Publications by authors named "Laurence S Kaminsky"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene variants that are significantly associated with the interindividual variations in warfarin maintenance dose.

Drug Metab Dispos 2011 Aug 11;39(8):1433-9. Epub 2011 May 11.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is required for drug metabolism by all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any of the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the POR gene and its flanking intergenic sequences correlate with interindividual variations in the warfarin maintenance dose (which is determined partly by rates of warfarin metabolism) in patients undergoing anticoagulation therapy. Warfarin dose and patients' demographic and clinical information were collected from 124 patients, who had attained a stable warfarin dose while receiving treatment at the Stratton VA Medical Center. Genomic DNAs were isolated from blood samples and were genotyped for 15 SNPs (including 10 SNPs on the POR gene). Association analysis was performed on 122 male patients by linear regression. Simple regression analysis revealed that vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) -1639A>G, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, age, and chronic aspirin therapy were significantly associated with warfarin dose. In contrast, multiple regression analysis revealed that, in addition to several known factors contributing to the variations in warfarin maintenance dose (VKORC1 -1639A>G, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 rs2108622, and chronic aspirin therapy), three common POR SNPs (-173C>A, -208C>T, and rs2868177) were also significantly associated with variations in warfarin maintenance dose. These results indicate, for the first time, that three common SNPs in the POR gene may contribute to the interindividual variability in warfarin maintenance dose. Further studies on functional characterization of the POR SNPs identified, including their impact on the in vivo metabolism of additional drugs, are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.111.038836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3141882PMC
August 2011

Investigations of the posttranslational mechanism of arsenite-mediated downregulation of human cytochrome P4501A1 levels: the role of heme oxygenase-1.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2009 May-Jun;23(3):222-32

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Arsenite, an environmental cocontaminant of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diminishes the PAH-mediated upregulation of human CYP1A1, the enzyme that bioactivates PAHs to carcinogenic metabolites. Mechanistically, while transcriptional downregulation contributes to these effects, a role for posttranslational regulation has been implicated but not proven. We hypothesize that arsenite induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes CYP1A1 heme or cellular heme pools, thereby downregulating CYP1A1. Arsenite (5 microM), in HepG2 cells, induced HO-1 mRNA 7.4-fold over the 48 h observation period, and it upregulated HO-1 protein expression. Arsenite decreased the induction of CYP1A1 by a PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BKF), by 50%; and transfection of HepG2 cells with siRNA targeting the human HO-1 gene, reduced the arsenite downregulation of BKF-induced CYP1A1 from 54% to 27%, relative to untransfected cells. Reconstituted HO-1 did not significantly catabolize CYP1A1 heme in vitro. Together these findings demonstrate that a posttranslational mechanism involving decreases in the cellular heme pool by arsenite-induced HO-1 may contribute to arsenite-mediated downregulation of CYP1A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20283DOI Listing
September 2009

Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene in T-47D human breast cancer cells: roles of PAH interactions and PAH metabolites.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008 Feb 5;226(3):213-24. Epub 2007 Sep 5.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

The interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cytochromes P450 (CYP) are complex; PAHs are enzyme inducers, substrates, and inhibitors. In T-47D breast cancer cells, exposure to 0.1 to 1 microM benzo(k)fluoranthene (BKF) induced CYP1A1/1B1-catalyzed 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) metabolism, whereas BKF levels greater than 1 muM inhibited E(2) metabolism. Time course studies showed that induction of CYP1-catalyzed E(2) metabolism persisted after the disappearance of BKF or co-exposed benzo(a)pyrene, suggesting that BKF metabolites retaining Ah receptor agonist activity were responsible for prolonged CYP1 induction. BKF metabolites were shown, through the use of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase reporter assays to induce CYP1A1/1B1 in T-47D cells. Metabolites formed by oxidation at the C-2/C-3 region of BKF had potencies for CYP1 induction exceeding those of BKF, whereas C-8/C-9 oxidative metabolites were somewhat less potent than BKF. The activities of expressed human CYP1A1 and 1B1 with BKF as substrate were investigated by use of HPLC with fluorescence detection, and by GC/MS. The results showed that both enzymes efficiently catalyzed the formation of 3-, 8-, and 9-OHBKF from BKF. These studies indicate that the inductive effects of PAH metabolites as potent CYP1 inducers are likely to be additional important factors in PAH-CYP interactions that affect metabolism and bioactivation of other PAHs, ultimately modulating PAH toxicity and carcinogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.08.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2423327PMC
February 2008

