Publications by authors named "Lauren R Teras"

90 Publications

Development of High-Throughput Multiplex Serology to Detect Serum Antibodies against .

Microorganisms 2021 Nov 17;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Division of Infections and Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The causative agent of Q fever, the bacterium (), has gained increasing interest due to outbreak events and reports about it being a potential risk factor for the development of lymphomas. In order to conduct large-scale studies for population monitoring and to investigate possible associations more closely, accurate and cost-effective high-throughput assays are highly desired. To address this need, nine proteins were expressed as recombinant antigens for multiplex serology. This technique enables the quantitative high-throughput detection of antibodies to multiple antigens simultaneously in a single reaction. Based on a reference group of 76 seropositive and 91 seronegative sera, three antigens were able to detect infections. Com1, GroEL, and DnaK achieved specificities of 93%, 69%, and 77% and sensitivities of 64%, 72%, and 47%, respectively. Double positivity to Com1 and GroEL led to a combined specificity of 90% and a sensitivity of 71%. In a subgroup of seropositives with an increased risk for chronic Q fever, the double positivity to these markers reached a specificity of 90% and a sensitivity of 86%. Multiplex serology enables the detection of antibodies against and appears well-suited to investigate associations between infections and the clinical manifestations in large-scale studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623512PMC
November 2021

Genome-wide homozygosity and risk of four non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.

J Transl Genet Genom 2021 17;5:200-217. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Aim: Recessive genetic variation is thought to play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Runs of homozygosity (ROH), defined based on long, continuous segments of homozygous SNPs, can be used to estimate both measured and unmeasured recessive genetic variation. We sought to examine genome-wide homozygosity and NHL risk.

Methods: We used data from eight genome-wide association studies of four common NHL subtypes: 3061 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3814 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2784 follicular lymphoma (FL), and 808 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, as well as 9374 controls. We examined the effect of homozygous variation on risk by: (1) estimating the fraction of the autosome containing runs of homozygosity (FROH); (2) calculating an inbreeding coefficient derived from the correlation among uniting gametes (F3); and (3) examining specific autosomal regions containing ROH. For each, we calculated beta coefficients and standard errors using logistic regression and combined estimates across studies using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: We discovered positive associations between FROH and CLL (β = 21.1, SE = 4.41, = 1.6 × 10) and FL (β = 11.4, SE = 5.82, = 0.02) but not DLBCL ( = 1.0) or MZL ( = 0.91). For F3, we observed an association with CLL (β = 27.5, SE = 6.51, = 2.4 × 10). We did not find evidence of associations with specific ROH, suggesting that the associations observed with FROH and F3 for CLL and FL risk were not driven by a single region of homozygosity.

Conclusion: Our findings support the role of recessive genetic variation in the etiology of CLL and FL; additional research is needed to identify the specific loci associated with NHL risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/jtgg.2021.08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494431PMC
June 2021

Germline variants and breast cancer survival in patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 5;11(1):19787. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Breast Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer. Identification of germline variants associated with survival in aggressive types of breast cancer may inform understanding of breast cancer progression and assist treatment. In this analysis, we studied the associations between germline variants and breast cancer survival for patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis. We used data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) including 1062 women of European ancestry with metastatic breast cancer, 606 of whom died of breast cancer. We identified two germline variants on chromosome 1, rs138569520 and rs146023652, significantly associated with breast cancer-specific survival (P = 3.19 × 10 and 4.42 × 10). In silico analysis suggested a potential regulatory effect of the variants on the nearby target genes SDE2 and H3F3A. However, the variants showed no evidence of association in a smaller replication dataset. The validation dataset was obtained from the SNPs to Risk of Metastasis (StoRM) study and included 293 patients with metastatic primary breast cancer at diagnosis. Ultimately, larger replication studies are needed to confirm the identified associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99409-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492709PMC
October 2021

Association of germline genetic variants with breast cancer-specific survival in patient subgroups defined by clinic-pathological variables related to tumor biology and type of systemic treatment.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 08 18;23(1):86. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients.

Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15).

Results: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy.

Conclusions: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01450-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371820PMC
August 2021

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611832PMC
August 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 07 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322933PMC
July 2021

Risk of Breast Cancer Among Carriers of Pathogenic Variants in Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes Varies by Polygenic Risk Score.

J Clin Oncol 2021 08 8;39(23):2564-2573. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Population Health Sciences Department, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Purpose: This study assessed the joint association of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes and polygenic risk scores (PRS) with BC in the general population.

Methods: A total of 26,798 non-Hispanic white BC cases and 26,127 controls from predominately population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility consortium were evaluated for PVs in , , , , , , , , and . PRS based on 105 common variants were created using effect estimates from BC genome-wide association studies; the performance of an overall BC PRS and estrogen receptor-specific PRS were evaluated. The odds of BC based on the PVs and PRS were estimated using penalized logistic regression. The results were combined with age-specific incidence rates to estimate 5-year and lifetime absolute risks of BC across percentiles of PRS by PV status and first-degree family history of BC.

Results: The estimated lifetime risks of BC among general-population noncarriers, based on 10th and 90th percentiles of PRS, were 9.1%-23.9% and 6.7%-18.2% for women with or without first-degree relatives with BC, respectively. Taking PRS into account, more than 95% of , , and carriers had > 20% lifetime risks of BC, whereas, respectively, 52.5% and 69.7% of and carriers without first-degree relatives with BC, and 78.8% and 89.9% of those with a first-degree relative with BC had > 20% risk.

Conclusion: PRS facilitates personalization of BC risk among carriers of PVs in predisposition genes. Incorporating PRS into BC risk estimation may help identify > 30% of and nearly half of carriers below the 20% lifetime risk threshold, suggesting the addition of PRS may prevent overscreening and enable more personalized risk management approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330969PMC
August 2021

Gene-Environment Interactions Relevant to Estrogen and Risk of Breast Cancer: Can Gene-Environment Interactions Be Detected Only among Candidate SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Studies?

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

In this study we aim to examine gene-environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.2 × 10). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.1 × 10). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156547PMC
May 2021

Prospective investigation of polyomavirus infection and the risk of adult glioma.

Sci Rep 2021 05 5;11(1):9642. Epub 2021 May 5.

Infections and Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Glioma is an aggressive primary tumor of the brain with a poorly understood etiology. We studied the association of 4 human polyomaviruses (HPyV)-JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV), human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) with glioma risk within the Cancer Prevention Study II in the US (CPS-II) and the Janus Serum Bank in Norway. Cohort participants subsequently diagnosed with glioma from the CPS-II (n = 37) and Janus Serum Bank (n = 323), a median of 6.9 and 15.4 years after blood collection, respectively, were matched to individual controls on age, sex, and date of blood draw. Serum antibodies to the major viral capsid protein (VP1) were used to establish infection history for each polyomavirus. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. In the Janus Serum Bank, MCPyV infection was associated with a higher risk of glioma overall (OR: 1.56; 95% CI 1.10, 2.19). A modest, nonsignificant positive association with MCPyV infection was also observed in CPS-II (OR: 1.29; 95% CI 0.54, 3.08). In both cohorts, glioma risk was not significantly related to infection with JCV, BKV or HPyV6. The present study suggests that MCPyV infection may increase glioma risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89133-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100283PMC
May 2021

Prediagnostic Antibody Responses to Proteins Are Not Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large U.S. Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 06 18;30(6):1279-1282. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The association between prediagnostic antibody responses to () and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer is not established.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of 8,126 participants in a consortium of 10 prospective cohorts in the United States.

Results: Higher seroprevalence of any antibody was observed among non-White participants (51.1%) compared with White participants (31.2%). We did not find any statistically significant association between seropositivity to any of the eight proteins and colorectal cancer risk.

