Publications by authors named "Laurence D Higgins"

129 Publications

Postoperative recovery comparisons of arthroscopic Bankart to open Latarjet for the treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Boston Shoulder Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability is a disabling pathology that can be successfully treated by arthroscopic Bankart repair or open Latarjet. However, there is a paucity of studies comparing the postoperative recovery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the postoperative pain and functional recovery following arthroscopic Bankart versus open Latarjet.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a multicenter prospective outcomes registry database. Postoperative recovery outcomes of either a primary or revision arthroscopic Bankart and open Latarjet procedures were compared. A minimum of 1-year follow-up was required. Outcomes measures included pain visual analog scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) function score, ASES index score, and single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE) score. Overall, 787 patients underwent primary arthroscopic Bankart, 36 underwent revision arthroscopic Bankart and 75 underwent an open Latarjet procedure.

Results: When compared to primary arthroscopic Bankart, open Latarjet demonstrated significantly lower VAS scores at 6 weeks (p = 0.03), 3 months (p = 0.01), and 2 years (p < 0.05). Medium-term outcomes for ASES scores and SANE score, at 1 and 2 years showed no difference. Latarjet demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) preoperative early postoperative VAS pain scores with no difference at 1 year or 2 years when compared to primary Bankart. There was no difference in ASES function or index between Bankart and Latarjet. Revision Bankart provided inferior outcomes for VAS, ASES function, and ASES index when compared to primary Bankart and Latarjet at 1 year and 2 years.

Conclusions: Primary arthroscopic Bankart repair and open Latarjet provided nearly equivalent improvements in pain (VAS) and functional outcomes (ASES, SANE, VR-12) during the early recovery phase (2 years). This study supports the use of either procedure in the primary treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability. Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair demonstrated deteriorating outcomes at 1 and 2 years postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-022-03265-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Obesity and sex influence fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff: the Rotator Cuff Outcomes Workgroup (ROW) and Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) cohorts.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2022 Apr 13;31(4):726-735. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Orthopaedics, and Population & Data Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Fatty infiltration (FI) is one of the most important prognostic factors for outcomes after rotator cuff surgery. Established risk factors include advancing age, larger tear size, and increased tear chronicity. A growing body of evidence suggests that sex and obesity are associated with FI; however, data are limited.

Methods: We recruited 2 well-characterized multicenter cohorts of patients with rotator cuff tears (Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network [MOON] cohort [n = 80] and Rotator Cuff Outcomes Workgroup [ROW] cohort [n = 158]). We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the presence of FI while adjusting for the participant's age at magnetic resonance imaging, sex, and duration of shoulder symptoms, as well as the cross-sectional area of the tear. We analyzed the 2 cohorts separately and performed a meta-analysis to combine estimates.

Results: A total of 27 patients (33.8%) in the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) cohort and 57 patients (36.1%) in the Rotator Cuff Outcomes Workgroup (ROW) cohort had FI. When BMI < 25 kg/m was used as the reference category, being overweight was associated with a 2.37-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-7.29) increased odds of FI and being obese was associated with a 3.28-fold (95% CI, 1.16-9.25) increased odds of FI. Women were 4.9 times (95% CI, 2.06-11.69) as likely to have FI as men.

Conclusions: Among patients with rotator cuff tears, obese patients had a substantially higher likelihood of FI. Further research is needed to assess whether modifying BMI can alter FI in patients with rotator cuff tears. This may have significant clinical implications for presurgical surgical management of rotator cuff tears. Sex was also significantly associated with FI, with women having higher odds of FI than men. Higher odds of FI in female patients may also explain previously reported early suboptimal outcomes of rotator cuff surgery and higher pain levels in female patients as compared with male patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8940702PMC
April 2022

A biomechanical comparison of subscapularis tenotomy repair techniques for stemless shoulder arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2022 Apr 11;31(4):711-717. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA.

Background: One of the leading challenges for surgeons shifting to stemless anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is subscapularis repair. In the available literature reporting outcomes after stemless TSA, subscapularis tenotomy with side-to-side repair is the most common technique despite some concerns regarding this technique in the biomechanical and clinical literature. Accordingly, this study investigated subscapularis tenotomy repair with stemless TSA with 2 primary objectives: (1) to evaluate the subscapularis tendon dimensions with reference to subscapularis tenotomy to determine the amount of tendon remaining for side-to-side repair after shoulder arthroplasty and (2) to biomechanically compare 2 methods of subscapularis tenotomy repair after stemless TSA-side-to-side repair and anchor-based repair.

Methods: We used 12 male shoulder specimens for this study. To address our first objective, measurements were made to calculate the dimensions of the subscapularis tendon at the superior, middle, and inferior levels to determine the amount of tendon remaining after tenotomy. These specimens were then divided into 2 groups (n = 6 in each group) to biomechanically compare subscapularis tenotomy repair with (1) traditional side-to-side repair and (2) anchor-based repair. The shoulders then underwent biomechanical testing with primary outcomes including load to failure and cyclic displacement.

Results: The mean subscapularis tendon width measured from the medial insertion at the lesser tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction varied depending on the level: 19.5 mm superiorly (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.2-22.8 mm); 18.3 mm at the midportion (95% CI, 13.6-23.0 mm); and 13.1 mm inferiorly (95% CI, 9.1-17.1 mm). With a tenotomy made 1 cm medial to the lesser tuberosity insertion, a mean of 3.1 mm of tendon remained medially at the inferior subscapularis, with one-third of specimens having no tendon left medially at this level. On comparison of tenotomy repair techniques, the anchor-based technique had a 57% higher ultimate load to failure compared with the side-to-side repair (448 N vs. 249 N, P < .001). There were no significant differences in cyclic displacement (6.1 mm vs. 7.1 mm, P = .751) and construct stiffness (38.1 N/mm vs. 42.9 N/mm, P = .461) between techniques.

Conclusions: With traditional techniques for subscapularis tenotomy for anatomic TSA, there is very little tendon remaining inferiorly for side-to-side repair. When subscapularis tenotomy is performed for stemless TSA, a double-row anchor-based repair has a better time-zero ultimate load to failure compared with side-to-side repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.10.017DOI Listing
April 2022

Independent Suture Augmentation With All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Reduces Peak Loads on Soft-Tissue Graft. A Biomechanical Full-Construct Study.

Arthroscopy 2022 01 13;38(1):88-98. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Orthopedic Research, Arthrex Inc., Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of suture augmentation (SA) of 7-mm and 9-mm diameter graft on load sharing, elongation, stiffness, and load to failure for all-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in a biomechanical Study was funded by Arthrex ID: EMEA-16020. full-construct porcine model.

Methods: Bovine tendon grafts, 7-mm and 9-mm diameter, with and without SA were tested using suspensory fixation (n = 8). The independent SA was looped over a femoral button and knotted on a tibial button. Preconditioned constructs were incrementally increased loaded (100N/1,000 cycles) from 100N to 400N for 4,000 cycles (0.75 Hz) with final pull to failure (50 mm/min). Isolated mechanical and optical measurements during construct loading of the SA allowed to quantify the load and elongation range during load sharing. Construct elongation, stiffness and ultimate strength were further assessed.

