined) = 5.4 × 10(-7)), were linked to the functionally related genes MERTK and TULP1, which encode factors involved in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages.

Conclusions: Our GWA study identified several susceptibility loci for HCV-induced liver fibrosis; these were linked to genes that regulate apoptosis. Apoptotic control might therefore be involved in liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2012.07.097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756935PMC
November 2012

A single IL28B genotype SNP rs12979860 determination predicts treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis C Genotype 1 virus.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011 Oct;23(10):931-5

Laboratoire Alphabio, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, France.

Background: Recent studies have suggested that host genetics may be useful for predicting drug response and have supported the recommendation that single polynucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL28B should be investigated when treating hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1 infected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single IL-28B genotype SNP rs8099917 or rs12979860 determination is sufficient to predict treatment failure in patients with chronic HCV.

Methods: A total of 198 patients were included; mean (±standard deviation) age was 47±12 years and 140 (71%) were men. One hundred and fifty-six (79%) patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 and 42 (21%) with HCV genotypes 2 or 3. One hundred and eight (55%) patients had sustained virologic response (SVR). Two SNPs in the IL-28B were analyzed (rs8099917 and rs12979860).

Results: A total of 115 (58%) patients had rs8099917 TT genotype and 61 (31%) had rs12979860 CC genotype. Rs8099917 TT and rs12979860 CC genotypes were associated with SVR in HCV genotype 1 patients [odds ratio=2.60 (1.36-5.00), P=0.004 and odds ratio=3.30 (1.58-6.90), P=0.03 respectively]. No association was found between SNPs and SVR in HCV genotype 2 or 3 patients.

Conclusion: This study confirms that SNPs rs8099917 and rs12979860 used alone may be useful for predicting the outcome of HCV treatment. In a rational and cost-effective approach, determination of only one of these two SNPs is sufficient for predicting SVR. Because of the highest predictive SVR associated with rs12979860 CC compared with the rs8099917 TT (respective positive predictive value: 72% vs. 63%, P=ns), rs12979860 determination alone is sufficient for predicting interferon response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0b013e328349d0efDOI Listing
October 2011

Association between a CTGF gene polymorphism and systemic sclerosis in a French population.

J Rheumatol 2010 Feb 23;37(2):351-8. Epub 2009 Dec 23.

INSERM, U906, (Institut Nationale de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale), Laboratoire d'Immunologie et de Génétique des Maladies Parasitaires, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée (UM) Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Nord, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), UM, Marseille, France.

Objective: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a life-threatening autoimmune disease characterized by chronic fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is believed to be a primary mediator of chronic fibrosis. We assessed the possible association between 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the CTGF gene and scleroderma in a French population (registration number 2006/0182).

Methods: We conducted a case-control study with 241 scleroderma patients and 269 controls. Seven SNP were genotyped using the TaqMan system. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. In silico electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were done to assess the effect of the SNP on CTGF gene expression.

Results: The frequency of the rs9399005TT genotype was significantly lower in SSc patients than in controls. This association remained significant after adjustment for gender. An association was detected between the rs9399005 and the diffuse and limited cutaneous forms. Multivariate analysis between SSc patients and controls taking into account all 7 SNP and sex revealed that only sex and the rs9399005 SNP were associated with disease. DNA analysis by EMSA indicated that the T allele bound nuclear factors that were also bound by the C allele. The binding affinity was higher for the T allele. Analysis of the human database and experiments with human hepatocyte cell line indicated the existence of an alternative transcript containing the rs9399005 polymorphism in its 3'UTR region. In silico analysis indicated that this polymorphism may alter the structure of CTGF messenger RNA.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that CTGF gene polymorphisms may contribute to susceptibility to scleroderma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.090290DOI Listing
February 2010

Variants of CTGF are associated with hepatic fibrosis in Chinese, Sudanese, and Brazilians infected with schistosomes.

J Exp Med 2009 Oct 12;206(11):2321-8. Epub 2009 Oct 12.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U906, 13385 Marseille, France.

Abnormal fibrosis occurs during chronic hepatic inflammations and is the principal cause of death in hepatitis C virus and schistosome infections. Hepatic fibrosis (HF) may develop either slowly or rapidly in schistosome-infected subjects. This depends, in part, on a major genetic control exerted by genes of chromosome 6q23. A gene (connective tissue growth factor [CTGF]) is located in that region that encodes a strongly fibrogenic molecule. We show that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9402373 that lies close to CTGF is associated with severe HF (P = 2 x 10(-6); odds ratio [OR] = 2.01; confidence interval of OR [CI] = 1.51-2.7) in two Chinese samples, in Sudanese, and in Brazilians infected with either Schistosoma japonicum or S. mansoni. Furthermore, SNP rs12526196, also located close to CTGF, is independently associated with severe fibrosis (P = 6 x 10(-4); OR = 1.94; CI = 1.32-2.82) in the Chinese and Sudanese subjects. Both variants affect nuclear factor binding and may alter gene transcription or transcript stability. The identified variants may be valuable markers for the prediction of disease progression, and identify a critical step in the development of HF that could be a target for chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20090383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2768853PMC
October 2009

IL-17 and IL-22 are associated with protection against human kala azar caused by Leishmania donovani.