Conclusions: Prediagnostic antibody responses to proteins were not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.

Impact: Future studies may consider a more specific detection of the immunoglobulin isotypes or focus on examining in stool or tissue samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172443PMC
June 2021

Toxoplasma gondii infection and the risk of adult glioma in two prospective studies.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) is a common parasite that shows affinity to neural tissue and may lead to the formation of cysts in the brain. Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between glioma and increased prevalence of T gondii infection, but prospective studies are lacking. Therefore, we examined the association between prediagnostic T gondii antibodies and risk of glioma in two prospective cohorts using a nested case-control study design. Cases and matched controls were selected from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPSII-NC) (n = 37 cases and 74 controls) and the Norwegian Cancer Registry's Janus Serum Bank (Janus) (n = 323 cases and 323 controls). Blood samples collected prior to diagnosis were analyzed for antibodies to two T gondii surface antigens (p22 and sag-1), with individuals considered seropositive if antibodies to either antigen were detected. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for each cohort. In both cohorts, a suggestive increase in glioma risk was observed among those infected with T gondii (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 0.96-7.62 for CPSII-NC; OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.85-2.07 for Janus), particularly among participants with high antibody titers specific to the sag-1 antigen (CPSII-NC OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 0.99-11.38; Janus OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.02-3.14). Our findings provide the first prospective evidence of an association between T gondii infection and risk of glioma. Further studies with larger case numbers are needed to confirm a potential etiologic role for T gondii in glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33443DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of Combined Sero-Positivity to and with Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 30;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Infections and Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Previously, we found that risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increased in individuals with serum antibody response to both (HP) Vacuolating Cytotoxin (VacA) toxin or (SGG) pilus protein Gallo2178. In the present analysis, we tested the hypothesis that combined seropositivity to both antigens is a better indicator of CRC risk than seropositivity to single antigens. We used multiplex serologic assays to analyze pre-diagnostic serum for antibody responses from 4063 incident CRC cases and 4063 matched controls from 10 US cohorts. To examine whether combined SGG Gallo2178 and HP VacA sero-status was associated with CRC risk, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to dual sero-negative individuals, there was no increased risk for individuals sero-positive to SGG Gallo2178 only (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.66-1.31) or to HP VacA only (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.98-1.19). However, dual sero-positive individuals had a >50% increased odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.16-2.04), suggesting an interaction between antibody responses to these two pathogens and CRC risk (p = 0.06). In conclusion, this study suggests that dual sero-positivity to HP VacA and SGG Gallo2178 is an indicator of increased risk of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693002PMC
October 2020

Body size and weight change over adulthood and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and hormone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohort studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jan 30;36(1):37-55. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00688-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847460PMC
January 2021

Relationship Between Muscle-Strengthening Activity and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Cohort.

Prev Chronic Dis 2020 08 6;17:E78. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Introduction: Muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) has beneficial effects on hypertension, glucose homeostasis, and other health conditions; however, its association with mortality is not as well understood.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (data collection 1982-2014), a prospective US cohort that consisted of 72,462 men and women who were free of major chronic diseases; 18,034 of the cohort died during 13 years of follow-up (2001-2014). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling, controlling for various potential confounding factors, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MSA (none, >0 to <1 h/wk, 1 to <2 h/wk, and ≥2 h/wk) in relation to mortality risk, independent of and in combination with aerobic physical activity.

Results: The association between MSA and mortality appeared to be nonlinear (quadratic trend P value, <.001). After multivariable adjustment and comparison with no MSA, engaging in less than 2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lowered all-cause mortality (>0 to <1 h/wk: HR = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.82-0.94; 1 to <2 h/wk: HR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), but engaging in 2 or more hours per week was not associated with reduced risk (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92-1.09). Associations were similar but not significant for cancer mortality. Engaging in >0 to <1 hr/wk of MSA was associated with a 19% lower risk (HR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) of cardiovascular disease mortality, but more time spent in MSA was not associated with reduced risk (quadratic trend P value =.005). Associations did not vary by amount of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity.