Results: Load sharing in 7-mm grafts started earlier (200N) with a significant greater content than 9-mm grafts (300N) to transfer 31% (125N) and 20% (80N) of the final load (400N) over the SA. Peak load sharing with SA reduced total elongation for 7-mm (1.90 ± 0.27 mm vs 4.77 ± 1.08 mm, P < .001) and 9-mm grafts (1.50 ± 0.33 mm vs 3.57 ± 0.54 mm, P < .001) and adequately increased stiffness of 7-mm (113.4 ± 9.3 N/mm vs 195.9 ± 9.8 N/mm, P < .001) to the level of augmented 9-mm grafts (208.9 ± 13.7N/mm). Augmentation of 7-mm (835 ± 92N vs 1,435 ± 228N, P < .001) and 9-mm grafts (1,044 ± 49N vs 1,806 ± 157N, P < .001) significantly increased failure loads.

Conclusions: Load sharing with SA occurred earlier (200N vs 300N) in lower stiffness 7-mm grafts to carry 31% (7-mm) and 20% (9-mm) of the final load (400N). Loads until peak load sharing were transferred over the graft. Augmented constructs showed significantly lower construct elongation and increased stiffness without significance between variable grafts. Failure load of augmented grafts were significantly increased.

Clinical Relevance: Suture tape ligament augmentation may potentially protect biological grafts from excessive peak loading and elongation, thus reducing the risk of graft tears.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.09.032DOI Listing
January 2022

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Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 24;3(2):e491-e497. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: To determine whether patients who are prescribed ibuprofen after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair have significantly different patient-reported outcomes for pain, function, and overall health at baseline and 1 and 2 years after operation relative to patients only prescribed opioids.

Methods: Patients who underwent a rotator cuff repair by a total of 3 surgeons and participated in the outcomes registry from 2012 to 2016 were screened for inclusion in this study. Inclusion criteria were primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, at least 2 years from the date of surgery and over the age of 18. Exclusion criteria were revision and open rotator cuff repair. All patients followed the standard postoperative rehabilitation protocol for rotator cuff repair. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts. Group I included patients who received ibuprofen/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID) after surgery (n = 281), and Group II consisted of patients who did not receive ibuprofen/NSAID after surgery (n = 182). Patient-reported outcome measures for Visual Analogue Scale, American Shoulder Elbow Surgeons score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, Simple Shoulder Test and The Veterans Rand 12-Item Health Survey were collected preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed to compare patient-reported outcome measures between Group I and II.

Results: This study consisted of 463 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, and patients were divided into 2 cohorts. There were 281 patients who did not receive ibuprofen/NSAID after operation in Group I and 182 patients who did receive ibuprofen in Group II. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in age at treatment, mean body mass index, gender, ethnicity, diabetes, and number of rotator cuff tendons involved; however, there was a statistically significant difference in receiving worker's compensation ( = .005), and this was subsequently adjusted for in our analysis. There were no significant differences in patient-reported outcomes for all metrics between the group prescribed ibuprofen and the group that was not prescribed ibuprofen at 1 and 2 years after surgery or in change from baseline.

Conclusion: Patients receiving ibuprofen did as well as patients who did not receive ibuprofen after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair on patient-reported outcome measures assessing shoulder pain, function, and overall health.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2020.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129460PMC
April 2021

Biomechanical evaluation of 2 techniques of repair after subscapularis peel for stemless shoulder arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Oct 3;30(10):2240-2246. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Southern Oregon Orthopedics, Medford, OR, USA.

Background: Stemless anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) has been gaining significant popularity but poses unique challenges for subscapularis repair. Tenotomy with side-to-side repair has been the most frequently reported technique for subscapularis repair with stemless TSA but has the poorest biomechanical properties, and clinical failures have been reported. There is limited biomechanical evidence evaluating other subscapularis repair techniques for stemless TSA. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate 2 additional techniques using a subscapularis peel for subscapularis repair with a stemless TSA.

Methods: We used 18 male cadaveric specimens to investigate the native subscapularis (n = 6) and 2 subscapularis repair techniques (n = 12) after stemless anatomic TSA (Eclipse). A subscapularis peel with double-row, knotless anchor-based repair (n = 6) was compared with a subscapularis peel with a "backpack" repair (n = 6). The specimens then underwent biomechanical testing, including cyclic displacement and load-to-failure testing. The mode of failure was also recorded.

Results: The native tendon had the highest ultimate load to failure (mean, 1017.1 N). Load to failure was similar between the 2 study groups: 397.9 N for the peel and backpack repair and 593.7 N for the knotless anchor-based repair (P > .05 for all comparisons). Moreover, no significant differences in cyclic displacement or construct stiffness were found between the groups (P > .05 for all comparisons).

Conclusions: A double-row, knotless anchor-based repair of a subscapularis peel for stemless anatomic shoulder arthroplasty has similar biomechanical properties to a backpack repair technique; however, both techniques fail to reproduce the native biomechanical properties at time zero.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.01.037DOI Listing
October 2021

Factors Associated With Symptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears: The Rotator Cuff Outcomes Workgroup Cohort Study.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 04;100(4):331-336

From the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (AZG); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (AS, NBJ); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (PK); Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (GDA, JEK, NBJ); Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (GDA); King Edward Memorial Hospital, Hamilton, Bermuda (LDH); Orthopedic Institute of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, South Dakota (KMB); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (EM); and Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Orthopaedics, and Population and Data Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (NBJ).

Objective: Although rotator cuff tear is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, its etiology is poorly understood. We assessed factors associated with the presence of rotator cuff tears in a cohort of patients with shoulder pain.

Design: From February 2011 to July 2016, a longitudinal cohort of patients with shoulder pain was recruited. Patients completed a detailed questionnaire in addition to a magnetic resonance imaging scan and a clinical shoulder evaluation. The association of multiple factors associated with rotator cuff tears was assessed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: In our cohort of 266 patients, 61.3% of patients had a rotator cuff tear. Older age (per 1 yr: odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.07), involvement of the dominant shoulder (odds ratio = 2.02, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-3.52), and a higher body mass index (per 1 kg/m2: odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.12) were independently associated with rotator cuff tears. Sex, depression, smoking status, shoulder use at work, hypertension, and diabetes were not significantly associated with rotator cuff tear.

Conclusions: In a cohort of patients with shoulder pain, we identified older age, involvement of the dominant shoulder, and a higher body mass index to be independently associated with rotator cuff tear. The mechanism of how these factors possibly lead to rotator cuff tears needs further research.

To Claim Cme Credits: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME.

Cme Objectives: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Identify factors associated with an increased risk of developing rotator cuff tears in adults; (2) Describe the current epidemiological trends of rotator cuff tears in the United States; and (3) Discuss the pathophysiological role of aging in the development of nontraumatic rotator cuff tears.

