Publications by authors named "Lauren M Papp"

44 Publications

College-based social and situational predictors of real-time prescription drug misuse in daily life.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Aug 28;227:108969. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Kinsey Institute, Indiana University, 150 S. Woodlawn Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405, United States. Electronic address:

Background: This study examined social and situational context predictors of prescription drug misuse among college-students at a large public university in the Midwest. Social and situational context predictors considered were hour of the day, weekend vs weekday, whether participants were at home or another place, and who they were with during instances of misuse. Salient social events, including home football games, city-regulated parties, and the 2019 Midwest polar vortex were also recorded.

Method: Using ecological momentary assessment methodology, 297 students completed momentary reports for 28 days. Participants indicated whether they had misused prescription medication (sedatives or sleeping pills, tranquilizers or anxiety medications, stimulants, and pain relievers) and reported on their social and situational context in the moment of misuse.

Results: Multilevel modeling indicated that participants were more likely to misuse prescription medication earlier in the day vs. the evening, on weekdays vs. weekends, when at home vs. not at home, and while alone vs. with others.

Conclusions: This study provides descriptive information on the social context in which prescription drug misuse is most likely to occur among college students. Our findings suggest that social and situational contexts of prescription drug misuse likely differ as compared to other substances (e.g., alcohol) among college students. Further research aimed at identifying momentary predictors of prescription drug misuse in this population is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108969DOI Listing
August 2021

Marital satisfaction, parenting styles, and child outcomes in families of autistic children.

Fam Process 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Theory and research on the general population suggest that parents' marital relationship quality is associated with children's emotional and behavioral functioning directly, as well as indirectly, by affecting parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, little has been done to investigate the potential connection among parent marital satisfaction, parenting styles, and outcomes for autistic children. Using longitudinal data collected from 188 couples parenting an autistic child, this study tested the time-ordered indirect effect of parent marital satisfaction (assessed at Time 1) on the internalizing and externalizing symptoms (assessed at Time 3) of autistic children (originally aged 5-12 years) via parenting styles (assessed at Time 2) using actor-partner interdependence modeling extended to mediation. Results indicated that a lower level of marital satisfaction at Time 1 predicted impaired child outcomes at Time 3 via its impact on parenting style at Time 2. For both parents, lower marital satisfaction predicted more child externalizing symptoms via reports of more authoritarian parenting style. Lower marital satisfaction in mothers at Time 1 was also associated with higher levels of child internalizing symptoms at Time 3 via increased authoritarian parenting in mothers. No partner effects were found. A family-wide approach that includes support for the parent marital relationship, which may have downstream effects on parenting, is important for promoting optimal emotional and behavioral health in autistic children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.12708DOI Listing
August 2021

Romantic (versus other) events and momentary affect: Immediate and lagged within-person associations among college students.

J Fam Psychol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies.

Given that affect is highly responsive to experiences representing current goals and values, and young adulthood reflects a period in which romantic relationships become increasingly important, this study explored the links between everyday romantic relationship events and momentary affect among young adult college students. Romantic events were then directly compared to academic and family events-two other salient life domains for these students-as predictors of current and subsequent momentary affect. Drawn from an ecological momentary sampling study designed to assess substance use, participants in dating relationships (N = 130) completed four reports per day for 28 days (totaling 10,318 reports). Multilevel models tested within-person associations between positive and negative romantic events (broadly defined) as predictors of positive (e.g., happy, excited) and negative (e.g., sad, lonely) affect in the moment and beyond. Analyses included both event occurrence and event intensity models, facilitating event comparison. Models accounted for day-level effects and several relevant individual and relationship controls. Results indicated that positive romantic events were associated with immediate and lasting increases in positive affect and immediate (but not always lasting) decreases in negative affect, whereas negative romantic events were associated with immediate and lasting changes in both positive and negative affect. When significant, direct comparisons indicated that romantic events were associated with larger changes in concurrent and subsequent affect than academic or family events. Findings highlight the powerful role that young adults' romantic relationships play in their emotional well-being, particularly in comparison to other developmentally and environmentally salient life domains. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000885DOI Listing
July 2021

Real-time momentary mood as a predictor of college students' prescription drug misuse in daily life: Direct links and the moderating role of background mental health.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies.