Conclusion: Engaging in ≥2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lower all-cause mortality, independent of aerobic activity. Reasons for the lack of association with higher amounts of MSA are unclear. Our findings support recommending muscle-strengthening activities for overall health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.190408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417019PMC
August 2020

Erythrocyte levels of cadmium and lead and risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

Int J Cancer 2020 12 25;147(11):3110-3118. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Cadmium and lead are persistent environmental toxins that are known or probable carcinogens, based on evidence for causality for nonhematologic cancers. Associations of these metals with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are unknown but biologically plausible. To examine the associations of circulating levels of lead and cadmium exposure with risk of B-cell NHL (B-NHL) and multiple myeloma, we conducted a nested case-control study among 299 incident B-cell NHLs and 76 MM cases within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II NC). Each case was incidence-density matched to two eligible controls on age, race, sex and blood draw date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lymphoid malignancies overall and stratified by subtype. We observed a significant positive association between high erythrocyte lead concentration and risk of lymphoid malignancies overall (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33 per 17.6 μg/L (1 standard deviation [SD])) and follicular lymphoma in particular (RR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.80 per SD). In contrast, there was no association between erythrocyte cadmium and risk of B-NHL (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.75-1.06 per 0.37 μg/L [1 SD]), or any B-NHL subtypes; but a strong inverse association with MM risk (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, per SD). Results from our study suggest a positive association between erythrocyte lead level and risk of lymphoid malignancies and a possible inverse association between cadmium and myeloma. Additional research is needed to confirm and further explore these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33136DOI Listing
December 2020

Medical conditions and physical function deficits among multiple primary cancer survivors.

J Cancer Surviv 2020 08 12;14(4):518-526. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: Survivors of multiple primary cancers make up a sizable proportion of all cancer survivors, yet little is known about the health of this population. We examined the prevalence of medical conditions and physical function deficits among multiple primary survivors compared with single primary survivors and individuals without a cancer history.

Methods: Participants were enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study (CPS)-II Nutrition Cohort in 1992/1993. Prevalent medical conditions (diabetes, heart conditions, cerebrovascular conditions, emphysema/chronic bronchitis, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis), physical function limitations, use of a cane or walker, balance difficulties, and falls within the past year were assessed on a follow-up survey completed in 2011. We estimated age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs), comparing multiple primary survivors (N = 1003) to single primary survivors (N = 12,849) and participants without cancer (N = 63,578).

Results: The prevalence of medical conditions did not differ substantially between multiple primary survivors and either comparison group. However, multiple primary survivors were more likely to report severe limitations in physical function than the single primary (PR = 1.48 (95% CI, 1.28-1.71)) and no-cancer (PR = 1.64 (95% CI, 1.42-1.88)) groups. Using a cane or walker and balance difficulties were also significantly more common among multiple primary survivors.

Conclusions: Despite a similar prevalence of comorbid medical conditions, severe functional limitations were significantly more common among multiple primary survivors than single primary survivors or individuals without cancer.

Implications For Cancer Survivors: Assessment of functional status and treatment of physical deficits may be an especially critical component of care for older patients with a history of multiple cancer diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-020-00872-0DOI Listing
August 2020

Lipid Trait Variants and the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 05 27;29(5):1074-1078. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.

Methods: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated ( < 5 × 10) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, = 137), total cholesterol (TC, = 161), and triglycerides (TG, = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance ( < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes.