Level: Advanced.

Accreditation: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969413PMC
April 2021

A Tensionable Suture-based Cerclage Is an Alternative to Stainless Steel Cerclage Fixation for Stabilization of a Humeral Osteotomy During Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Jun;29(12):e609-e617

From Southern Oregon Orthopedics, Medford, OR (Dr. Denard), the Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (Dr. Denard), Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO (Dr. Nolte and Dr. Millett), BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen at the University of Heidelberg, Clinic for Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Ludwigshafen, Germany (Dr. Nolte), the The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO (Dr. Millett), Naples Community Hospital (Dr. Adams and Mr. Rego), and Arthrex, Naples, FL (Dr. Adams, Dr. Liebler, Mr. Rego, and Dr. Higgins).

Introduction: Fixation of periprosthetic humeral fractures is most commonly obtained with steel-based wires or cables; however, disadvantages with these constructs are numerous. Suture-based cerclages offer the advantage of easy handling, less radiographic interference, and risk of metallosis, as well as decreased risk of cutting into the soft humeral bone. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare a suture-based cerclage to a stainless steel wire cerclage (SSWC) for stabilization of the humerus during shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: In part I of the study, SSWC fixation was compared with single-looped tape cerclage and a double-looped tape cerclage (DLTC) fixation. In part II, a subsidence test was performed on 12 cadaveric humeri. After an osteotomy, the humeri were secured with either a SSWC or DLTC. Subsequently, a metal wedge was introduced into the humerus to simulate the stem of a shoulder arthroplasty.

Results: In part I, load to 2-mm displacement was significantly higher for the DLTC construct compared with the SSWC construct (2,401 ± 483 N versus 750 ± 33 N; P < 0.0001). Load to failure was 935 ± 143 N with the SSWC, 1,737 ± 113 N with the single-looped tape cerclage, and 4,360 ± 463 N with the DLTC constructs, and all differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). In part II, load at 20-mm subsidence was higher for the DLTC (320 ± 274 N) compared with the SSWC (247 ± 137 N), but no significant difference was observed (P > 0.05). However, gap displacement at 20 mm subsidence was significantly lower with the DLTC construct (0.33 ± 0.31 mm versus 0.77 ± 0.23 mm; P = 0.009). Load to failure was higher with the DLTC construct compared with the SSWC construct (4,447 ± 2,325 N versus 1,880 ± 1,089 N; P = 0.032), but the final gap displacement did not differ significantly (DLTC 5.23 ± 6.63 mm versus SSWC 6.03 ± 8.82 mm; P > 0.05).

Discussion: A DLTC has higher load to failure and trends toward lower gap displacement compared with a SSWC. The DLTC construct may therefore be a viable alternative for fixation of periprosthetic fractures or osteotomies of the humeral shaft during shoulder arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00047DOI Listing
June 2021

Surgical Treatment of Meniscal Extrusion: A Biomechanical Study on the Role of the Medial Meniscotibial Ligaments With Early Clinical Validation.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Jul 29;8(7):2325967120936672. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Orthopedic Research, Arthrex Inc, Naples, Florida, USA.

Background: Meniscal extrusion refers to meniscal displacement out of the joint space and over the tibial margin, altering knee mechanics and increasing the risk of osteoarthritis. The meniscotibial ligaments have been shown to have an important role in meniscal stability. However, it remains unclear whether an isolated lesion of the medial meniscotibial ligaments will result in meniscal extrusion and whether repairing the detached ligament will reduce extrusion.

Hypothesis: A lesion of the medial meniscotibial ligament will result in meniscal extrusion, and repairing the joint capsule will eliminate the extrusion by returning the meniscus back to its original position.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees (N = 6) were used for biomechanical testing. The test protocol involved 100 flexion-extension cycles. In full extension, meniscal extrusion was measured using ultrasound, in both an otherwise unloaded state and while subjected to a 10-N·m varus load. Each knee was tested in its native condition (baseline), after creating a detachment of the medial meniscotibial ligament, and finally with the joint capsule repaired using 3 knotless SutureTak anchors. We also performed a retrospective review of 15 patients who underwent meniscotibial ligament repair with a minimal follow-up of 5 weeks (mean, 14 weeks; range, 5-35 weeks).

Results: During biomechanical testing, the mean absolute meniscal extrusion at baseline was 1.5 ± 0.6 mm. After creation of the meniscotibial ligament lesion, the mean absolute meniscal extrusion was significantly increased (3.4 ± 0.7 mm) ( < .001). After repair, the extrusion was reduced to 2.1 ± 0.4 mm ( < .001). Clinically, a reduction in absolute meniscal extrusion of approximately 48% was reached (1.2 ± 0.6 vs 2.4 ± 0.5 mm preoperatively; < .001).

Conclusion: This study indicates that the medial meniscotibial ligaments contribute to meniscal stability as lesions cause the meniscus to extrude and that repair of those ligaments can significantly reduce extrusion. Early clinical results using this meniscotibial ligament repair technique support our biomechanical findings, as a significant reduction in meniscal extrusion was achieved.

Clinical Relevance: Our biomechanical findings suggest that repair of medial meniscotibial ligaments reduces meniscal extrusion and clinically may improve meniscal function, with the possible long-term benefit of reducing the risk for osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120936672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391441PMC
July 2020

Capsular release following total shoulder arthroplasty: an analysis of early outcomes.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jan 6;31(1):167-173. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Shoulder Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston Shoulder Institute, 55 Fruit Street, Suite 3200, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: The purpose of this study is to analyze the outcomes of open and arthroscopic capsular release following total shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: Over 15 years, 19 patients experienced persistent shoulder stiffness after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty refractory to nonoperative treatment, requiring either open (n = 5) or arthroscopic (n = 14) capsular release. There were seven (39%) patients who had a prior diagnosis of stiffness before the primary arthroplasty.

Results: At a follow-up of 2.3 years (1-5.5), there were changes in range of motion, including forward flexion (77°-117°), abduction (49°-98°), external rotation (9°-19°), internal rotation at 0° (Sacrum to L1), and pain (4.1-2.3) scores (p < 0.01). There were seven (37%) patients that required a reoperation following the initial capsular release. The survival-free of reoperation at 2 and 5 years was 76% and 53%, respectively, while the survival-free of revision surgery at 2 and 5 years was 83%. Furthermore, three (16%) patients required a repeat capsular release. Overall, there were 11 (58%) complications, including stiffness (n = 9), infection (n = 1), subscapularis rupture (n = 2), glenoid loosening (n = 3), and pain with weakness requiring reoperation (n = 1).

Conclusions: Shoulder stiffness after total shoulder arthroplasty is a very difficult pathology to treat, with high rates of complications and reoperations after capsular release. Overall, in patients that do not develop glenoid loosening, capsular release does improve the patient's pain and shoulder motion. Furthermore, when patients develop stiffness, it is critical to rule out other etiologies, such as glenoid loosening, prior to proceeding with capsular release.