The present study addressed calls for research to identify real-time predictors of prescription drug misuse (Schepis et al., 2020) by testing young adults' momentary reports of their negative mood and positive mood as predictors of event-level misuse in daily life. We implemented a 28-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) procedure that collected individuals' mood and other contextual experiences in moments preceding prescription drug misuse. Consistent with models of problematic substance use as a means to reduce negativity (Khantzian, 1997), results from hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) indicated within-person links between higher than usual negative mood and greater likelihood of prescription misuse in daily life. Contrary to the hypothesis, misuse was also more likely when preceded by elevated positive mood. We found consistent support for the hypothesized between-person effects, with prescription misuse in daily life associated with higher average levels of negative mood, and lower average levels of positive mood, across the reporting period. We further predicted that individuals reporting greater levels of social anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms would evidence stronger links between their momentary negative mood and prescription misuse. Partial support for this moderation hypothesis was found, with the positive within-person link between negative mood and prescription misuse significantly stronger among individuals higher (vs. lower) on social anxiety and depression. Results provide support for intricate connections between young adults' momentary mood, mental health symptoms, and prescription drug misuse. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pha0000500DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of COVID-19 disruptions on young adults' affect and substance use in daily life.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Jun 20;35(4):391-401. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Guided by accounts of as a key indicator of health, the current study examined prospective changes in young adults' emotions and substance behaviors assessed during a normative baseline period and during the acute COVID-19 disruption period in late March/early April 2020. The COVID-19 assessment also collected psychosocial risk factors expected to moderate changes in adjustment across time.

Method: Participants included 295 young adults (70.8% female; ages 18-21 at baseline), drawn from an ongoing study of daily behaviors and health in college life that oversampled for recent substance behaviors, who completed both the baseline and COVID-19 assessments. Hypotheses were tested using analyses of repeated-measures data that included covariates of length of time between assessments and sampling group status.

Results: Direct tests in support of hypotheses indicated an increase in negative affect ( = .67, < .001), and greater alcohol use ( = .75, < .001) and marijuana use ( = .58, < .001), in daily life across time. Levels of positive affect ( = .08, > .05), nicotine use ( = .01, > .05), and prescription drug misuse ( = .003, > .05) did not reliably change in tests of direct models. Moderation tests indicated several risk factors for experiencing steeper increases in negative affect, and increased likelihood of marijuana and nicotine use, in daily life across time.

Conclusions: Findings offer implications for future research and clinical efforts to improve young adult adjustment in response to the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184623PMC
June 2021

Substance use behaviors in the daily lives of U.S. college students reporting recent use: The varying roles of romantic relationships.

Soc Sci Med 2021 06 10;279:114021. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Human Development and Family Studies Department, 4166 Nancy Nicholas Hall, 1300 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Rationale: While the detrimental consequences of problematic substance use behaviors in early adulthood are well-documented, the interpersonal predictors of substance use in the naturalistic context of daily life are less known.

Methods: Using ecological momentary assessments to capture moments of binge drinking, marijuana use, nicotine use, and prescription misuse in everyday life, this study explored the romantic relationship contexts (status, quality, partner presence) of substance use among young adults (aged 18-21) attending a university in the Midwestern U.S. Between 2017 and 2019, 296 participants, who had endorsed recent substance use at screening for a larger study on prescription misuse, completed four reports per day for approximately 28 days, resulting in over 23,000 reports for this investigation.

Results: Relationship status, partner support, and partner presence in the moment were all associated with at least one type of substance use behavior. Generalized multilevel models indicated that partnered participants engaged in less marijuana use, nicotine use, and prescription misuse in daily life compared to single participants. Higher partner support predicted less binge drinking, yet also predicted higher nicotine use and prescription misuse. When with a romantic partner in daily life, partnered participants were more likely to engage in binge drinking and marijuana use, and less likely to misuse prescription drugs. Nicotine use was more likely when with a partner, but only if partner support was high.

Conclusions: Findings highlight the intricate links between interpersonal contexts and substance behaviors and indicate supportive relationships are not universally protective against substance use among this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266259PMC
June 2021

Explaining Heterogeneity of Daily Conflict Spillover in the Family: The Role of Dyadic Marital Conflict Patterns.

Fam Process 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Youth and Family, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

In this multi-informant, longitudinal, daily diary study, we investigated whether long-term dyadic patterns of marital conflict resolution explain the heterogeneity in short-term day-to-day cross-lagged associations between marital conflict intensity and mother-adolescent conflict intensity. The sample consisted of 419 adolescents (44.6% girls, M  = 13.02, SD = 0.44, at T1; M  = 17.02, SD = 0.44, at T5), their mothers (N = 419, M  = 44.48, SD = 4.17, at T1), and their fathers (N = 419, M  = 46.76, SD = 4.99, at T1). Mothers and fathers reported on their marital conflict resolution strategies annually across 5 years. Mother-father daily conflict intensity (mother-reported) and mother-adolescent daily conflict intensity (mother- and adolescent-reported) were assessed for 75 days across 5 years. We hypothesized that long-term marital conflict resolution patterns would moderate the short-term daily dynamics of conflict between the marital and the mother-adolescent dyads. Latent Class Growth Analysis revealed four types of families based on long-term dyadic marital conflict resolution, including families where mostly constructive or mostly destructive conflict resolution was used. Dynamic Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the daily levels and short-term daily dynamics of conflict, revealing that for most families there were no day-to-day lagged associations between marital conflict and mother-adolescent conflict. Results showed that long-term conflict resolution patterns did not moderate the short-term dynamics of daily conflict. However, differences among long-term marital conflict resolution patterns were found in the levels of daily conflict, such that in families with long-term destructive conflict resolution patterns, daily conflict intensity was higher.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.12648DOI Listing
March 2021

