Publications by authors named "Laurence Gutierrez"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Physiological role of endothelin-1 in flow-mediated vasodilatation in humans and impact of cardiovascular risk factors.

J Hypertens 2017 06;35(6):1204-1212

aDepartment of Pharmacology, Rouen University HospitalbInstitut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1096cInstitute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Normandy University, University of RouendCentre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC)-INSERM 1404, Rouen University HospitaleEquipe d'Accueil (EA) 4651, Rouen, France.

Objectives: The current study addressed the hypothesis that the local decrease in endothelin-1 (ET-1) bioavailability during sustained flow increases contributes to endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of conduit arteries and is altered in presence of cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods And Results: In nine young healthy individuals, the decrease in local ET-1 plasma levels and radial artery FMD in response to hand skin heating (from 34 to 44 °C) was not affected by endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blockade, achieved using the brachial infusion of BQ-123 (100 nmol/min per l of forearm), as compared with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) infusion. In contrast, endothelin type B (ETB) receptor blockade with BQ-788 (10 nmol/min per l) suppressed the decrease in plasma ET-1 during heating and reduced FMD, without altering nitric oxide release. The coinfusion of BQ-123 did not affect the inhibitory effect of ETB receptor blockade on the decrease in ET-1 plasma levels during heating but prevented the reduction in FMD. Basal radial artery parameters, systemic hemodynamics, and endothelium-independent dilatation to glyceryl trinitrate were not modified by ETA and/or ETB blockade. In a general population of 40 participants without treatment or major cardiovascular diseases, including the nine healthy individuals, the reduction in endothelin-1 level during heating was correlated with FMD (r = -0.55, P < 0.001) and decreased with increased age (r = 0.49, P = 0.001), mean arterial blood pressure (r = 0.48, P = 0.002), and total cholesterol level (r = 0.37, P = 0.024).

Conclusion: The uptake of endothelin-1 by ETB receptors contributes to conduit artery FMD, preventing its vasoconstrictor action mediated by ETA receptors. The alteration of this mechanism by cardiovascular risk factors may contribute to endothelial dysfunction.
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June 2017

Impaired role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter during essential hypertension.

Hypertension 2012 Dec 22;60(6):1415-21. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Departments of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

In young healthy subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesized by endothelial cytochrome P450 epoxygenases maintain basal conduit artery diameter during altered NO availability. Whether this compensatory mechanism is effective during essential hypertension is unknown. Radial artery diameter, blood flow, and mean wall shear stress were determined in 14 nontreated essential hypertensive patients and 14 normotensive control subjects during 8 minutes of brachial infusion for inhibitors of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (fluconazole, 0.4 µmol/min) and NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, 8 µmol/min) alone and in combination. In controls, the radial artery diameter was reduced by fluconazole (-0.034 ± 0.012 mm) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.037 ± 0.010 mm) and to a larger extent by their combination (-0.137 ± 0.011 mm), demonstrating a synergic effect. In contrast, the radial diameter in hypertensive patients was not affected by fluconazole (0.010 ± 0.014 mm) but was reduced by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.091 ± 0.008 mm) to a larger extent than in controls. In parallel, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine decreased local plasma nitrite to a lesser extent in hypertensive patients (-14 ± 5 nmol/L) than in controls (-50 ± 10 nmol/L). Moreover, the addition of fluconazole to N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine did not further decrease radial diameter in patients (-0.086 ± 0.011 mm). Accordingly, fluconazole significantly decreased local epoxyeicosatrienoic acid plasma level in controls (-2.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL) but not in patients (-0.9 ± 0.4 ng/mL). Inhibitors effects on blood flow and endothelium-independent dilatation to sodium nitroprusside were similar between groups. These results show that, in contrast to normotensive subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids did not contribute to the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter and did not compensate for altered NO availability to maintain this diameter in essential hypertensive patients.
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December 2012

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contribute with altered nitric oxide and endothelin-1 pathways to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.

Circulation 2012 Mar;125(10):1266-75

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, France.

Background: We sought to clarify, using functional and biological approaches, the role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species balance, and endothelin-1 in conduit artery endothelial dysfunction during essential hypertension.

Methods And Results: Radial artery diameter and mean wall shear stress were determined in 28 untreated patients with essential hypertension and 30 normotensive control subjects during endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation induced by hand skin heating. The role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and NO was assessed with the brachial infusion of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (fluconazole) and NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine [L-NMMA]). Compared with controls, hypertensive patients exhibited a decreased flow-mediated dilatation in response to postischemic hyperemia as well as to heating, as shown by the lesser slope of their diameter-shear stress relationship. In controls, heating-induced flow-mediated dilatation was reduced by fluconazole, L-NMMA, and, to a larger extent, by L-NMMA+fluconazole. In patients, flow-mediated dilatation was not affected by fluconazole and was reduced by L-NMMA and L-NMMA+fluconazole to a lesser extent than in controls. Furthermore, local plasma epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased during heating in controls (an effect diminished by fluconazole) but not in patients. Plasma nitrite, an indicator of NO availability, increased during heating in controls (an effect abolished by L-NMMA) and, to a lesser extent, in patients, whereas, inversely, reactive oxygen species increased more in patients (an effect diminished by L-NMMA). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased during heating in controls but not in patients.

Conclusions: These results show that an impaired role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contributes, together with an alteration in NO/reactive oxygen species balance and endothelin-1 pathway, to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.

Clinical Trial Registration: Unique identifier: RCB2007-A001-10-53.
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March 2012

Crucial role of NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in human sustained conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation.

Hypertension 2006 Dec 30;48(6):1088-94. Epub 2006 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U644, Institut Fédératif de Recherche Multidisciplinaire sur les Peptides 23, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire-Hopitaux de Rouen, Rouen, France.

Whether NO is involved or not in sustained conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation in humans remains unclear. Moreover, the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), synthesized by cytochrome epoxygenases and acting through calcium-activated potassium channels, and its relationship with NO during flow-mediated dilatation have never been investigated previously. In 12 healthy subjects we measured radial artery diameter (echotracking) and blood flow (Doppler) during flow-mediated dilatation induced by gradual distal hand skin heating (34 to 44 degrees C), during the local infusion of saline and inhibitors of NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine [l-NMMA]: 8 to 20 micromol/min per liter), calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium chloride: 9 micromol/min per liter), and cytochrome epoxygenases (fluconazole: 0.4 to 1.6 micromol/min per liter), alone and in combination. Mean wall shear stress, the flow-mediated dilatation stimulus, was calculated at each level of flow, and the diameter-wall shear stress relationship was constructed. During heating, compared with saline, the diameter-shear stress relationship was shifted downward by l-NMMA, tetraethylammonium, fluconazole, and, in a more pronounced manner, by the combinations of l-NMMA with tetraethylammonium or with fluconazole. Therefore, maximal radial artery flow-mediated dilatation, compared with saline (0.62+/-0.03 mm), was decreased under our experimental conditions by l-NMMA (-39+/-4%), tetraethylammonium chloride (-14+/-4%), fluconazole (-18+/-6%), and to a greater extent, by the combinations of l-NMMA with tetraethylammonium (-64+/-4%) or with fluconazole (-71+/-3%). This study demonstrates that NO and a cytochrome-related EDHF are involved in peripheral conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation in humans during sustained flow conditions. Moreover, the synergistic effects of the inhibitors strongly suggest a functional interaction between NO and EDHF pathways.
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December 2006