Level Of Evidence Iv: Retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-020-02754-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Thrower's Exostosis of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review With a Novel Classification.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Jul 14;8(7):2325967120932101. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Background: A variety of thrower's exostoses are grouped under the term , which makes understanding diagnosis and treatment difficult.

Purpose: To identify all types of reported thrower's and overhead athlete's exostoses and categorize them into a classification system to allow a morphology-based classification.

Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: A systematic review of all articles pertaining to Bennett lesions and thrower's exostosis was performed. The classification and treatments were evaluated to describe the types, proposed causes, diagnosis, and treatment options.

Results: A total of 27 studies were included in the systematic review. The anatomic locations referenced in the study demonstrated posteroinferior, posterior, and posterosuperior glenoid lesions. Aggregate radiographic data demonstrated 158 of 306 patients (52%) with a thrower's exostosis of any type and location. Of these 158 patients with a radiographic lesion, 119 (75%) patients were symptomatic. The locations were posteroinferior in 110 patients (70%), directly posterior in 2 patients (1.3%), posterosuperior in 44 patients (28%), and unknown in 2 patients (1.3%). Avulsed lesions were present in 9 (5.7%) posteroinferior lesions, 0 direct posterior lesions, and 2 (1.3%) posterosuperior lesions. Treatment plans included both nonoperative and operative strategies, but operative intervention was more commonly reported for detached lesions. After operative intervention, only 61% of reported athletes returned to preinjury performance.

Conclusion: Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, we identified several anatomic locations for a thrower's exostosis beyond the classic Bennett lesion. We categorized the reported exostoses into a new classification system for description of location and type (subperiosteal or free fragment) of the thrower's exostosis, which may be used to study future treatments. Current treatment strategies recommend that surgical treatment of thrower's exostosis is considered only after exhausting nonoperative management because reported return to sport is variable after surgery. The effectiveness of excision or repair for both subperiosteal and detached lesions has not been established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120932101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361505PMC
July 2020

Comparative Time to Improvement in Nonoperative and Operative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Jul;102(13):1142-1150

Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (A.S. and N.B.J.), Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation (N.B.J. and J.E.K.), and Biostatistics (J.D. and G.D.A.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: Comparative time to recovery after operative and nonoperative treatment for rotator cuff tears is an important consideration for patients. Hence, we compared the time to achieve clinically meaningful reduction in shoulder pain and function after treatment.

Methods: From February 2011 to June 2015, a multicenter cohort of patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing operative or nonoperative treatment was recruited. After propensity score weighting, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the time to achieve a minimal clinically important difference (MCID), >30% reduction, and >50% reduction in the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. (In our analysis, both ASES and SPADI were coded such that a lower number corresponded to a better outcome; thus, the word "reduction" was used to indicate improvement in both ASES and SPADI scores.) A 2-stage test was conducted to detect a difference between the 2 groups.

Results: In this cohort, 96 patients underwent nonoperative treatment and 73 patients underwent a surgical procedure. The surgical treatment group and the nonoperative treatment group were significantly different with respect to SPADI and ASES scores (p < 0.05). The maximum difference between groups in achievement of the MCID for the SPADI scores was at 3.25 months, favoring the nonoperative treatment group. The probability to achieve the MCID was 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00 to 0.12) for the surgical treatment group compared with 0.40 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.50) for the nonoperative treatment group. The surgical treatment group had a greater probability of achieving >50% reduction in SPADI scores at 15.49 months (0.20 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.29] for the surgical treatment group compared with 0.04 [95% CI, 0.00 to 0.09] for the nonoperative treatment group). The surgical treatment group had a greater probability of achieving >50% reduction in ASES scores at 24.74 months (0.96 [95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99] for the surgical treatment group compared with 0.66 [95% CI, 0.53 to 0.75] for the nonoperative treatment group). The differences for >30% reduction in SPADI and ASES scores and the MCID for ASES scores were not significant.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing nonoperative treatment had significantly better outcomes in the initial follow-up period compared with patients undergoing a surgical procedure, but this trend reversed in the longer term. These data can be used to inform expectations for nonoperative and operative treatments for rotator cuff tears.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.19.01112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508291PMC
July 2020

Biomechanical Functional Elbow Restoration of Acute Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tears: The Role of Internal Bracing on Gap Formation and Repair Stabilization.

Am J Sports Med 2020 07 26;48(8):1884-1892. Epub 2020 May 26.

Sporthopaedicum, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: Biomechanical studies have compared augmented primary repair with internal bracing versus reconstruction techniques of the anterior ulnar collateral ligament (aUCL) in the elbow. However, aUCL repair alone has not been compared with augmented repair or reconstruction techniques.

Hypothesis: Internal bracing of aUCL repair provides improved time-zero stabilization in terms of gap formation, torsional stiffness, and residual torque compared with both repair alone and the modified docking technique, with enhanced valgus stability restoration to that of the native ligament.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: We randomized 8 matched pairs of cadaveric elbows to undergo either augmented aUCL repair or a modified docking technique through use of the palmaris longus tendon. Valgus laxity testing was consecutively performed at 90° of flexion on the intact, torn, and repaired conditions as well as the previously assigned techniques. First, intact elbows were loaded up to 10 N·m valgus torque to evaluate time-zero ligament rotations at valgus moments of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 N·m. Rotation controlled cycling was performed (total 1000 cycles) for each surgical condition. Gap formation, stiffness, and residual torque were analyzed. Finally, these elbows and 8 additional intact elbows underwent torque to failure testing (30 deg/min).

Results: Repair alone revealed low torsional resistance and gapping, similar to the torn state. The augmented repair technique showed significantly higher torsional stiffness ( < .001) and residual torque ( < .001) compared with all other conditions and restored native function. Although reconstruction revealed similar initial stiffness and residual torque compared with an intact ligament, a steady decrease of torsional resistance led to a completely loose state at higher valgus rotations. Analysis of covariance between all groups showed significantly less gap formation for augmented repair ( < .001). The native failure load and stiffness were significantly higher and were similar to those of augmented repair ( = .766).

Conclusion: Internal bracing of aUCL repair restored valgus stability to the native state with statistically improved torsional resistance, loading capability, and gap formation compared with reconstruction, especially at the upper load range of native aUCL function in the elbow.

Clinical Relevance: We found that aUCL repair with an internal brace effectively improves time-zero mechanical characteristics and may provide stabilized healing with accelerated and reliable recovery without the need for a tendon graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520921174DOI Listing
July 2020

The impact of workers' compensation on recovery after biceps tenodesis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Sep 28;29(9):1783-1788. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Boston Shoulder Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: There remains a paucity of studies examining the impact of workers' compensation (WC) on a variety of outcomes after biceps tenodesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative recovery curves after biceps tenodesis in patients with and without WC claims.