Academic factors associated with college students' prescription stimulant misuse in daily life: An ecological analysis of multiple levels.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Jan 5:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Objective: To identify academic factors pertaining to college students, calendar timing, and particular moments that are uniquely associated with elevated likelihood of prescription stimulant misuse (intentions and actual behavior) in daily life. Participants were 297 freshmen and sophomores at a large public university in the United States in 2017-2019. Participants completed survey measures during lab visits and ecological momentary assessment procedures in daily life. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel models that accounted for the nested data and demographic covariates. Student, calendar-based, and momentary academic factors were uniquely associated with stimulant misuse intentions in daily life. Real-time academic events, beyond the proportion of academic events experienced, emerged as a robust predictor of misuse behavior. Within-person links between real-time momentary predictors and misuse behavior were moderated by finals week timing. Findings offer implications for prevention and intervention strategies for college students at risk for prescription drug misuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1841774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255324PMC
January 2021

Real-time associations between young adults' momentary pain and prescription opioid misuse intentions in daily life.

Am Psychol 2020 09;75(6):761-771

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

has been identified (mainly through retrospective reports) as a robust motivator for individuals engaging in prescription opioid misuse. However, surprisingly little work has directly examined whether momentary pain experiences are associated with prescription opioid misuse in daily life. Participants included 297 young-adult college students recruited on the basis of recent prescription drug misuse. Ecological momentary assessment over a 28-day period was utilized to collect participants' pain experiences and prescription opioid misuse intention and behavior. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling and binary logistic regression tested hypotheses. Findings revealed that higher in-the-moment pain was positively associated with intentions to engage in prescription opioid misuse, accounting for report timing and participant sex and background substance use. Also, the between-person result indicated that participants who reported higher levels of pain across the reporting period were more likely to intend to misuse prescription opioids in daily life. There was a similar reliable association between higher pain ratings across the reporting period and greater likelihood of engaging in misuse behavior, although actual misuse frequency was low. Reliable moderation was observed: As hypothesized, the within-person association between momentary pain and misuse intentions was stronger for females compared with males. Also, the within-person link between pain and misuse intentions was stronger for those who reported lower (vs. higher) levels of problematic alcohol use; this was not consistent with the hypothesized direction. Understanding the role of college students' pain in their intentions to engage in prescription opioid misuse is important for informing future research and prevention efforts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513685PMC
September 2020

Development and Acceptability of a Method to Investigate Prescription Drug Misuse in Daily Life: Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 10 1;8(10):e21676. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, United States.

Background: Prescription drug misuse and abuse is an established public health challenge, and young adults are particularly affected. There is a striking lack of real-time, naturalistic data collection assessing intentions to misuse and other precipitating factors at the time of actual misuse, leaving the conditions under which individuals are most likely to misuse prescription medications unknown. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) apps and protocols designed to capture this information would accelerate and expand the knowledge base and could directly contribute to prevention and treatment efforts.

Objective: The objectives of this study are to describe the development and administration of a mobile app and the EMA protocol designed to collect real-time factors associated with college students' prescription drug misuse intentions and behaviors in daily life; present completion rates, compliance, acceptability, and reactivity associated with the EMA protocol for participants who endorsed recent prescription drug misuse at screening (ie, risk group; n=300) and those who did not (ie, nonrisk group; n=55); and establish initial construct validity by linking the reports of misuse behaviors in daily life collected via the EMA app to prescription drug misuse reported on a standard survey.

Methods: An EMA data collection app and protocol were designed specifically to capture hypothesized contextual factors along with prescription drug misuse intentions and behaviors in daily life. Using this protocol, young adult college students (N=352) completed signal- and event-contingent reports over a 28-day period. When the intention to misuse a prescription drug was endorsed, a brief follow-up prompt was sent 15 min later to collect participants' indications of whether or not misuse had occurred.

Results: Risk-group participants were significantly more likely than nonrisk counterparts to endorse any prescription drug misuse intentions in daily life (P<.001), to complete one or more follow-up reports (P<.001), and to endorse any prescription drug misuse behavior in daily life on the follow-ups (P<.001). Overall, participants demonstrated consistent engagement with the EMA procedures and returned an average of 74.5 (SD 23.82; range 10-122) reports. Participants in the risk and nonrisk groups did not differ in the number of reports they completed (P=.12), the number of their reporting days (P=.32), or their average completion rates (P=.14). The results indicated some evidence of reactivity to the momentary reporting procedure. Participants reported uniformly positive experiences and remained highly engaged throughout the reporting protocol and broader study.