Determination of the role of target tissue metabolism in lung carcinogenesis using conditional cytochrome P450 reductase-null mice.

Cancer Res 2007 Aug;67(16):7825-32

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

Critical to mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and the design of chemopreventive strategies is whether procarcinogen bioactivation in an extrahepatic target tissue (e.g., the lung) is essential for tumor formation. This study aims to develop a mouse model capable of revealing the role of pulmonary microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated metabolic activation in xenobiotic-induced lung cancer. A novel triple transgenic mouse model, with the NADPH-P450 reductase (Cpr) gene deleted in a lung-specific and doxycycline-inducible fashion (lung-Cpr-null), was generated. CPR, the obligate electron donor for microsomal P450 enzymes, is essential for the bioactivation of many procarcinogens. The lung-Cpr-null mouse was studied to resolve whether pulmonary P450 plays a major role in 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung cancer by producing carcinogenic metabolites in the target tissue. A liver-Cpr-null mouse was also studied to test whether hepatic P450 contributes predominantly to systemic clearance of NNK, thereby decreasing NNK-induced lung cancer. The numbers of NNK-induced lung tumors were reduced in the lung-Cpr-null mice but were increased in the liver-Cpr-null mice, relative to wild-type control mice. Decreased lung tumor multiplicity in the lung-Cpr-null mice correlated with reduced lung O6-methylguanine adduct levels, without decreases in NNK bioavailability, consistent with decreased NNK bioactivation in the lung. Moreover, lung tumors in lung-Cpr-null mice were positive for CPR expression, indicating that the tumors did not originate from Cpr-null cells. Thus, we have confirmed the essential role of pulmonary P450-mediated metabolic activation in NNK-induced lung cancer, and our mouse models should be applicable to studies on other procarcinogens that require P450-mediated metabolic activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1006DOI Listing
August 2007

Role of small intestinal cytochromes p450 in the bioavailability of oral nifedipine.

Drug Metab Dispos 2007 Sep 13;35(9):1617-23. Epub 2007 Jun 13.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

To determine the effect of intestinal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes on the bioavailability of oral drugs, we have examined the metabolism of nifedipine, an antihypertensive drug and a model substrate of CYP3A4, in mouse models having deficient expression of the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Initial studies were performed on Cpr-low (CL) mice, which have substantial decreases in Cpr expression in all tissues examined, including the small intestine. In CL mice, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for blood nifedipine after intraperitoneal and oral dosing were 1.8- and 4.0-fold, respectively, higher than in wild-type mice, despite increased expression of multiple P450 enzymes in both liver and intestine. The greater extent of the increase in the AUC value for oral than for intraperitoneal nifedipine suggested that intestinal P450s influence the bioavailability of oral nifedipine, a notion supported by results from further studies on LCN and CL-LCN mice. The LCN mice, which have liver-specific Cpr deletion, had 6.9-fold higher AUC values and 2.2-fold higher C(max) values for blood nifedipine than did wild-type mice after oral nifedipine, consistent with the critical role of hepatic P450s in systemic nifedipine clearance. However, in the CL-LCN mice, which have global decreases in Cpr expression in all tissues examined and Cpr deletion in the liver, AUC and C(max) values for oral nifedipine were, respectively, 2.2- and 1.8-fold higher than in LCN mice, confirming the fact that P450-catalyzed metabolism in the small intestine, the portal-of-entry organ for oral drugs, plays an important role in the first-pass clearance of oral nifedipine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.016543DOI Listing
September 2007

Mechanisms of arsenite-mediated decreases in benzo[k]fluoranthene-induced human cytochrome P4501A1 levels in HepG2 cells.