Methods: Using the Surgical Outcomes System database, we assessed the postoperative recovery outcomes of all patients who had outcomes recorded at least 6 months after isolated biceps tenodesis for the treatment of a diagnosis of biceps tendinitis, stratified by WC status. The outcomes analyzed included visual analog scale, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, VR-12 (Veterans RAND 12 Item Health Survey) mental and physical, Simple Shoulder Test, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores.

Results: Overall, 139 patients with WC claims underwent isolated biceps tenodesis vs. 786 patients without WC claims. Demographic characteristics and comorbidities were similar in the 2 groups. Patients without WC claims had significantly improved visual analog scale, VR-12, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and Simple Shoulder Test scores at all times points after 3 months and 1 year compared with patients with WC claims.

Conclusions: On analysis of patients' recovery after isolated biceps tenodesis, WC claims led to significantly worse pain and functional outcomes at every time point of analysis (3, 6, 12, and 24 months). Furthermore, patients with WC claims had worse preoperative-to-postoperative improvements in most outcomes. This information can be used to educate surgeons and patients on postoperative expectations, as well as to perform analyses focused on health economics, value, and policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.01.095DOI Listing
September 2020

Latarjet Procedure for the Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2019 Jul-Sep;9(3):e31. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Boston Shoulder Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Anterior glenohumeral instability is common, with 21.9 first-time dislocations per 100,000 individuals per year. Recurrent instability is more likely to occur in patients who are younger, of male sex, and have bone defects or ligament laxity. The open Latarjet procedure is effective for the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability and is preferred over arthroscopic Bankart repair in the presence of glenoid bone loss. The Latarjet procedure involves transferring the coracoid to the anterior aspect of the glenoid in the following steps. Step 1: Preoperative planning includes an assessment of glenoid deformation and the integrity of the rotator cuff. The degree of bone loss is measured with use of the circle-line method. Step 2: The patient is in the beach-chair position with the arm in a pneumatic arm holder. A parallel drill guide system with 3.75-mm cannulated screws is utilized. Step 3: A 5-to-6-cm incision is made along the anterior axillary line. The deltopectoral interval is established, and the cephalic vein is mobilized laterally. The coracoacromial ligament is transected 15 mm lateral to the coracoid to allow later repair to the anterior capsule. The pectoralis minor is released subperiosteally off the medial coracoid. A 90° oscillating saw is used to transect the coracoid medially to laterally. The coracohumeral ligament is released. Step 4: Two 4.0-mm drill-holes are made 1 cm apart through the coracoid. The undersurface is decorticated. Step 5: The subscapularis is split at the junction of the upper two-thirds and lower one-third. A longitudinal capsulotomy is performed parallel to the glenoid. Step 6: Soft tissue, including the capsule and labrum, is removed from the anterior aspect of the glenoid. The bone is decorticated with an osteotome and a rasp. Step 7: The coracoid is positioned flush or 1 mm recessed relative to the glenoid. Two 1.6-mm guidewires are placed with use of a parallel drill guide followed by a cannulated reamer and two 3.75-mm cannulated screws. Step 8: The coracoacromial ligament is repaired to the capsule. Step 9: The subscapularis split is repaired laterally. The deltopectoral interval and skin are closed in a standard fashion. A standardized rehabilitation protocol is employed postoperatively. The Latarjet procedure results in significantly lower rates of recurrent glenohumeral instability and revision compared with the arthroscopic Bankart procedure (3% and 1% compared with 28.4% and 21%, respectively); however, complication rates as high as 30% have been reported, as well as a risk for nerve injury. The videos included in this article highlight the critical steps required to optimize outcomes and minimize complications when performing the Latarjet procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.ST.18.00025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948993PMC
September 2019

Sex-Based Differences in Patient-Reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

Orthop J Sports Med 2019 Nov 25;7(11):2325967119881959. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Rotator cuff repair is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on the shoulder. Previous studies have indicated that pain and disability can vary significantly between patients with similarly appearing rotator cuff tears on diagnostic imaging. Prior literature has compared functional outcomes between operative and nonoperative treatments as well as variability in surgical techniques. However, few studies have examined postoperative outcomes based on patient factors such as sex.

Purpose: To compare patient-reported outcomes after rotator cuff repair between men and women.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: A total of 283 patients (153 male, 130 female) who underwent primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included in this study; of those, 275 patients (97.2%) completed 1-year follow-up. Patient-reported pain visual analog scale (VAS), Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12 mental and physical components), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores were collected preoperatively and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively using an electronic outcomes system.

Results: Women reported higher VAS pain scores when compared with men preoperatively ( < .01) and at 2 weeks ( < .01), 6 weeks ( < .01), and 3 months ( = .02) postoperatively. Additionally, women experienced a greater overall change in the mean VAS score preoperatively when compared with 1 year postoperatively ( < .01). The use of narcotic pain medication 2 weeks after surgery was greater in women ( = .032). Women had significantly lower preoperative VR-12 mental scores ( = .03) and experienced a greater increase in the mean VR-12 mental score preoperatively when compared with 1 year postoperatively ( < .01). Men had higher ASES scores preoperatively ( < .01) and at 3 months postoperatively ( < .01). Women experienced a greater overall change in the ASES score preoperatively when compared with 1 year postoperatively ( < .01).

Conclusion: Women reported greater pain and decreased shoulder function compared with men during the initial 3 months after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. There were no sex-based differences in patient-reported outcomes at 1-year follow-up. The results of this study indicate that there are sex-related differences in the early postoperative recovery of patients undergoing rotator cuff repair, contributing to postoperative expectations for both clinicians and patients alike.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967119881959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878615PMC
November 2019

Comparative Effectiveness of Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Rotator Cuff Tears: A Propensity Score Analysis From the ROW Cohort.

Am J Sports Med 2019 11 13;47(13):3065-3072. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Hamilton, Bermuda.

Background: The evidence to support operative versus nonoperative treatment for rotator cuff tears is sparse and inconclusive.

Purpose: To assess pain and functional outcomes in patients undergoing operative and nonoperative treatments for rotator cuff tears.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: From March 2011 to February 2015, a multicenter cohort of patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatments was recruited. Patients completed a detailed history questionnaire, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) standardized form and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to baseline assessments, patients received follow-up questionnaires at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Propensity score weighting was used to balance differences in characteristics of the operative and nonoperative groups.

Results: Adjusted for propensity scores, the operative (n = 50) and nonoperative (n = 77) groups had similar characteristics, as evidenced by the small standardized mean differences between the groups. Adjusted mean differences in the SPADI and ASES scores between the operative and nonoperative groups were -22.0 points (95% CI, -32.1 to -11.8) and -22.2 points (95% CI, -32.8 to -11.6) at 18 months, respectively. The operative group had a significantly higher proportion of patients who showed ≥30% ( = .002) and ≥50% ( < .0001) improvement in SPADI and ASES scores as compared with the nonoperative group.