Conclusions: The novel EMA app and protocol provide an effective way to assess real-time factors associated with prescription drug misuse intentions and behaviors in daily life. The resulting investigations offer the potential to provide highly translatable information for research and prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/21676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563627PMC
October 2020

Mother-father physiological synchrony during conflict and moderation by parenting challenges: Findings from parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

Fam Syst Health 2020 12 27;38(4):476-481. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Introduction: Despite robust evidence in the broader family process literature for within-couple associations between romantic partners' physiological responding, this linkage has not been tested directly among parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Explicit attention to these parents is warranted on the basis of the established family-wide challenges associated with the persistent emotional, functional, and behavior impairments typically observed in children with ASD (see Karst & Van Hecke, 2012). The first purpose of this study is to extend examination of within-couple associations between electrodermal activity (EDA) to mothers and fathers of children with ASD. The second purpose is to test 2 potential moderators of EDA synchrony reflecting heightened challenges among parents of children with ASD, namely parenting as an observed conflict topic and global parenting stress.

Method: Both parents wore wrist sensors that captured continuous EDA during a recorded marital conflict interaction. Trained coders provided ratings of emotional intensity and conflict topics, including whether the topic of parenting was discussed. Parents reported their global level of parenting stress. Dyadic multilevel modeling was used to test our hypotheses and accounted for interaction factors (e.g., movement data, emotional intensity).

Results: Findings identified significant positive associations between parents' EDA. One moderator result emerged; specifically, father EDA was a stronger predictor of mother EDA when parenting was discussed as a conflict topic.

Conclusion: This study extends evidence of within-couple physiological linkage to parents raising a child with ASD and provides a foundation for future research examining the family-wide implications of this linkage. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887004PMC
December 2020

Child-present and child-themed marital conflict in daily life of parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

Dev Psychol 2019 Jan 8;55(1):148-156. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Parents of 5- to 12-year-old children (half had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder [ASD] and half were typically developing) provided reports of the most significant marital conflict of the day and ratings of child behaviors problems on a daily basis for 14 days. Mothers and fathers in the ASD group reported having more conflicts in daily life with any children present and more conflicts with the target child present than their counterparts with typically developing children did. Fathers (but not mothers) in the ASD group reported more conflicts as including child-related themes, although parents across the groups did not differ in their reporting marital conflict that specifically discussed the study's target child. Results from multilevel modeling revealed within-person associations between child presence during marital conflict and parents' emotions; specifically, child presence was related to lower dyadic positivity and higher dyadic anger, according to both mothers and fathers. In addition, results identified significant, positive within-person associations between child presence during marital conflict and discussing certain conflict topics (increased likelihoods of discussing any children and the study's target children). These direct associations were found consistently across mothers' and fathers' reports, and did not vary across ASD and comparison families. Multilevel models focused on implications of the marital conflict for the study's target children generally found child presence during conflict and discussion of child-themed conflict topics to predict higher levels of behavior problems in daily life. One moderating effect was identified, with child presence during conflict related to higher behavior problems according to mothers in the ASD group but not those in the comparison group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6897364PMC
January 2019

Couples' Perceptions of Each Other's Daily Affect: Empathic Accuracy, Assumed Similarity, and Indirect Accuracy.

Fam Process 2019 03 23;58(1):179-196. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

This study examined couples' perceptions of each other's daily affect, using a daily diary methodology. Specifically, we tested the extent to which couples accurately inferred how their partner was feeling (empathic accuracy) and the extent to which spouses used their own feelings as a gauge for how their partner was feeling (assumed similarity). We also tested for indirect accuracy in couples' perceptions; that is, that assumed similarity in the context of actual similarity leads to empathic accuracy. Participants were 51 couples who completed daily diaries for seven consecutive nights. Results based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that couples showed both empathic accuracy and assumed similarity in their perception of their partner's positive affect; however, they used assumed similarity in rating their partner's hard negative (anger, hostility) and soft negative (sadness, fear) affect. Furthermore, tests of indirect accuracy found that wives were indirectly accurate in perceiving their husbands' positive affect and both husbands and wives were indirectly accurate in perceiving each other's hard negative affect because they were biased. Complementing laboratory studies, the present study highlights that examining couples' perceptions of each other's feelings in contexts of daily life, and differentiating positive and negative emotions, can further our understanding of the role of emotions for healthy relationship functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.12344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512343PMC
March 2019

Mothers' and Fathers' Prescription Drug Misuse in Family Contexts: Implications for the Adjustment of Parents of Children With and Without Autism.