J Clin Invest 2009 Aug 13;119(8):2379-87. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

INSERM, Unité 906, Marseille, France.

IL-17 and IL-22 have been shown to increase protection against certain bacteria and fungal pathogens in experimental models. However, no human studies have demonstrated a crucial role of IL-17 and IL-22 in protection against infections. We show here that Leishmania donovani, which can cause the lethal visceral disease Kala Azar (KA), stimulates the differentiation of Th17 cells, which produce IL-17, IL-22, and IFN-gamma. Analysis of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokine responses by cultured PBMCs from individuals in a cohort of subjects who developed KA or were protected against KA during a severe outbreak showed that IL-17 and IL-22 were strongly and independently associated with protection against KA. Our results suggest that, along with Th1 cytokines, IL-17 and IL-22 play complementary roles in human protection against KA, and that a defect in Th17 induction may increase the risk of KA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI38813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719936PMC
August 2009

Th1/Th2 immune responses are associated with active cutaneous leishmaniasis and clinical cure is associated with strong interferon-gamma production.

Hum Immunol 2009 Jun 20;70(6):383-90. Epub 2009 Jan 20.

Laboratory of Immunology, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

In leishmaniasis, Th1-related cytokines production seems to be crucial for host control of parasite burden and clinical cure. Visceral and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are characterized by negative skin test for parasite antigens and failure to produce Th1 cytokines, whereas tegumentary leishmaniasis is characterized by positive skin test and the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce Th1 cytokines. In this study, specific antibody plasma levels and cytokine production in PBMC culture supernatants were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay in patients with active or cured cutaneous leishmanial lesions and in subjects without disease history living in the same endemic area. Higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were observed in patients with active lesions, whereas cured subjects produced only IFN-gamma at elevated levels. Analysis of specific antibody isotypes correlate with cellular immune response observed in vitro, as the production of IgG1 and IgG3 was higher in patients with active lesions. Our results suggest the presence of a mixed Th1/Th2 response during active disease and that clinical cure is associated with a sustained Th1 response characterized by elevated IFN-gamma levels and down-modulation of IL-4 and IL-10 production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2009.01.007DOI Listing
June 2009

Immunological and genetic evidence for a crucial role of IL-10 in cutaneous lesions in humans infected with Leishmania braziliensis.

J Immunol 2008 May;180(9):6139-48

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U399, Faculty of Medicine, 17 Boulevard Jean Moulin, Marseille cedex 05, France.

In populations exposed to Leishmania braziliensis, certain subjects develop skin ulcers, whereas others are naturally protected against cutaneous leishmaniasis. We have evaluated which cytokines are most crucial in the development of skin lesions. We found that active lesions occur in subjects with polarized Th2 or mixed Th1/Th2 responses, both associated with elevated IL-10 production. IL-10 was strongly associated (p = 0.004, odd ratio (OR) = 6.8, confidence interval = 1.9-25) with lesions, excluding IFN-gamma, IL-12, TNF, IL-13, and IL-4 from the regression model. IL-10 was produced by blood monocytes and CD4(+)CD25(+) T lymphocytes (mostly Foxp3(+)). However, we did not observe any difference between the number of these cells present in the blood of subjects with active lesions and those present in resistant subjects. Genetic analysis of the IL10-819C/T polymorphism, located in the IL10 promoter, showed that the C allele increased the risk of lesions (OR = 2.5 (1.12-5.7), p = 0.003). Functional analysis of these variants showed allele-specific binding of nuclear factors. The IL10-819C/C genotype was associated with higher levels of IL-10 than C/T and T/T genotypes. These observations demonstrate an important role for IL-10 in skin lesions in humans infected with L. braziliensis, and identify circulating monocytes and Tregs as principal sources of IL-10 in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.9.6139DOI Listing
May 2008

A functional promoter variant in IL12B predisposes to cerebral malaria.

Hum Mol Genet 2008 Jul 15;17(14):2190-5. Epub 2008 Apr 15.

INSERM, UMR906, Genetics and Immunology of Parasitic Diseases, Marseille F-13005, France.