Conclusion: In this prospective cohort study, patients undergoing operative treatment had significantly better pain and functional outcomes as compared with patients undergoing nonoperative treatment for rotator cuff tears. Differences between the 2 groups in SPADI and ASES scores at the 6- to 18-month time points met the minimal clinically important difference (depending on the threshold used). A large randomized controlled trial is needed to answer this question more definitively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546519873840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325686PMC
November 2019

Which Is the Best Outcome Measure for Rotator Cuff Tears?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Aug;477(8):1869-1878

D. I. Dabija, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA J. S. Pennings, K. R. Archer, J. E. Kuhn, N. B. Jain, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA K. R. Archer, N. B. Jain, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA G. D. Ayers, Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA L. D. Higgins, E. Matzkin, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA K. M. Baumgarten, Orthopedic Institute, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

Background: The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Form (ASES), the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and the shortened Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (quickDASH) are patient-reported upper extremity-specific outcome scales currently used to evaluate patients with rotator cuff tears. This heterogeneity does not allow for a uniform metric for research and patient care.

Questions/purposes: Our objective was to determine psychometric properties (reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness) of five commonly used outcome instruments (the ASES, the SPADI, the quickDASH, the SF-12, and the EuroQol-5D) in a longitudinal study of patients undergoing treatment for rotator cuff tears.

Methods: From February 2011 through June 2015, 120 patients completed a standardized history, the five outcome scales under study, a physical examination, and an MRI. Of these, 47 (39%) were lost to followup before 18 months, and another 24 (20%) were accounted for at 18 months but had missing data at one or more of the earlier prespecified followup intervals (3, 6, or 12 months). Reliability (the reproducibility of an outcome instrument between subjects; tested by Cronbach's alpha), convergent and discriminant validity (determining which outcome measures correlate most strongly with others; tested by Spearman's correlation coefficients), and responsiveness (the change in outcome scales over time based on percent improvement in shoulder functionality using the minimal clinically important difference [MCID] and the subjective shoulder value) were calculated.

Results: All outcomes measures had a Cronbach's alpha above 0.70 (range, 0.74-0.94) and therefore were considered reliable. Convergent validity was demonstrated as the upper extremity-specific measures (SPADI, ASES, and quickDASH) were more strongly correlated with each other (rho = 0.74-0.81; p < 0.001) than with any of the other measures. Discriminant validity was demonstrated because the Spearman's correlation coefficients were stronger for the relationships between upper extremity measures compared with the correlations between upper extremity measures and general health measures for 53 of the 54 correlations that were compared. Both internal and external responsiveness of the measures was supported. Patients who achieved the MCID and at least a 30% change on the subjective shoulder value had more positive change in scores over time compared with those who did not. Mixed model linear regressions revealed that all three upper extremity-specific measures had a group by time interaction for the MCID, indicating that patients who achieved the MCID had greater change over time compared with those who did not achieve the MCID. Results showed that the measure with the best discrimination between groups, or best internal responsiveness, was the ASES (beta = -8.26, 95% confidence interval [CI], -11.39 to -5.14; p < 0.001; η = 0.089) followed by the SPADI (beta = 6.88, 95% CI, 3.78-9.97; p < 0.001; η = 0.088) then the quickDASH (beta = 3.43, 95% CI, 0.86-6.01; p = 0.009, η = 0.027). Measures with the best external responsiveness followed the same pattern of results.

Conclusions: All the upper extremity-specific scales had acceptable psychometric properties. Correlations were high and thus only one upper extremity-specific instrument is needed for outcome assessment. Given the overall psychometric assessment, we recommend SPADI be the shoulder-specific instrument used to assess outcomes in patients with rotator cuff tears.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000030PMC
August 2019

Physical therapy versus natural history in outcomes of rotator cuff tears: the Rotator Cuff Outcomes Workgroup (ROW) cohort study.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 May 13;28(5):833-838. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: We compared the outcomes of patients who performed physical therapy versus those who did not in a longitudinal cohort of patients undergoing nonoperative treatment of rotator cuff tears. We also assessed whether there was a dose effect in which the pain and functional outcomes in patients performing physical therapy plateaued.

Methods: From February 2011 to June 2015, a multicenter cohort of patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing nonoperative treatment completed a detailed health and demographic questionnaire and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) at baseline and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Longitudinal mixed models were used to assess whether physical therapy in the first 3 months predicted SPADI scores and dose effect.

Results: Among the 55 patients in our cohort, the performance of physical therapy within the first 3 months predicted better SPADI scores versus nonperformance of physical therapy at 3 months (P = .02). Scores were similar between groups at 6, 12, and 18 months. A threshold of 16 physical therapy sessions was observed for pain and functional improvement during follow-up, after which significant improvement was not seen.

Conclusions: Patients who performed physical therapy within the first 3 months had statistically significant improvements in pain and function as measured by the SPADI score at 3 months compared with patients who did not report performing physical therapy. Depending on the minimal clinically important difference used for the SPADI score, our results could be interpreted as meeting the minimal clinically important difference threshold or not. Improvement in outcomes was observed up to 16 sessions of physical therapy, after which outcomes plateaued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2018.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9186215PMC
May 2019

The impact of the reverse prosthesis on revision shoulder arthroplasty: analysis of a high-volume shoulder practice.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 Feb 28;28(2):e49-e56. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Shoulder Service, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston Shoulder Institute, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Since the approval of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in 2004, the use of shoulder arthroplasty increased dramatically. Although the success of RSA in the revision setting has been demonstrated, there remains a paucity of studies examining the epidemiology of RSA in revision arthroplasty. This study describes trends of revision arthroplasty during the "era of the reverse," from 2005 through 2016.

Methods: In a multicenter retrospective analysis, we analyzed 274 revision shoulder arthroplasties converted to a RSA (n = 182), anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA, n = 68), or hemiarthroplasty (n = 24) from 2005 to 2016. Demographics, surgical indications, and types of prosthesis were analyzed.

Results: The number of revision arthroplasties increased over 12 years. From 2005 to 2010, TSA (33%) or hemiarthroplasty (16%) were used in similar rates as RSA (51%). From 2011 to 2016, there was a much higher incidence of revision arthroplasty with RSA (78%) compared with TSA (19%) or hemiarthroplasty (3%). Specifically, the number of RSAs increased in 2011 to 2016 compared with 2005 to 2010 in patients aged younger than 60 years, obese patients, patients with indications of glenoid loosening, and those with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or rheumatoid arthritis.

Conclusions: The use of RSA for revision arthroplasty increased over the "era of the reverse" and became the majority by 2016. The reverse prosthesis has had expanding indications regarding both patient demographics and pathology. This study demonstrates the reverse prosthesis has had a similar and even more profound effect on revision shoulder arthroplasty than what has previously been well documented in the primary setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2018.08.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Novel Arthroscopic Tendon Transfers for Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears: Latissimus Dorsi and Lower Trapezius Transfers.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2018 Jun 25;8(2):e12. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Shoulder Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Shoulder Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears in both the primary and the revision setting are challenging problems. There remains controversy over the ideal treatment methods for these patients. In the case of an irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tear, tendon transfers have emerged as a reliable option, with a durable outcome. The most commonly used tendon transfer options are the latissimus dorsi (LD)and the lower trapezius (LT).

