Publications by authors named "Laurence Geny"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification and analysis of new α- and β-hydroxy ketones related to the formation of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione in musts and red wines.

Food Chem 2020 Feb 5;305:125486. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Université de Bordeaux, Unité de recherche OEnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, 33882 Villenave d'Ornon cedex, France; Seguin Moreau Cooperage, ZI Merpins, 16103 Cognac, France.

The formation of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (MND) during red wine aging can contribute to the premature evolution of aroma, characterized by the loss of fresh fruit and development of dried fruit flavors. The identification of two new hydroxy ketones, 2-hydroxy-3-methylnonan-4-one (syn- and anti-ketol diastereoisomers) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (HMND), prompted the investigation of the precursors and pathways through which MND is produced and evolves. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method was optimized for their quantitation in numerous must and wine samples, providing insight into the evolution of MND, HMND, and ketols through alcoholic fermentation and wine aging. Alcoholic fermentation resulted in a significant decrease in MND and HMND and the simultaneous appearance of ketol diastereoisomers. The analysis of 167 dry red wines revealed significant increases in MND and anti-ketol contents through aging and a significant positive correlation between MND and anti-ketols. Additional experiments demonstrated that ketols are precursors to MND during red wine oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125486DOI Listing
February 2020

Tartaric acid pathways in Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Ugni blanc): a comparative study of two vintages with contrasted climatic conditions.

BMC Plant Biol 2016 06 28;16(1):144. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Université de Bordeaux, EA 4577, Unité de recherche œnologie, France.

Background: The acid component of grape berries, originating in the metabolism of malate and tartrate, the latter being less well-known than the former, is a key factor at play in the microbiological stability of wines destined for distillation. Grape acidity is increasingly affected by climate changes. The ability to compare two vintages with contrasted climatic conditions may contribute to a global understanding of the regulation of acid metabolism and the future consequences for berry composition.

Results: The results of the analyses (molecular, protein, enzymatic) of tartrate biosynthesis pathways were compared with the developmental accumulation of tartrate in Ugni blanc grape berries, from floral bud to maturity. The existence of two distinct steps during this pathway was confirmed: one prior to ascorbate, with phases of VvGME, VvVTC2, VvVTC4, VvL-GalDH, VvGLDH gene expression and abundant protein, different for each vintage; the other downstream of ascorbate, leading to the synthesis of tartrate with maximum VvL-IdnDH genetic and protein expression towards the beginning of the growth process, and in correlation with enzyme activity regardless of the vintage.

Conclusions: Overall results suggest that the two steps of this pathway do not appear to be regulated in the same way and could both be activated very early on during berry development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0833-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924324PMC
June 2016

Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

J Agric Food Chem 2014 Apr 25;62(13):2925-34. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin , EA 4577, Unité de recherche œnologie, France.

Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf404804dDOI Listing
April 2014

Impact of foliar symptoms of "Esca proper" on proteins related to defense and oxidative stress of grape skins during ripening.

Proteomics 2013 Jan;13(1):108-18

Unité de recherche OENOLOGIE, Univ. Bordeaux, ISVV, EA 4577, Villenave d'Ornon, France.

Esca is one of the major diseases affecting vineyards with direct impact on product yield; nevertheless, scientific studies concerning its impact on grape quality are scarce. As an attempt to better understand the mechanisms behind "Esca proper" development in grapes, this work focused on the identification of proteins whose expression is altered by the disease. 2-DEs were performed on protein extracts from grape skins at different stages of maturity for two consecutive vintages. Grapes were collected in 2009 and in 2010 from plants that did not present signs of infection by Esca proper since the 2004 vintage and from plants that presented cast leaf symptoms at least once since 2004. For the first time, 13 proteins were shown to be influenced by Esca proper during the ripening process. Extensive bioinformatics analysis allowed the grouping of proteins involved in (i) stress tolerance and defense response, (ii) oxidative phosphorylation, (iii) oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, and (iv) oxidation-reduction processes in chloroplasts. Of these 13 proteins, cysteine synthase is the only one implicated in a metabolic pathway of oenological interest. This study shows how foliar symptoms of Esca proper may impact stress-related pathways in grapes, which are characterized by modifications in the chain of oxidative phosphorylation and redox scavenging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201200194DOI Listing
January 2013

Proteomic analysis of the effects of ABA treatments on ripening Vitis vinifera berries.

J Exp Bot 2010 May 13;61(9):2447-58. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Università di Torino, Dipartimento Colture arboree, via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy.

The control of ripening of the non-climacteric grapevine fruit is still a matter of debate, but several lines of evidence point to an important role for the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The effects of ABA treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon berries before and at véraison were studied using a 2-DE proteomic approach. Proteins from whole deseeded berries (before véraison) and berry flesh and skin (at véraison) treated with 0.76 mM ABA and collected 24 h after treatment were separated and analysed. A total of 60 protein spots showed significant variations between treated and control berries, and 40 proteins, mainly related to general metabolism and cell defence, were identified by LC MS/MS. Our results show that ABA acts mainly through the regulation of mostly the same proteins which are involved in the ripening process, and that several of these changes share common elements with the ABA-induced responses in vegetative tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877898PMC
May 2010

Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase gene expression and activity in flowers, young berries and skins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon during development.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2009 Apr 16;47(4):282-90. Epub 2008 Dec 16.

Université de Bordeaux, UMR 1219 Oenologie, INRA, ISVV, 210 Chemin de Leysotte, CS 58008, 33 140 Villenave D'Ornon, France.