The role of the Th1 pathway in the pathogenesis of severe malaria is unclear. We recently reported that a polymorphism with increasing IFNG transcription is associated with protection against cerebral malaria (CM). Interleukin-12 is required for Th1 cell differentiation, which is characterized by the production of interferon-gamma. We investigated 21 markers in IL12-related genes, including IL12A and IL12B encoding the two IL-12 (IL12p70) subunits, IL12p35 and IL12p40. We performed a family-based association study using a total sample set of 240 nuclear families. The IL12Bpro polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to CM. The CTCTAA allele and the GC/CTCTAA genotype are over-transmitted to children with CM (P = 0.0002 and 0.00002, respectively). We estimated the odds ratio to be 2.11 for risk of CM in heterozygous children [(95% confidence interval, 1.49-2.99); P < 0.0001]. Although the CTCTAA allele had a dominant effect on CM susceptibility, this effect is much stronger in heterozygous children, consistent with the functional effects of this allele in a heterozygous form. Heterozygosity for this polymorphism has been associated with reduced expression of the gene encoding IL12p40 and a low level of IL12p70 production. These results, together with the findings from immunological studies of low interferon-gamma and IL-12 levels in CM, support a protective role for the Th1 pathway in CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddn118DOI Listing
July 2008

Genes and environment in susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis.

C R Biol 2006 Nov 22;329(11):863-70. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

Department of Parasitology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khartoum, Sudan.

Kala azar (KA) is a lethal disease caused by Leishmania parasites (Leishmania donovani s.l.) that multiply in large numbers in deep organs such as spleen and liver. The host immunological response to these organisms is complex and experimental studies in animals have detected a large number of genetic loci involved in the control of infection and disease. We report here on a study in a human population of Sudan carried out during an outbreak of KA. The following conclusions are presented: (1) environmental factors that could have affected the distribution of the insect vector, influenced progression of KA in the initial phase of the epidemics - but they became less important later at the peak of transmission, probably after infected phlebotomies had spread to all parts of the village -; (2) Leishmania population during the epidemics was heterogeneous, suggesting a possible parasite evolution during the outbreak; (3) the incidence of KA varied markedly among age groups, families and ethnic groups. Susceptibility to KA was shown to depend on a locus on chromosomes 22q12 and on NRAMP1 on chromosome 2q35; the data also suggested a third locus in the region 2q23-q24. Overall, this study indicates complex interactions between host genes and environment in the spreading of KA in that population. It is also suspected that the large parasite diversity observed in the outbreak has contributed to disease spreading across host genetic barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2006.07.007DOI Listing
November 2006

Improved technique that allows the performance of large-scale SNP genotyping on DNA immobilized by FTA technology.

Infect Genet Evol 2007 Jan 22;7(1):128-32. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

INSERM U399, Immunology and Genetics of Parasitic Diseases, Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Méditerranée, Marseille, France.

FTA technology is a novel method designed to simplify the collection, shipment, archiving and purification of nucleic acids from a wide variety of biological sources. The number of punches that can normally be obtained from a single specimen card are often however, insufficient for the testing of the large numbers of loci required to identify genetic factors that control human susceptibility or resistance to multifactorial diseases. In this study, we propose an improved technique to perform large-scale SNP genotyping. We applied a whole genome amplification method to amplify DNA from buccal cell samples stabilized using FTA technology. The results show that using the improved technique it is possible to perform up to 15,000 genotypes from one buccal cell sample. Furthermore, the procedure is simple. We consider this improved technique to be a promising methods for performing large-scale SNP genotyping because the FTA technology simplifies the collection, shipment, archiving and purification of DNA, while whole genome amplification of FTA card bound DNA produces sufficient material for the determination of thousands of SNP genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2006.06.001DOI Listing
January 2007

Interest of tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308 G/A and interleukin-10 -592 C/A polymorphisms in human African trypanosomiasis.

Infect Genet Evol 2006 Mar;6(2):123-9

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Unité de recherche 010: Santé de la mère et de l'enfant en milieu tropical, BP 1386, CP 18524 Dakar, Sénégal.

This study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL10) promoters and genes are associated with human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). The polymorphisms used in the analysis were TNF(-308G/A), TNF(-238G/A), TNF(-1031T/C), TNF(+488G/A), IL10(-1082G/A) and IL10(-592C/A). A familial case-control sample of 277 individuals (102 cases and 175 parents) and a matched case-control group of 225 subjects (88 cases and 137 unrelated controls) were gathered together in this study. A conditional logistic regression was used to test for association. We carried out this analysis in the overall population and after stratification by time of exposure, age and ethnic group. Our results show that in the overall population, and after stratification by time of exposure, the IL10(-592A) allele is associated with a lower risk of disease, suggesting the possibility of a protective effect. After stratification by time of exposure, individuals homozygous for the SNP located in the TNF(-308) promoter were shown to present a higher risk of developing the disease early after exposure. Our study shows that TNF(-308G/A) and IL10(-592C/A) SNPs are polymorphisms of interest in the investigation of the genetic susceptibility to human African trypanosomiasis. Larger studies are currently underway to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2005.03.002DOI Listing
March 2006

Analysis of the 5q31-q33 locus shows an association between IL13-1055C/T IL-13-591A/G polymorphisms and Schistosoma haematobium infections.