Description: The LD transfer is performed by first harvesting the LT tendon from the humeral shaft. It is critical to release the many adhesions to the muscle belly as well as to separate it from the teres major muscle. The tendon is then transferred intra-articularly, in an interval between the deltoid and the teres minor. The tendon is anchored arthroscopically after preparation of the anterolateral aspect of the tuberosity. The LT transfer is performed by harvesting the LT muscle and tendon off its insertion on the medial aspect of the scapular spine. It should be mobilized to maximize excursion by releasing adhesions. An Achilles tendon allograft is anchored into the anterior aspect of the greater tuberosity arthroscopically. The Achilles tendon is then secured to the LT tendon.

Alternatives: In addition to tendon transfer, options include:Partial or complete attempted repair.Augmentation or bridging with allografts.Superior capsular reconstruction.Subacromial balloon.

Rationale: There remains a paucity of literature comparing tendon transfers with alternatives. However, when considering a tendon transfer, certain principles are critical in order to achieve an optimal outcome:The recipient and transferred tendons must have similar musculotendinous excursion.The recipient and transferred tendons should have similar lines of pull.One tendon (the transferred) should be designed to replace 1 function (of the recipient).The function of the transferred tendon and muscle should be expendable without substantial donor site morbidity.The strength of the transferred muscle must be at least grade 4.When deciding between the LT and LD transfer, certain considerations should be taken into account. The LD transfer has a proven history of successfully treating massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears in studies with long-term follow-up. Alternatively, although the LT transfer has only recently gained popularity, it has the advantage of "in-phase" muscle function, since the trapezius naturally contracts during shoulder external rotation. Furthermore, its line of pull almost completely mimics the infraspinatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.ST.17.00062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143308PMC
June 2018

Practicing Cost-Conscious Shoulder Surgery.

Orthop Clin North Am 2018 Oct;49(4):509-517

Department of Orthopaedics, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, 7 Point Finger Road, Paget DV 04, Bermuda.

Second only to the knee, the shoulder is the most commonly reported area of chronic joint pain. By practicing evidence-based methods for improved outcomes at lower costs, providers can increase both efficiency and margin, while patients experience better care and higher satisfaction. Current cost studies on shoulder care provide a base for improving evidence-based care and improving value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2018.05.011DOI Listing
October 2018

Arthroscopic Treatment of Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears: A Critical Analysis Review.

JBJS Rev 2018 Sep;6(9):e3

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shoulder Service, Boston Shoulder Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.17.00199DOI Listing
September 2018

Predictors of Pain and Functional Outcomes After the Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Aug 3;6(8):2325967118788531. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Optimal patient selection is key to the success of nonoperative treatment for rotator cuff tears.

Purpose: To assess the predictors of pain and functional outcomes in a longitudinal cohort of patients undergoing nonoperative treatment.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: A multicenter cohort of patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing nonoperative treatment was recruited from March 2011 to February 2015. Patients completed a detailed health questionnaire, completed standardized shoulder questionnaires including the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to baseline assessments, patients received follow-up questionnaires at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Longitudinal mixed models were used to test predictors of the SPADI score, and interactions with time were assessed.

Results: In our cohort of 70 patients, being married as compared with being single/divorced/widowed ( = .02), a shorter duration of symptoms ( = .02), daily shoulder use at work that included light or no manual labor versus moderate or heavy manual labor ( = .04), alcohol use of 1 to 2 times per week or more as compared with 2 to 3 times per month or less ( = .007), and absence of fatty infiltration ( = .0009) were significantly associated with decreased SPADI scores (improved shoulder pain and disability) over time. When interactions with time were assessed, having a college level of education or higher compared with less than a college education showed a differential effect over time, with those with a college level of education or more having lower SPADI scores ( = .004). Partial-thickness tear versus full-thickness tear also had an interaction with follow-up duration, such that those with a partial-thickness tear had lower SPADI scores ( = .0002).

Conclusion: Longitudinal predictors of better outcomes of the nonoperative treatment of rotator cuff tears included being married, having at least a college education, shorter duration of symptoms, light or manual labor in daily work, alcohol use of 1 to 2 times per week or more, partial-thickness tear, and absence of fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff. Our results suggest that nonoperative treatment should be performed early for optimal outcomes. These data can be used to select optimal candidates for the nonoperative treatment of rotator cuff tears and to assist with patient education and expectations before treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967118788531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080194PMC
August 2018

Does My Patient With Shoulder Pain Have a Rotator Cuff Tear?: A Predictive Model From the ROW Cohort.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Jul 16;6(7):2325967118784897. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Rotator cuff tears are the leading cause of shoulder pain and disability. However, the diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear based on patient characteristics, symptoms, and physical examination findings remains a challenge because of a lack of data. Moreover, data on the predictive ability of a combination of these characteristics and tests are not available from a large cohort of patients. Consequently, clinicians rely on expensive imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to make a diagnosis.

Purpose: To model patient characteristics, symptoms, and physical examination findings that predict a rotator cuff tear. We present a nomogram based on our predictive model that can be used in patients with shoulder pain to determine the probability of the diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear without the need for imaging.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: We recruited patients from outpatient clinics who were ≥45 years of age and who had shoulder pain of at least 4 weeks' duration. A rotator cuff tear was diagnosed based on expert clinical impression and the presence/absence of a tear on a blinded review of MRI. Ultimately, 301 patients were included in the analysis.

Results: A total of 123 patients (41%) had rotator cuff tears, and 178 patients (59%) did not. The predictors of the diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear included external rotation strength ratio of the affected versus unaffected shoulder (odds ratio [OR], 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08-1.34]), male sex (OR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.10-3.56]), positive lift-off test result (OR, 4.33 [95% CI, 1.46-12.86]), and positive Jobe test result (OR, 9.19 [95% CI, 4.69-17.99]). A nomogram based on these predictor variables was plotted.

Conclusion: Presented is a model that can accurately predict the diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear with satisfactory discrimination and calibration based on 4 variables: sex, lift-off test, Jobe test, and external rotation strength ratio. Data from this study can be used to aid in the diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear in day-to-day clinical practice in outpatient settings without the need for expensive imaging such as MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967118784897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048628PMC
July 2018

Predictors of pain and functional outcomes after operative treatment for rotator cuff tears.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Aug;27(8):1393-1400

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Optimal patient selection is key to success of operative treatment for cuff tears. We assessed predictors of pain and functional outcomes in a longitudinal cohort of patients undergoing operative treatment.

Methods: From March 2011 to January 2015, a cohort of patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing rotator cuff surgery was recruited. Patients completed a detailed health and demographic questionnaire, standardized shoulder questionnaires, including the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging scan. Patients received follow-up questionnaires at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. We assessed longitudinal predictors of SPADI using longitudinal mixed models. Interactions with follow-up duration after surgery were also assessed.