Addict Res Theory 2018 20;26(4):267-274. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Although prescription drug misuse is an identified risk factor for individuals' outcomes, less is known about its occurrence in and implications for families. To address this limitation, we examined whether mothers' and fathers' prescription drug misuse is associated with the adjustment of parents, including those with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those without. Mothers and fathers from families with a child with ASD ( = 178) and comparison families without a child with ASD ( = 174) completed surveys of past-year prescription drug misuse and their personal and relationship adjustment. In total, 7.7% ( = 27) of mothers and 8.2% ( = 29) of fathers reported recent prescription drug misuse. There was significant interdependence between mothers' and fathers' recent prescription drug misuse in families with a child with ASD but not in comparison families. Actor-partner interdependence modeling was used to examine associations between parents' prescription drug misuse and their own and their partner's adjustment, controlling for medical use of prescription drugs and demographic covariates. Across family diagnosis statuses, mothers' prescription drug misuse predicted higher levels of their own alcohol problems, whereas fathers' prescription drug misuse related only to mothers' poorer sleep quality. Moreover, mothers' prescription drug misuse was associated with higher levels of their own depression symptoms in ASD-status (but not in comparison) families. Understanding parents' prescription drug misuse and its effects on family members is critical for informing future research and prevention and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2017.1351552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407890PMC
July 2017

Couple Conflict in Parents of Children with versus without Autism: Self-Reported and Observed Findings.

J Child Fam Stud 2017 Aug 3;26(8):2152-2165. Epub 2017 May 3.

University of Wisconsin-Madison.

We compared the couple conflict of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to a comparison group of parents of children without disabilities using self-reported and observational measures. In total, 178 couples who had a child with ASD (aged 5-12 years) and 174 couples who had children without disabilities (aged 5-12 years), recruited from a Midwestern state in the United States, reported on couple conflict in everyday life and engaged in an observed couple conflict interaction. Parents of children with ASD reported more frequent, severe, and unresolved couple problems than the comparison group. Parents who had a child with ASD were observed to have less engaged, balanced, and cooperative couple conflict interactions, but demonstrated more positive affect and sensitivity towards one another, than parents in the comparison group. Group differences had small effect sizes. Findings have implications for marital therapy and relationship education programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0737-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5661987PMC
August 2017

Breastfeeding duration predicts greater maternal sensitivity over the next decade.

Dev Psychol 2018 02 30;54(2):220-227. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

The current study represents the first longitudinal investigation of the potential effects of breastfeeding duration on maternal sensitivity over the following decade. This study also examined whether infant attachment security at 24 months would mediate longitudinal relations between breastfeeding duration and changes in maternal sensitivity over time. Using data from 1,272 families from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we found that longer breastfeeding duration (assessed up to age 3) predicted increases in observed maternal sensitivity up to child age 11, after accounting for maternal neuroticism, parenting attitudes, ethnicity, maternal years of education, and presence of a romantic partner. Additionally, secure attachment at 24 months was predicted by breastfeeding duration, but it did not act as a mediator of the link from breastfeeding duration to maternal sensitivity in this study. Generating a more specific understanding of how breastfeeding impacts the mother-child dyad beyond infancy will inform recommendations for best practices regarding breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708079PMC
February 2018

Predicting young adults' risk for engaging in prescription drug misuse in daily life from individual, partner, and relationship factors.

Subst Abus 2017 Jan-Mar;38(1):61-68. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

b Department of Psychology , Southern Methodist University , Dallas , Texas , USA.

Background: Mounting evidence based on retrospective and global assessments has established associations between prescription drug misuse and illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, mental health problems, risky sexual behaviors, and overdose deaths. However, there is a notable absence of identified risk and protective factors for an individual's likelihood of engaging in misuse in real-world environments.

Methods: Using an experience sampling approach, the authors collected repeated moments of young adults' (n = 95 participants drawn from 49 romantic couples) prescription drug misuse instances in daily life and tested multiple factors associated with the misuse.

Results: When examined in separate multilevel models, individual and relationship factors (but not partner factors) reliably predicted the likelihood of females' and males' prescription drug misuse in daily life. Specifically, females' elevated dysphoria symptoms, alcohol problems, and relationship closeness were linked with an increased likelihood of misuse, whereas cohabiting decreased the likelihood of their misuse. Males' higher levels of illicit drug use and relationship closeness were associated with increased likelihood of misuse, whereas their dysphoria symptoms were related to a lower likelihood of misuse. When examined in models that considered the predictors simultaneously, females' misuse was associated with individual, partner, and relationship factors, whereas males' misuse was not reliably associated with any of the factors.