Drug Metab Dispos 2005 Mar 2;33(3):312-20. Epub 2004 Dec 2.

New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are often environmental cocontaminants that could interact to alter PAH carcinogenicity. The heavy metal, arsenite, and the PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene, were used as prototypes to investigate, in human HepG2 cells, mechanisms whereby the bioactivation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by human CYP1A1 could be diminished by arsenite-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 induction by benzo[k]fluoranthene. To determine whether arsenite down-regulates CYP1A1 transcription, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays and luciferase reporter gene expression assays were used with HepG2 cells treated with benzo[k]fluoranthene and arsenite, separately and as a mixture. Benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM) and arsenite (5 microM) markedly decreased benzo[k]fluoranthene-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA by 45%. Plasmids containing the CYP1A1 promoter region (pHu-1A1-FL) were induced 7.4-fold over vehicle by benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM), whereas arsenite (1, 2.5, or 5 microM) decreased reporter gene expression by 46%, 45%, and 61%, respectively. The plasmid, pHu-1A1-Delta100-FL, lacked xenobiotic response element (XRE) sites at -1061 and -981 and showed greater responsiveness relative to pHu-1A1-FL, by 1.7-fold. Benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM) and arsenite (1, 2.5, or 5 microM) decreased reporter gene expression by 0%, 27%, and 39%, respectively, relative to expression levels produced by benzo[k]fluoranthene alone. Arsenite is stable for at least 48 h in the HepG2 cell medium with respect to its ability to diminish CYP1A1 benzo[k]fluoranthene induction. Arsenite did not affect benzo[k]fluoranthene induction directly through XRE sites, nor did it affect the stability of CYP1A1 mRNA. Thus, arsenite affects the transcriptional regulation of the benzo[k]fluoranthene-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and could diminish PAH carcinogenicity by decreasing bioactivation by CYP1A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.104.002212DOI Listing
March 2005

Gene-environment interaction signatures by quantitative mRNA profiling in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells.

Cancer Res 2004 Sep;64(18):6805-13

Laboratory of Human Toxicology and Molecular Epidemiology, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Exfoliated cytologic specimens from mouth (buccal) epithelium may contain viable cells, permitting assay of gene expression for direct and noninvasive measurement of gene-environment interactions, such as for inhalation (e.g., tobacco smoke) exposures. We determined specific mRNA levels in exfoliated buccal cells collected by cytologic brush, using a recently developed RNA-specific real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR strategy. In a pilot study, metabolic activity of exfoliated buccal cells was verified by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium assay in vitro. Transcriptional activity was observed, after timed in vivo exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke resulted in induction of CYP1B1 in serially collected buccal samples from the one subject examined. For a set of 11 subjects, mRNA expression of nine genes encoding carcinogen- and oxidant-metabolizing enzymes qualitatively detected in buccal cells was then shown to correlate with that in laser-microdissected lung from the same individuals (Chi2 = 52.91, P < 0.001). Finally, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for seven target gene (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, and GSTT1) and three reference gene [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, and 36B4] transcripts were performed on buccal specimens from 42 subjects. In multivariate analyses, gender, tobacco smoke exposure, and other factors were associated with the level of expression of CYP1B1, GSTP1, and other transcripts on a gene-specific basis, but substantial interindividual variability in mRNA expression remained unexplained. Within the power limits of this pilot study, gene expression signature was not clearly predictive of lung cancer case or control status. This noninvasive and quantitative method may be incorporated into high-throughput human applications for probing gene-environment interactions associated with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1771DOI Listing
September 2004

Phase I and II carcinogen metabolism gene expression in human lung tissue and tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2003 Dec;9(16 Pt 1):6002-11

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA.