Results: In our analysis (n = 50), a lower Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity score (P = .001) predicted a lower SPADI score (better shoulder pain and function). Those consuming alcohol 1 to 2 times per week or more had lower SPADI scores than those consuming alcohol 2 to 3 times per month or less (P = .017). Both of these variables had a significant interaction with duration of follow-up. Variables that were not significant predictors of SPADI included sociodemographic characteristics, magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such as tear size and muscle quality, shoulder strength, and variations in surgical techniques/performance of adjuvant surgical procedures.

Conclusions: Those with higher fear avoidance behavior and alcohol use of 1 to 2 times per week had worse shoulder pain and function at 18 months of follow-up. These data can be used to select optimal candidates for operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and assist with patient education and expectations before treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2018.04.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085102PMC
August 2018

The Utilization of Formal Physical Therapy After Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018 11 8;48(11):856-863. Epub 2018 May 8.

Background: It is widely believed that structured rehabilitation programs by professional therapists help guide patients through the various recovery periods after shoulder arthroplasty, speeding up their recovery and improving their final functional gains. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies providing information about the current state of physical rehabilitation use after shoulder arthroplasty.

Objectives: To describe the variation in physical rehabilitation utilization after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), and to identify differences in utilization based on type of insurance (private versus public), sex, age, and region of the country.

Methods: This epidemiological retrospective database study utilized a commercially available database, PearlDiver, with longitudinal patient tracking linking all patients' Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes to their specific records to analyze patterns of physical rehabilitation usage after TSA and RSA in the United States. Two main patient populations were analyzed within the PearlDiver database, the Humana private insurance population and the Medicare insurance population. The period analyzed was 2010 to 2015.

Results: There was significantly higher utilization of physical rehabilitation in the Humana population when compared to the Medicare population (P<.001, Cramer's V = 0.270). In the Humana population, 36% of patients had 5 or fewer physical rehabilitation visits in the 6 months following their operation, while in the Medicare population, 56% of patients had 5 or fewer physical rehabilitation visits in the same period. Those with TSA had a higher utilization rate than those with RSA in the Humana (P<.001, V = 0.104; TSA, 31% had 5 or fewer physical rehabilitation visits; RSA, 40% had 5 or fewer physical rehabilitation visits within 6 months) and Medicare populations (P<.001, V = 0.135; TSA, 51% had 5 or fewer physical rehabilitation visits; RSA, 61% had 5 or fewer physical rehabilitation visits within 6 months).

Conclusion: Postoperative utilization of physical rehabilitation after anatomic TSA and RSA is markedly higher in privately insured patients than in patients with Medicare, regardless of age, sex, diagnosis, or region of country. These findings have important implications, from the individual patient's experience and outcomes to system-wide resource utilization.

Level Of Evidence: Economic and decision analyses, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(11):856-863. Epub 8 May 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.8176.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2018.8176DOI Listing
November 2018

Survey of shoulder arthroplasty surgeons' methods for infection avoidance of .

J Orthop 2018 Mar 2;15(1):177-180. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Boston Shoulder Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Introduction: infection after shoulder arthroplasty remains a source of morbidity. Determining practices amongst shoulder surgeons is the first step in developing infection-prevention best-practices.

Methods: A survey was sent to a shoulder fellowship alumni group to determine their arthroplasty infection prevention methods.

Results: 74% completed the survey. Cefazolin (90%), vancomycin (50%) and clindamycin (18%) were the most commonly used antibiotics, 61% utilized more than one antibiotic. Most (76%) reported using an experience-based protocol learned during residency/fellowship.

Discussion And Conclusion: There are no clear standards for prevention of infections in shoulder arthroplasty. There is a general non-scientific approach to the prevention of shoulder arthroplasty infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2018.01.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895935PMC
March 2018

Clinical Outcomes Following the Latarjet Procedure in Contact and Collision Athletes.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Mar;100(6):459-465

Boston Shoulder Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Few studies have evaluated the success of the Latarjet procedure for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability in the contact or collision athlete. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the return-to-sport and functional results of the Latarjet procedure in this select group.

Methods: One hundred and nine consecutive contact or collision athletes (112 shoulders) treated with an open Latarjet procedure for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability were retrospectively identified. Seventy-three shoulders in 73 patients (67%) were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 52 months (range, 24 to 120 months). The average age at surgery was 25.8 years (range, 15 to 54 years). The primary outcomes were the scores on the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) questionnaire, a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and return to sport. Predictors of return to sport were analyzed.

Results: Six (8%) of the 73 patients experienced ≥1 postoperative dislocations. Ten additional patients (14%) experienced a perception of instability without a dislocation. The median postoperative WOSI and ASES scores were 382 (range, 0 to 2,016) and 93.3 (range, 21.7 to 100), respectively. The median postoperative VAS pain score was 0 (range, 0 to 10). Forty-nine percent (36) of the 73 patients returned to their preoperative sports level, 14% (10) decreased their activity level in the same sport, 12% (9) changed sports, and 25% (18) decreased their level of activity and changed sports or stopped participating in sports altogether. Patients with ≥2 stabilization procedures prior to the Latarjet procedure demonstrated a lower likelihood of returning to their original sport (p = 0.019; relative risk = 2.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.34 to 6.06). The percentage of glenoid bone loss showed no association with the return-to-sport rate (p = 0.507).

Conclusions: The outcome of the Latarjet procedure in high-risk contact or collision athletes is variable. Patients who have fewer prior stabilization surgical procedures are more likely to successfully return to their original sport.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.00566DOI Listing
March 2018

Coracoid graft union: a quantitative assessment by computed tomography in primary and revision Latarjet procedure.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Aug 21;27(8):1475-1482. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Boston Shoulder Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The goal of the Latarjet procedure is restoration of shoulder stability enabled by accurate graft positioning and union. This study aimed to establish a reproducible method of quantitatively assessing coracoid graft osseous union percentage (OUP) using computed tomography (CT) scans and to determine the effect of other factors on the OUP.

Materials And Methods: Postoperative CT scans of 41 consecutive patients treated with the open Latarjet procedure (37% primary, 63% revision) for anterior glenohumeral instability were analyzed for the OUP, position of the graft, and screw type and angle. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently examined the images 2 times, and intraobserver and interobserver reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: Mean OUP was 66% (range, 0%-94%) using quantitate methods, with good intraobserver reliability (ICC = 0.795) and interobserver reliability (ICC = 0.797). Nonunion and significant graft resorption was found in 2 patients. No significant difference was found in the mean OUP in the primary (63%) vs. revision Latarjet procedure (67%). Grafts were flush in 39%, medial in 36%, and lateral in 8%. The medial and neutral graft position was associated with slightly higher OUP (72% and 69%) compared with lateral (65%). OUP was higher when the superior screw angle was less than 17° and the inferior screw angle was less than 24°. This difference did not reach statistical significance. Screw type was not associated with significant difference in OUP.

Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of osseous union of the graft using a reproducible method that we introduced showed similar OUP in the primary and revision Latarjet procedure.
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August 2018
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