Proanthocyanidins, or condensed tannins, are crucial polyphenolic compounds for grape and wine quality. Recently, significant advances were achieved in understanding the biosynthesis of their main subunits: (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, produced by catalysis of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), respectively. Expression studies had been published but no data were available on enzyme activity. In our work, we devised assays to measure LAR and ANR activity and determine their development throughout the growth of flowers, young berries, and skins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon. We also investigated the accumulation of compounds in these tissues and focused on the expression of both the structural genes and the transcription factors involved in regulating them: VvMYB5a and VvMYBPA1. Biosynthetic genes were expressed early and LAR and ANR were already active during flowering and at the beginning of berry growth, as well as during colour-change in skins. The profiles we determined correlated with total tannin, catechin, and epicatechin concentrations. The involvement of VvMYB5a and VvMYBPA1 was confirmed and specific expression patterns were also established for VvLAR transcripts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.12.004DOI Listing
April 2009

Pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase in the developing grape skin.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2008 Jul 22;46(7):638-46. Epub 2008 Apr 22.

UMR 1219 OEnologie, Université V. Ségalen Bordeaux 2, INRA, ISVV, 351, Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex, France.

Ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry immediately precedes harvesting and the evolution of the skin tissue is important as it contains the key compounds for wine quality. Grape softening is thought to result from extensive cell wall modifications that occur during ripening. These modifications result from the activity of different cell wall-modifying enzymes. Two of the most significant pectin-degrading enzymes are pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) and polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15). In this work, the activities of both enzymes were monitored in skin tissue throughout berry development. Pectin methylesterase activity was present before the onset of veraison and increased during skin maturation. No polygalacturonase activity could be detected. The accumulation of mRNA encoding a pectin methylesterase and two polygalacturonase isoforms was examined using RT-PCR. Transcripts for pectin methylesterase were present in all stages analyzed with a maximal accumulation at the end of color change. Accumulation of VvPG1 transcript was closely correlated with berry softening, and expression of this gene was markedly increased during the color change. VvPG2 mRNA accumulation began before veraison and was low during skin ripening. A phylogenic analysis showed that this gene is classified in a different group than VvPG1. These findings suggest that both genes are associated with different mechanisms during skin development. VvPG1, in particular, is most likely to play a role in skin softening and VvPG2 in triggering the ripening process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.04.008DOI Listing
July 2008

Proteome analysis of grape skins during ripening.

J Exp Bot 2007 10;58(7):1851-62. Epub 2007 Apr 10.

UMR 1219, Faculté d' OEnologie-ISVV, Université V. Ségalen Bordeaux 2, 351 Cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence, France.

The characterization of proteins isolated from skin tissue is apparently an essential parameter for understanding grape ripening as this tissue contains the key compounds for wine quality. It has been particularly difficult to extract proteins from skins for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and, therefore, a protocol for this purpose has been adapted. The focus was on the evolution of the proteome profile of grape skin during maturation. Proteome maps obtained at three stages of ripening were compared to assess the extent to which protein distribution differs in grape skin during ripening. The comparative analysis shows that numerous soluble skin proteins evolve during ripening and reveal specific distributions at different stages. Proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolisms, and stress response are identified as being over-expressed at the beginning of colour-change. The end of colour-change is characterized by the over-expression of proteins involved in anthocyanin synthesis and, at harvest, the dominant proteins are involved in defence mechanisms. In particular, increases in the abundance of different chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase isoforms were found as the berry ripens. This observation can be correlated with the increase of the activities of both of these enzymes during skin ripening. The differences observed in proteome maps clearly show that significant metabolic changes occur in grape skin during this crucial phase of ripening. This comparative analysis provides more detailed characterization of the fruit ripening process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erm049DOI Listing
July 2007

Composition and cellular localization of tannins in Cabernet Sauvignon skins during growth.

J Agric Food Chem 2006 Dec;54(25):9465-71

Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Physiologie de la Vigne and Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquée, UMR 1219 Oenologie-Ampélologie, Faculté d'Oenologie-Université Victor Segalen, Bordeaux 2/INRA/ENITA, Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Talence, France.

For two successive years, cell walls were isolated from the internal part of skin cells of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in a vineyard. Procyanidin localization and composition were determined over the course of development. Tannins were mainly localized in the inner cell fraction, due to their biosynthesis and storage. Cell wall tannins always exhibited a higher mean degree of polymerization as compared to the internal cell fraction, which had a constant mDP. The mDP of cell wall tannins also tended to increase at the end of maturation. Our results suggest tannin polymerization near the cell wall but an aggregation in the vacuole during growth. The tannin composition was typical of skins, and small differences were noted between the two cell parts. Surprisingly, epigallocatechin-3-gallate was also detected, although in a very small amount. Epicatechin was present in significant proportions in both fractions, especially as an extension subunit, while epigallocatechin was likewise abundant, also as a terminal subunit. Last, procyanidin composition and organization seemed to be characteristic of the Cabernet Sauvignon variety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf061946gDOI Listing
December 2006

Composition and cellular localization of tannins in grape seeds during maturation.

J Agric Food Chem 2003 Dec;51(27):8051-4

UMR OEnologie-Ampélologie 1219, Faculté d'oenologie-INRA, Université Victor Ségalen Bordeaux 2, 33405 Talence, France.

Cell walls were isolated from seeds of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.), and proanthocyanidin composition was determined over the course of ripening for different levels of vine water status. During the ripening period the tannins from the cell walls were always more polymerized than those from the inner part of the cell. At maturity this difference becomes more significant compared to véraison, due to a significant increase in the mean degree of polymerization of the cell wall tannins. The tannin composition was typical of grape seed tannins and was quite similar in the two cell fractions studied, but the epicatechin gallate proportion was significantly higher in the cell wall fraction. There were no significant effects of water deficit on composition and polymerization of seed tannins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf030418rDOI Listing
December 2003