Purpose: The regulation of carcinogen metabolism machinery may involve proximate tobacco smoke exposure, hormonal and other endogenous coregulatory factors, and an individual's underlying genetic responsiveness. The mRNA and protein expression patterns of known carcinogen metabolism genes encoding the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor Ahr; the cytochromes P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1; glutathione S-transferases GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, and GSTT1; and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase NQO1 were examined.

Experimental Design: Paired tumor and nontumor lung tissue from 45 subjects was subject to a recently devised RNA-specific qualitative reverse transcription-PCR strategy, as well as Western immunoblotting. Tobacco exposure measured by plasma biomarkers nicotine and cotinine, plasma estradiol levels, alpha and beta estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the lung, gender, age, and histological diagnosis were then analyzed using multivariate regression models.

Results: In nontumor lung tissue, multivariate models identified several correlates of mRNA expression: (a) CYP1B1 in females (positively: smoke status, P=0.024; ER-beta expression, P=0.024); (b) GSTT1 in females (positively: cotinine, P=0.007; negatively: age, P=0.001; ER-beta expression, P=0.005) and in males (positively: plasma estradiol, P=0.015; ER-beta expression, P=0.025); and (c) NQO1 in females (positively: smoke status, P=0.002) and in males (positively: ER-beta expression, P=0.001). CYP1A1 (mRNA, 9.1%) and GSTM1 (mRNA, 17.5%) are uncommonly expressed in human lung. Confirmation by Western immunoassayed protein is described. The results in nontumor tissue differed from that in tumor tissue.

Conclusions: Regulation of carcinogen metabolism genes expressed in human lung seems impacted by hormonal and gender factors, as well as ongoing tobacco exposure. Expression differences between tumor and nontumor tissue in this pathway have both susceptibility and therapeutic implications.
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December 2003

The small intestine as a xenobiotic-metabolizing organ.

Drug Metab Dispos 2003 Dec;31(12):1520-5

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.31.12.1520DOI Listing
December 2003

Characterization of mouse small intestinal cytochrome P450 expression.

Drug Metab Dispos 2003 Nov;31(11):1346-51

New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

The expression of biotransformation enzymes in mouse small intestine is poorly characterized, which limits the utility of transgenic or knockout mouse models for first-pass drug metabolism studies. In response, we have systematically examined the composition and inducibility of cytochrome P450 (P450) protein and mRNA in mouse small intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes). RNA-PCR was conducted to confirm the expression and identity of CYP1A1, 1B1, 2B10, 2B19, 2B20, 2C29, 2C38, 2C40, 2E1, 3A11, 3A13, 3A16, 3A25, and 3A44 in the enterocytes of untreated mice, but CYP1A2, 2A4/5, 2A12, 2C37, 2C39, and 2F2 were not detected. The inducibility of CYP2B, 2C, and 3A subfamily forms was determined by real-time quantitative RNA-PCR. All five CYP3A forms were induced, in a range from 1.7- to 4.5-fold, by dexamethasone (DEX). Phenobarbital (PB) induced CYP2B9, CYP2B10, and CYP2B20 mRNAs and suppressed CYP2B19 mRNA levels. PB also induced CYP2C29 and CYP2C40, but not CYP2C38 mRNA. At the protein level, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2B, CYP2C, CYP2E1, and CYP3A were detected in enterocytes from untreated mice by immunoblot analysis. CYP1A1 was inducible by beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), CYP2B and CYP2C by PB, and CYP3A by DEX. CYP2B, 2C, and 3A proteins were all expressed at high levels proximally, and decreased distally. The inducibility of CYP1A1 followed a similar pattern. Intestinal P450 expression was compared between C57BL/6 (B6) and 129/sv (129) mice, strains commonly used in the preparation of transgenic and knockout mouse models. There was no significant strain difference in constitutive levels or induction patterns for CYP2B, 2C, and 3A protein. However, CYP1A1 was induced to a high level by BNF in B6 mice, but was not induced in the 129 mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.31.11.1346DOI Listing
November 2003

Quantitation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 mRNA in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-treated human T-47D and HepG2 cells by a modified bDNA assay using fluorescence detection.