J Immunol 2005 May;174(10):6274-81

Department of Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odonto-Stomatology, and Service of Internal Medicine, National Hospital of Point G, Bamako, Mali.

Millions of humans are exposed to schistosome infections, which cause severe kidney and liver disease and 280,000 deaths annually. Th2-mediated immunity is critical to human defenses against this pathogen and susceptibility to infection is controlled by a major genetic locus that includes IL4, IL5, and IL13 genes. These observations led us to evaluate whether certain polymorphisms in IL4, IL5, or IL13 determine schistosome infection. The study was performed in two Dogon villages where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic. Schistosome infections were evaluated by counting eggs and measuring worm Ags in urine. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by restriction enzyme analysis or by primer extension and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Associations were tested using family-based association tests and logistical regression analysis. The alleles IL13-1055C (p = 0.05) and IL13-591A (p = 0.01) are shown, by family-based association test, to be preferentially transmitted to children with the 10% highest infections. A logistic regression analysis that included IL13-1055 G/G, G/T and T/T genotypes, age, gender, and village of residency, applied to the whole study population, showed that subjects bearing the IL13-1055T/T genotype were on average much less infected than individuals with other genotypes. Previous studies on asthma indicated that the IL13-1055T allele increased gene transcription, which is in agreement with the fact that this cytokine enhances resistance to infection by schistosome in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.10.6274DOI Listing
May 2005

Interleukin-13 in the skin and interferon-gamma in the liver are key players in immune protection in human schistosomiasis.

Immunol Rev 2004 Oct;201:180-90

Immunology and Genetics of Parasitic Diseases, INSERM, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France.

Immunity against schistosomes includes anti-infection immunity, which is mainly active against invading larvae in the skin, and anti-disease immunity, which controls abnormal fibrosis in tissues invaded by schistosome eggs. Anti-infection immunity is T-helper 2 (Th2) cell-dependent and is controlled by a major genetic locus that is located near the Th2 cytokine locus on chromosome 5q31-q33. Mutations in the gene encoding interleukin (IL)-13 that decrease or increase IL-13 production account, at least in part, for that genetic control. In contrast, protection against hepatic fibrosis is dependent on interferon (IFN)-gamma and is controlled by a major genetic locus that is located on 6q23, near the gene encoding the IFN-gamma receptor beta chain. Mutations that modulate IFN-gamma gene transcription are associated with different susceptibility to disease. These data indicate that IL-13 in the skin and IFN-gamma in the liver are key players in protective immunity against schistosomes. These roles relate to the high anti-fibrogenic activities of IFN-gamma and to the unique ability of IL-13 in Th2 priming in the skin and in the mobilization of eosinophils in tissues. The coexistence of strong IFN-gamma and IL-13-mediated immune responses in the same subject may involve the compartmentalization of the anti-schistosome immune response between the skin and the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-2896.2004.00195.xDOI Listing
October 2004

IFN-gamma polymorphisms (IFN-gamma +2109 and IFN-gamma +3810) are associated with severe hepatic fibrosis in human hepatic schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni).

J Immunol 2003 Nov;171(10):5596-601

Immunologie et Génétique des Maladies Parasitaires, Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Faculté de Médecine, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 399, Marseille, France.

Schistosome infection is a major public health concern affecting millions of people living in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and South America. Schistosomes cause mild clinical symptoms in most subjects, whereas a small proportion of individuals presents severe clinical disease (as periportal fibrosis (PPF)) that may lead to death. Severe PPF results from an abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in the periportal spaces due to a chronic inflammation triggered by eggs and schistosome Ags. Extracellular matrix protein production is regulated by a number of cytokines, including IFN-gamma. We have now screened putative polymorphic sites within this gene in a population living in an endemic area for Schistosoma mansoni. Two polymorphisms located in the third intron of the IFN-gamma gene are associated with PPF. The IFN-gamma +2109 A/G polymorphism is associated with a higher risk for developing PPF, whereas the IFN-gamma +3810 G/A polymorphism is associated with less PPF. The polymorphisms result in changes in nuclear protein interactions with the intronic regions of the gene, suggesting that they may modify IFN-gamma mRNA expression. These results are consistent with the results of previous studies. Indeed, PPF is controlled by a major locus located on chromosome 6q22-q23, closely linked to the gene encoding the alpha-chain of the IFN-gamma receptor, and low IFN-gamma producers have been shown to have an increased risk of severe PPF. Together, these observations support the view that IFN-gamma expression and subsequent signal transduction play a critical role in the control of PPF in human hepatic schistosome infection (S. mansoni).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.10.5596DOI Listing
November 2003