Impact: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196490PMC
May 2020

Reply to Flegal.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 07;112(7):770

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357324PMC
July 2020

Genetically Determined Height and Risk of Non-hodgkin Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:1539. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999122PMC
January 2020

Genome-wide Association Study Identifies HLA-DPB1 as a Significant Risk Factor for Severe Aplastic Anemia.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 02 30;106(2):264-271. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplastic bone marrow and progressive pancytopenia. The etiology of acquired SAA is not understood but is likely related to abnormal immune responses and environmental exposures. We conducted a genome-wide association study of individuals with SAA genetically matched to healthy controls in discovery (359 cases, 1,396 controls) and validation sets (175 cases, 1,059 controls). Combined analyses identified linked SNPs in distinct blocks within the major histocompatibility complex on 6p21. The top SNP encodes p.Met76Val in the P4 binding pocket of the HLA class II gene HLA-DPB1 (rs1042151A>G, odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.03, p = 1.94 × 10) and was associated with HLA-DP cell surface expression in healthy individuals (p = 2.04 × 10). Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Val76 is not monophyletic and likely occurs in conjunction with different HLA-DP binding groove conformations. Imputation of HLA-DPB1 alleles revealed increased risk of SAA associated with Val76-encoding alleles DPB103:01, (OR 1.66, p = 1.52 × 10), DPB110:01 (OR 2.12, p = 0.0003), and DPB101:01 (OR 1.60, p = 0.0008). A second SNP near HLA-B, rs28367832G>A, reached genome-wide significance (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.78, p = 7.27 × 10) in combined analyses; the association remained significant after excluding cases with clonal copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity affecting class I HLA genes (8.6% of cases and 0% of controls). SNPs in the HLA class II gene HLA-DPB1 and possibly class I (HLA-B) are associated with SAA. The replacement of Met76 to Val76 in certain HLA-DPB1 alleles might influence risk of SAA through mechanisms involving DP peptide binding specificity, expression, and/or other factors affecting DP function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010969PMC
February 2020

Sustained Weight Loss and Risk of Breast Cancer in Women 50 Years and Older: A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Data.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 09;112(9):929-937

Department of Epidemiology.

Background: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk.

Methods: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up.

Results: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight.

Conclusions: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492760PMC
September 2020

Inherited variants at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 are associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and implicate immune pathways.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 01;29(1):70-79

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

We previously identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate two loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5662 cases and 9237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, P = 3.62 × 10-13]. rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5510 cases and 12 817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF = 0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR = 1.20, P = 2.31 × 10-12). This SNP is 29 426-bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001601PMC
January 2020

Genetic overlap between autoimmune diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.

Genet Epidemiol 2019 10 13;43(7):844-863. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Medicina Traslazionale, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Vercelli, Italy.

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6763347PMC
October 2019

Physical Activity, Sitting Time, and Risk of Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, and Other Myeloid Malignancies.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019 09 13;28(9):1489-1494. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, 250 Williams St., Atlanta, Georgia.

Introduction: There is limited research on associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sitting with risk of myeloid neoplasms (MN) or MN subtypes. We examined these associations in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort.

Methods: Among 109,030 cancer-free participants (mean age 69.2, SD 6.1 years) in 1999, 409 were identified as having been diagnosed with a MN [ = 155 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), = 154 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), = 100 other ML] through June 2013. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of MVPA (MET-h/wk) and sitting (h/d) with risk of all MN, myeloid leukemia only, MDS, and AML.

Results: Compared with insufficient MVPA [>0-<7.5 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET)-h/wk], the HR (95% CI) for meeting physical activity guidelines (7.5-<15 MET-h/wk MVPA) and risk of MN was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.56-0.98) and for doubling guidelines (15-<22.5 MET-h/wk) was 0.75 (0.53-1.07); however, there was no statistically significant association for higher MVPA (22.5+ MET-h/wk, HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.73-1.20). Similarly, meeting/doubling guidelines was associated with lower risk of MDS (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.92/HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.98), but there was no association for 22.5+ MET-h/wk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37). MVPA was not associated with risk of myeloid leukemia or AML. Sitting time was not associated with risk of any outcome.

Conclusions: These results suggest that there may be a nonlinear association between MVPA and risk of MDS and possibly other MN.