Conclusions: An experience sampling approach was effective for the near-real-time assessment of young adults' prescription drug misuse in daily environments, and the likelihood of misuse was associated with risk and protective factors from multiple levels of influence. Education and treatment efforts designed to reduce prescription drug misuse may need to be tailored to accommodate males' and females' distinct predictors of misuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2016.1263590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526003PMC
February 2018

The effect of daily challenges in children with autism on parents' couple problem-solving interactions.

J Fam Psychol 2016 Sep 23;30(6):732-42. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

The vulnerability-stress-adaptation model guided this examination of the impact of daily fluctuations in the symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on parents' couple problem-solving interactions in natural settings and as these interactions spontaneously occur. A 14-day daily diary was completed by mothers and fathers in 176 families who had a child with ASD. On each day of the diary, parents separately reported on the child with ASD's daily level of symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems and the topic and level of negative affect in their most meaningful or important daily couple problem-solving interaction. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the within-person, within-couple nested structure of the data. Results indicated that many parents are resilient to experiencing a day with a high level of child ASD symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems and do not report more negative couple problem-solving interactions. However, household income, level of parental broader autism phenotype, and presence of multiple children with special care needs served as vulnerability factors in that they were related to a higher overall rating of negative affect in couple interactions and moderated the impact of reporting a day with a high level of child ASD symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems on next-day ratings of negative couple problem-solving interactions. The magnitude of these effects was small. Understanding mechanisms that support adaptive couple interactions in parents of children with ASD is critical for promoting best outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5014690PMC
September 2016

Spillover of Marital Interactions and Parenting Stress in Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2018 24;47(sup1):S88-S99. Epub 2016 May 24.

c Department of Educational Psychology , University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Few disorders appear to be more challenging for parents than autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little is known about the extent to which parenting stress experienced by parents of children with ASD affects or is affected by marital quality. We examined daily spillover between level of parenting stress and marital interactions in a sample of 176 married couples (89.4% Caucasian, non-Hispanic) who have a child with ASD (5-12 years of age, 85% male) via a 14-day daily diary approach. On each day of the daily diary, parents individually reported on 8 positive and 8 negative marital interactions and their level of parenting stress. Dyadic multilevel modeling analyses using hierarchical linear modeling were conducted to examine same-day and lagged-effect associations between number of positive and negative marital interactions and level of parenting stress. Having a day with a higher number of negative marital interactions was associated with a higher level of parenting stress for both mothers and fathers of children with ASD. Having a day with fewer positive marital interactions was associated with having a more stressful parenting day for mothers of children with ASD. Same-day spillover was moderated by parent gender and the functioning of the child with ASD. Spillover flowed bidirectionally for mothers of children with ASD. Helping parents of children with ASD find ways to engage in positive marital interactions on stressful parenting days and avoid having negative affect, tension, and behaviors stemming from negative marital interactions spill into parenting experiences are important intervention targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1152552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5122470PMC
September 2019

Interplay between marital attributions and conflict behavior in predicting depressive symptoms.

J Fam Psychol 2016 Mar 11;30(2):286-95. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.

Marital attributions-that is, causal inferences and explanations spouses make about their partners' behavior-have been implicated as predictors of relationship functioning. Extending previous work, we examined marital attributions as a moderator of the link between marital conflict and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Participants were 284 couples who reported on marital attributions and depressive symptoms. Couples also engaged in a videotaped marital conflict interaction, which was later coded for specific conflict behaviors. The results showed that husbands' and wives' marital attributions about their partner moderated relations between marital conflict behavior and later depressive symptoms, controlling for global marital sentiments. For husbands, positive behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms, but only for husbands' who made low levels of responsibility and causal attributions about their wives. Wives' causal attributions about their partner also moderated relations between positive behavior and affect during marital conflict and husbands' later depressive symptoms. Reflecting an unexpected finding, negative behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted increases in wives' depressive symptoms, but only for wives who made low levels of responsibility attributions about their partner. The findings suggest that, for husbands, low levels of negative marital attributions for spouses may be protective, strengthening the positive effect of constructive conflict behaviors for their mental health, whereas for wives low levels of responsibility attributions about their spouse may be a risk factor, exacerbating the negative effect of negative marital conflict behaviors on their later depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4767684PMC
March 2016

Momentary affect and risky behavior correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adult dating couples: An experience sampling study.