Anal Biochem 2003 Jan;312(2):162-6

New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, PO Box 509, Albany 12201-0509, USA.

The quantitation of mRNA, essential for assessing mechanisms of enzyme regulation, is normally carried out using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An alternative method uses a signal-amplification nucleic acid probe assay, which measures RNA directly by the QuantiGene Expression Kit and incorporates branched DNA technology from Bayer and luminometer-based readings of a chemilumigenic alkaline phosphatase substrate. To broaden the utility of this assay, we investigated substitution of a fluorescent substrate, 2'-(2-benzothiazol)-6'-hydroxybenzothiazole phosphate and a fluorometer, and applied the method to quantitation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 mRNA in human T-47D and HepG2 cells following induction by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A). The fluorescence response increased linearly for 200 min without photobleaching and increased linearly (r2=0.997) up to at least 0.2 microg total RNA. The data revealed that at 0.5 and 1.0 microM inducing agent, the induction of CYP1A1 mRNA in HepG2 cells by DB[a,h]A exceeded that by B[a]P by 18- and 6-fold, respectively. In T-47D cells B[a]P induced CYP1A1 mRNA by 23-fold and CYP1B1 mRNA by 3.9-fold. A B[a]P cocontaminant in the environment, arsenite, did not affect B[a]P-induced levels of CYP1A1 or 1B1 mRNA in these cells. The modified analytical system provides a rapid-throughput, reproducible, and less labor-intensive method than RT-PCR for quantifying cellular mRNA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2697(02)00444-xDOI Listing
January 2003

Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2003 10;43:149-73. Epub 2002 Jan 10.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12201, USA.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in extrahepatic tissues often play a dominant role in target tissue metabolic activation of xenobiotic compounds. They may also determine drug efficacy and influence the tissue burden of foreign chemicals or bioavailability of therapeutic agents. This review focuses on xenobiotic-metabolizing CYPs of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, including the lung, trachea, nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon. Many CYPs are expressed in one or more of these organs, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP2J2, CYP2S1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP4B1. Of particular interest are the preferential expression of certain CYPs in the respiratory tract and the regional differences in CYP expression profile in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Current research activities on the characterization of CYP expression, function, and regulation in these tissues, as well as future research needs, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.43.100901.140251DOI Listing
September 2003

Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in T-47D human breast cancer cells by benzo[a]pyrene is diminished by arsenite.

Drug Metab Dispos 2002 Mar;30(3):262-9

Laboratory of Human Toxicology and Molecular Epidemiology, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals are often environmental cocontaminants, yet there have been relatively few studies of combined effects of PAHs and metals on cytochrome P450 (P450)-catalyzed metabolism. We examined the effects of NaAsO(2) in combination with benzo[a]pyrene (BAP) on CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in T-47D human breast cancer cells by using estrogen metabolism as a probe of their activities. Exposure to BAP caused elevated rates of the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways of estrogen metabolism, indicating induction of both CYP1A1, an estradiol 2-hydroxylase, and CYP1B1, an estradiol 4-hydroxylase. BAP-induced metabolism peaked 9 to 16 h after exposure and returned to near-basal levels by 48 h. Concentration-response studies showed maximal induction of the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways at 3 microM BAP; higher levels caused reduced rates of metabolism due to inhibition of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. NaAsO(2) caused pronounced decreases in the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by 3 microM BAP because cotreatment with 10 microM NaAsO(2) inhibited the rates of the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways by 86 and 92%, respectively. Western immunoblots showed diminished levels of BAP-induced CYP1A1 by coexposure to NaAsO(2). The levels of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNAs induced by BAP were not significantly affected by coexposure to NaAsO(2); however, heme oxygenase 1 mRNA levels were markedly induced by coexposure to BAP and NaAsO(2). These results indicate a post-transcriptional inhibitory effect of arsenite on the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in T-47D cells, possibly resulting from reduced heme availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.30.3.262DOI Listing
March 2002