Impact: Further studies are needed to better understand the dose-response relationships between MVPA and risk of MDS, a highly fatal and understudied cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0232DOI Listing
September 2019

Anthropometric factors and risk of myeloid leukaemias and myelodysplastic syndromes: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

Br J Haematol 2019 07 11;186(2):243-254. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

There is insufficient evidence linking excess body weight to risk of myeloid malignancies. We investigated this association using data from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), and a meta-analysis of published cohort studies. Among 152 090 CPS-II participants, 387 acute myeloid leukaemias (AML), 100 chronic myeloid leukaemias (CML) and 170 MDS were identified over 21 years of follow-up. In CPS-II, body mass index (BMI) was weakly associated with risk of CML (hazard ratio [HR] = 1·04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0·99-1·09 per 1 unit increase in BMI), AML (HR = 1·01, 95% CI: 0·98-1·03) and MDS (HR = 1·03, 95% CI: 0·99-1·07). After controlling for other anthropometric factors, no clear association was observed for height, BMI at age 18 years or weight change. In the meta-analysis (n = 7117 myeloid leukaemias), BMI 25-29·9 kg/m (HR  = 1·36, 95% CI: 1·12-1·59) and BMI ≥30 kg/m (HR  = 1·43, 95% CI: 1·18-1·69) were associated with higher risk of myeloid leukaemia overall, compared to a BMI <25 kg/m . Likewise, BMI ≥25 kg/m was positively associated with both AML and CML risk individually in the meta-analysis. These results underscore the need for large studies to detect associations with rare cancers, and show a modest, but positive association between excess body weight and myeloid malignancy risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15904DOI Listing
July 2019

Residential ambient benzene exposure in the United States and subsequent risk of hematologic malignancies.

Int J Cancer 2019 11 27;145(10):2647-2660. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

Benzene is considered a carcinogen, mostly based on evidence of causality for myeloid leukemia from high levels of exposure in occupational studies. We used United States Environmental Protection Agency National Ambient Toxics Assessment (NATA) estimates of low-level ambient benzene to examine potential associations for the general public between benzene exposure and risk of hematologic cancers. Exposure was estimated by linking participants' residential address to the NATA benzene estimates for that census tract. Among 115,996 American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition cohort participants (52,554 men, 63,442 women), 2,595 were diagnosed with incident hematologic cancer between 1997 and 2013. Extended Cox regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among all participants, ambient benzene was positively associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.33 per μg/m ) and T-cell lymphoma (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.08-1.53 per μg/m ). Among men, ambient benzene was also positively associated with any hematologic malignancy (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15 per μg/m ) and follicular lymphoma (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.09-1.50 per μg/m ). No significant associations were observed for women only, but associations were suggestive for MDS and T-cell lymphoma. It is possible that the NATA ambient benzene estimates are a better proxy for benzene exposure for men than women in this cohort. The results of this study support an association between ambient benzene and risk of hematologic malignancies, particularly MDS, T-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. More research in large scale or pooled studies is needed to further explore these associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32202DOI Listing
November 2019

Social Isolation and Mortality in US Black and White Men and Women.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 01;188(1):102-109

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Social isolation is associated with higher mortality in studies comprising mostly white adults, yet associations among black adults are unclear. In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated whether associations of social isolation with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality differed by race and sex. Adults enrolled in Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982/1983 were followed for mortality through 2012 (n = 580,182). Sex- and race-specific multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations of a 5-point social isolation score with risk of death. Social isolation was associated with all-cause mortality in all subgroups (P for trend ≤ 0.005); for the most isolated versus the least isolated, the hazard ratios were 2.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58, 3.46) and 1.60 (95% CI: 1.41, 1.82) among black men and white men, respectively (P for interaction = 0.40) and 2.13 (95% CI: 1.44, 3.15) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.68, 2.01) among black women and white women, respectively (P for interaction = 0.89). The association did not differ between black men and black women (P for interaction = 0.33) but was slightly stronger in white women than in white men (P for interaction = 0.01). Social isolation was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality in each subgroup (P for trend < 0.03) but with cancer mortality only among whites (P for trend < 0.0001). Subgroup differences in the influence of specific social isolation components were identified. Identifying and intervening with socially isolated adults could improve health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321805PMC
January 2019