Addict Behav 2016 Feb 26;53:161-7. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. Electronic address:

Although published research based on retrospective survey designs has established prescription drug misuse as a serious health issue for individuals and society, misuse behavior has not been investigated as it occurs in daily life and important relationships. To address this gap, young adult romantic couples were recruited from the community to participate in an experience sampling study. Participants were identified through phone screen procedures as having engaged in recent prescription drug misuse behavior. Participants (n=46 couples) completed electronic diary reports throughout the day for 10days, tapping momentary affect, sexual experiences, prescription drug misuse, and alcohol and other drug use. Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed a more consistent pattern of associations between prescription drug misuse and problematic affective and behavioral outcomes for female partners than male partners. Specifically, during epochs of females' prescription drug misuse, they experienced relatively higher levels of negative affect and sexual regret. Also, females who misused prescriptions more during the study period evidenced lower levels of sexual enjoyment and engaged in more unprotected sex, alcohol use, and heavy alcohol use in daily life. Males' in-the-moment prescription drug misuse was not associated with their concurrent outcomes, though males with relatively more misuse across the reporting period were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Couples' time together emerged as a moderator of prescription drug misuse in daily life: Females who spent relatively more time with their partner across the study were less likely to engage in misuse, and proportion of time spent together moderated several of the momentary misuse-outcome linkages. This study supports the use of ecologically-valid sampling methods for characterizing young adults' prescription drug misuse in daily life and relationship contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.10.016DOI Listing
February 2016

Spillover between marital quality and parent-child relationship quality: parental depressive symptoms as moderators.

J Fam Psychol 2014 Jun 12;28(3):315-25. Epub 2014 May 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.

Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. In addition, this study tested both mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers' and fathers' daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Furthermore, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent's relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4543369PMC
June 2014

Let's Talk About Sex: A Diary Investigation of Couples' Intimacy Conflicts in the Home.

Couple Family Psychol 2013 Mar;2(1)

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Although intimacy plays a central role in our closest relationships, we know surprisingly little about how couples handle intimacy conflicts in their daily lives. We utilized 100 married couples' diary reports of 748 instances of naturalistic marital conflict to test whether intimacy as a topic was associated with other conflict topics; conflict characteristics, such as recurrence and significance; and spouses' constructive, angry, and depressive conflict expressions. Results from dyadic hierarchical linear modeling revealed that intimacy issues were not likely to be discussed along with other topics (e.g., children, finances). Results also indicated that intimacy conflicts were likely to be recurrent and held relatively high levels of current and long-term importance to the relationship. Husbands and wives generally handled intimacy conflicts in constructive ways (e.g., expressed problem solving and positive emotions). However, husbands' depression symptoms emerged as a potent moderator of how intimacy conflicts were handled: Among couples that included a husband with higher levels of depression symptoms, discussing intimacy in conflict in the home was associated with greater use of angry expressions and depressive expressions by both husbands and wives. The current findings enhance understanding of intimacy conflicts in naturalistic contexts and offer clinical treatment implications and future research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3807599PMC
March 2013

Spouses' cortisol associations and moderators: testing physiological synchrony and connectedness in everyday life.

Fam Process 2013 Jun 20;52(2):284-98. Epub 2012 Sep 20.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

In this study, associations were examined between cortisol levels of wives and husbands in 47 heterosexual married couples. Both partners' salivary cortisol levels were measured at the same moments seven times a day on 2 typical weekdays. After accounting for the effects of the diurnal rhythm of cortisol and relevant control variables, dyadic hierarchical linear modeling indicated significant positive linkages between partners' cortisol levels, consistent with the hypothesized within-couple physiological synchrony. Variables reflecting more (spousal presence) or less connectedness (loneliness, being alone) were also collected at the time of each cortisol sample. Results indicated that husbands' cortisol levels were higher at moments they reported feeling lonelier and lower at moments they were in the presence of their spouse. Wives' cortisol levels were higher at moments they were alone. In addition, wife-husband cortisol synchrony was stronger for husbands who spent relatively more time with their spouse across the study period-even after accounting for time spent with others in general. These findings suggest that marital partners evidence positive within-couple cortisol associations, and that connectedness (particularly physical closeness) may underpin spouses' physiological synchrony.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2012.01413.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684984PMC
June 2013

Changes in marital conflict and youths' responses across childhood and adolescence: a test of sensitization.

Dev Psychopathol 2013 Feb;25(1):241-51

Department of Psychology, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA.

Although the sensitization hypothesis is fundamental to process-oriented explanations of the effects of marital conflict on children, few longitudinal tests of the theory's propositions have been conducted. Hierarchical linear modeling was used in this prospective, longitudinal study (n = 297 families) to assess changes in the dimensions of responding to conflict (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral) for 3 consecutive years in youths between the ages of 8 and 19 years. Moreover, to test the notion of sensitization, analyses were conducted to examine whether change in marital conflict predicted change in children's responding across middle childhood and adolescence. Supporting the sensitization hypothesis, increases in exposure to hostile marital conflict were associated with increases in children's negative emotionality, threat, self-blame, and skepticism about resolution. With a few exceptions, the effects were largely consistent for boys and girls and for younger and older children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412000995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3677539PMC
February 2013

Depressive moods and marital happiness: within-person synchrony, moderators, and meaning.

J Fam Psychol 2012 Jun;26(3):338-47

Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, 118 Haggar Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5636, USA.

Recent studies using within-persons designs conceptually replicate and substantively extend prior research that has shown marital distress to be a robust risk factor for depression. The present investigation further extends this within-persons research tradition by increasing the frequency of assessments and by adding new moderators and measures in a sample of both newlywed (n = 24) and maritally distressed (n = 31) wives. In both samples, the average within-persons association between 21 daily assessments of wives' depressed mood and marital happiness approximated previous estimates of analogous effects (overall r = -.54). Wives reported worse depressive mood symptoms on days they experienced lower marital happiness, even after accounting for time and between-person variation in marital happiness. Each participant's within-persons mood and marital happiness association was then treated as a dependent variable to be predicted from theoretically relevant individual differences. Multilevel modeling showed that the negative within-person association between daily depressed mood and daily marital happiness was especially strong for women who were relatively high in depressive symptoms, who had avoidant attachment styles, and who were relatively low in marital adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028404DOI Listing
June 2012

The longitudinal role of breastfeeding in mothers' and fathers' relationship quality trajectories.

Authors:
Lauren M Papp

Breastfeed Med 2012 Aug 7;7:241-7. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Background: Guided by a family systems perspective, this study investigated whether breastfeeding plays a role in the quality of the mother-father intimate relationship over the course of child development.

Methods: Using a prospective, longitudinal design, and data drawn from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=986 couples), the present study examined the predictive role of breastfeeding in the first 3 years of life (for up to 4 months and for 5 months or longer, relative to never breastfeeding) in maternal and paternal trajectories of intimate relationship quality. The outcome variable of interest was emotional intimacy, rated by mothers and fathers when children were 54 months of age, in grades 1, 3, 5, and 6, and 15 years of age.

Results: Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling, which appropriately handled dyadic data and accounted for effects of demographic covariates and earlier relationship quality, indicated that breastfeeding uniquely predicted increases in mothers' (but not fathers') marital quality levels over time. There was no difference in the strength of the positive associations for shorter versus longer breastfeeding duration. The findings suggest that improved intimate relationship quality may be another psychosocial benefit experienced by breastfeeding mothers.

Conclusion: The findings underscore the importance of considering breastfeeding in the context of intimate relationships and may be of interest to women weighing the decision to breastfeed, their partners, and healthcare providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2011.0074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3411344PMC
August 2012

"Are we Facebook official?" Implications of dating partners' Facebook use and profiles for intimate relationship satisfaction.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2012 Feb 11;15(2):85-90. Epub 2011 Oct 11.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0291DOI Listing
February 2012

Relations between spouses' depressive symptoms and marital conflict: a longitudinal investigation of the role of conflict resolution styles.

J Fam Psychol 2011 Aug;25(4):531-40

Department of Psychology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9172, USA.

This study investigated longitudinal relations between spouses' depressive symptoms and styles of conflict resolution displayed by husbands and wives in marital conflict, including angry, depressive, and constructive patterns of expression. Behavioral observations were made from a community sample of 276 couples during marital conflict resolution tasks once a year for 3 years. Couples were observed engaging in a major and minor conflict resolution task. Constructive, angry, and depressive conflict resolution styles were derived from the behavioral observation coding. Couples self-reported on depressive symptoms and marital dissatisfaction. Path analyses provided support for an extension of the marital discord model of depression (Beach, Sandeen, & O'Leary, 1990). Specifically, angry, depressive, and constructive styles of conflict each mediated the link between marital dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms. Significant cross-spouse effects were found. Implications for the treatment of depressed and/or relationally discordant couples are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3156967PMC
August 2011

Romantic partners' individual coping strategies and dyadic coping: implications for relationship functioning.

J Fam Psychol 2010 Oct;24(5):551-9

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Individual coping strategies and dyadic coping independently predict partner well-being and relationship functioning; however, it is unclear whether the coping processes are inter-related and whether they uniquely contribute to romantic relationship functioning. One hundred heterosexual dating couples rated the individual coping strategy of negative mood regulation as well as positive and negative dyadic coping. Relationship functioning was assessed via partners' reports of relationship satisfaction and observers' ratings of negative interaction in conflict. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs; Cook & Kenny, 2005; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) revealed associations between individual coping and dyadic coping in the predicted directions. APIMs also indicated the unique contributions of positive and negative dyadic coping to relationship functioning, above and beyond contributions of individual coping strategies. Implications of dyadic coping as a target of efforts to prevent or treat partner and/or relational distress are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3220915PMC
October 2010
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