Two high-risk susceptibility loci at 6p25.3 and 14q32.13 for Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

Nat Commun 2018 10 10;9(1):4182. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, 30303, GA, USA.

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare, chronic B-cell lymphoma with high heritability. We conduct a two-stage genome-wide association study of WM/LPL in 530 unrelated cases and 4362 controls of European ancestry and identify two high-risk loci associated with WM/LPL at 6p25.3 (rs116446171, near EXOC2 and IRF4; OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 14.40-31.03, P = 1.36 × 10) and 14q32.13 (rs117410836, near TCL1; OR = 4.90, 95% CI: 3.45-6.96, P = 8.75 × 10). Both risk alleles are observed at a low frequency among controls (~2-3%) and occur in excess in affected cases within families. In silico data suggest that rs116446171 may have functional importance, and in functional studies, we demonstrate increased reporter transcription and proliferation in cells transduced with the 6p25.3 risk allele. Although further studies are needed to fully elucidate underlying biological mechanisms, together these loci explain 4% of the familial risk and provide insights into genetic susceptibility to this malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06541-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180091PMC
October 2018

A blueprint for the primary prevention of cancer: Targeting established, modifiable risk factors.

CA Cancer J Clin 2018 11 10;68(6):446-470. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Chief Medical and Scientific Officer and Executive Vice President of Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

In the United States, it is estimated that more than 1.7 million people will be diagnosed with cancer, and more than 600,000 will die of the disease in 2018. The financial costs associated with cancer risk factors and cancer care are enormous. To substantially reduce both the number of individuals diagnosed with and dying from cancer and the costs associated with cancer each year in the United States, government and industry and the public health, medical, and scientific communities must work together to develop, invest in, and implement comprehensive cancer control goals and strategies at the national level and expand ongoing initiatives at the state and local levels. This report is the second in a series of articles in this journal that, together, describe trends in cancer rates and the scientific evidence on cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and survivorship to inform the identification of priorities for a comprehensive cancer control plan. Herein, we focus on existing evidence about established, modifiable risk factors for cancer, including prevalence estimates and the cancer burden due to each risk factor in the United States, and established primary prevention recommendations and interventions to reduce exposure to each risk factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.21496DOI Listing
November 2018

Blood levels of cadmium and lead in relation to breast cancer risk in three prospective cohorts.

Int J Cancer 2019 03 7;144(5):1010-1016. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, Athens, Greece.

Cadmium and lead have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, their associations with breast cancer risk are unknown despite their persistence in the environment and ubiquitous human exposure. We examined associations of circulating levels of cadmium and lead with breast cancer risk in three case-control studies nested within the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) LifeLink Cohort, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Italy (EPIC-Italy) and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) cohorts. Metal levels were measured in stored erythrocytes from 1,435 cases and 1,433 controls using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models with each study result weighted by the within- and between-study variances. I values were calculated to estimate proportion of between study variation. Using common cut-points, cadmium levels were not associated with breast cancer risk in the CPS-II cohort (continuous RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.34), but were inversely associated with risk in the EPIC- Italy (continuous RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.03) and NSHDS cohorts (continuous RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). The inverse association was also evident in the meta-analysis (continuous RR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.69-1.01) with low between-study heterogeneity. Large differences in lead level distributions precluded a meta-analysis of their association with breast cancer risk; no associations were found in the three studies. Adult cadmium and lead levels were not associated with higher risk of breast cancer in our large meta-analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063440PMC
March 2019
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