Publications by authors named "Lauren A Eberly"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Adoption of PCSK9 Inhibitors Among Patients With Atherosclerotic Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 27;10(9):e019331. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Medicine Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA.

Background PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors represent a promising class of lipid-lowering therapy, although their use has been limited by cost concerns. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a nationwide commercial claims database comprising patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), aged 18 to 64 years. We identified the number of patients with ASCVD started on a PCSK9 inhibitor from the dates of US Food and Drug Administration approval in quarter 3 2015 through quarter 2 2019. Secondary objectives identified the proportions of patients started on a PCSK9 inhibitor in various ASCVD risk groups based on statin use and baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We identified 126 419 patients with ASCVD on either PCSK9 inhibitor or statin therapy. Among these patients, 1168 (0.9%) filled a prescription for a PCSK9 inhibitor. The number of patients initiating a PCSK9 inhibitor increased from 2 patients in quarter 3 2015 to 119 patients in quarter 2 2019, corresponding to an increase from 0.05% to 2.5% of patients with ASCVD already on statins who started PCSK9 inhibitor therapy. Of patients with ASCVD with high adherence to a high-intensity statin, 13 643 had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL, and in this subgroup, 119 (0.9%) patients initiated a PCSK9 inhibitor. Conclusions Few patients started PCSK9 inhibitors from 2015 through mid-2019, despite increasing trial evidence of efficacy, guidelines recommending PCSK9 inhibitors in high-risk patients with ASCVD, and price reductions during this period. The magnitude of price reductions may not yet be sufficient to influence use management strategies aimed to limit PCSK9 inhibitor use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019331DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status With Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Use Among Patients With Diabetes in the US.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e216139. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Cardiovascular Division, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors significantly reduce deaths from cardiovascular conditions, hospitalizations for heart failure, and progression of kidney disease among patients with type 2 diabetes. Black individuals have a disproportionate burden of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adoption of novel therapeutics has been slower among Black and female patients and among patients with low socioeconomic status than among White or male patients or patients with higher socioeconomic status.

Objective: To assess whether inequities based on race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status exist in SGLT2 inhibitor use among patients with type 2 diabetes in the US.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study of commercially insured patients in the US was performed from October 1, 2015, to June 30, 2019, using the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart. Adult patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, including those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), or CKD, were evaluated in the analysis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Prescription of an SGLT2 inhibitor. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association of race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status with SGLT2 inhibitor use.

Results: Of 934 737 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean [SD] age, 65.4 [12.9] years; 50.7% female; 57.6% White), 81 007 (8.7%) were treated with an SGLT2 inhibitor during the study period. Between 2015 and 2019, the percentage of patients with type 2 diabetes treated with an SGLT2 inhibitor increased from 3.8% to 11.9%. Among patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular or kidney disease, the rate of SGLT2 inhibitor use increased but was lower than that among all patients with type 2 diabetes (HFrEF: 1.9% to 7.6%; ASCVD: 3.0% to 9.8%; CKD: 2.1% to 7.5%). In multivariable analyses, Black race (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.81-0.85), Asian race (aOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.98), and female gender (aOR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.82-0.85) were associated with lower rates of SGLT2 inhibitor use, whereas higher median household income (≥$100 000: aOR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.10]; $50 000-$99 999: aOR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.03-1.07] vs <$50 000) was associated with a higher rate of SGLT2 inhibitor use. These results were similar among patients with HFrEF, ASCVD, and CKD.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, use of an SGLT2 inhibitor treatment increased among patients with type 2 diabetes from 2015 to 2019 but remained low, particularly among patients with HFrEF, CKD, and ASCVD. Black and female patients and patients with low socioeconomic status were less likely to receive an SGLT2 inhibitor, suggesting that interventions to ensure more equitable use are essential to prevent worsening of well-documented disparities in cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.6139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050743PMC
April 2021

Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Management of Incident Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e210247. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Cardiovascular Division, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: In patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), rhythm control with either antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) or catheter ablation has been associated with decreased symptoms, prevention of adverse remodeling, and improved cardiovascular outcomes. Adoption of advanced cardiovascular therapeutics, however, is often slower among patients from racial/ethnic minority groups and those with lower income.

Objective: To ascertain the cumulative rates of AAD and catheter ablation use for the management of paroxysmal AF and to investigate for the presence of inequities in AF management by evaluating the association of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status with their use in the United States.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study obtained inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy claims data from the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart between October 1, 2015, and June 30, 2019. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) in the database with a diagnosis of incident paroxysmal AF were identified. Patients were excluded if they did not have continuous insurance enrollment for at least 1 year before and at least 6 months after study entry.

Exposures: Race/ethnicity and zip code-linked median household income.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Treatment with a rhythm control strategy, and catheter ablation specifically, among those who received rhythm control. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association of race/ethnicity and zip code-linked median household income with a rhythm control strategy (AADs or catheter ablation) vs a rate control strategy as well as with catheter ablation vs AADs among those receiving rhythm control.

Results: Of the 109 221 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 55 185 were men (50.5%) and 73 523 were White (67.3%), with a median (interquartile range) age of 75 (68-82) years. A total of 86 359 patients (79.1%) were treated with rate control, 19 362 patients (17.7%) with AADs, and 3500 (3.2%) with catheter ablation. Between 2016 and 2019, the cumulative percentage of patients treated with catheter ablation increased from 1.6% to 3.8%. In multivariable analyses, Black race (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94; P < .001) and lower zip code-linked median household income (aOR for <$50 000: 0.83 [95% CI, 0.79-0.87; P < .001]; aOR for $50 000-$99 999: 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88-0.96; P = <.001] compared with ≥$100 000) were independently associated with lower use of rhythm control. Latinx ethnicity (aOR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89; P = .002) and lower zip code-linked median household income (aOR for <$50 000: 0.61 [95% CI, 0.54-0.69; P < .001]; aOR for $50 000-$99 999: 0.81 [95% CI, 0.72-0.90; P < .001] compared with ≥$100 000) were independently associated with lower catheter ablation use among those receiving rhythm control.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that despite increased use of rhythm control strategies for treatment of paroxysmal AF, catheter ablation use remained low and patients from racial/ethnic minority groups and those with lower income were less likely to receive rhythm control treatment, especially catheter ablation. These findings highlight inequities in paroxysmal AF management based on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910819PMC
February 2021

Association Between County-Level Change in Economic Prosperity and Change in Cardiovascular Mortality Among Middle-aged US Adults.

JAMA 2021 02;325(5):445-453

Penn Cardiovascular Outcomes, Quality, & Evaluative Research Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: After a decline in cardiovascular mortality for nonelderly US adults, recent stagnation has occurred alongside rising income inequality. Whether this is associated with underlying economic trends is unclear.

Objective: To assess the association between changes in economic prosperity and trends in cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged US adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective analysis of the association between change in 7 markers of economic prosperity in 3123 US counties and county-level cardiovascular mortality among 40- to 64-year-old adults (102 660 852 individuals in 2010).

Exposures: Mean rank for change in 7 markers of economic prosperity between 2 time periods (baseline: 2007-2011 and follow-up: 2012-2016). A higher mean rank indicates a greater relative increase or lower relative decrease in prosperity (range, 5 to 92; mean [SD], 50 [14]).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Mean annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the additional APC associated with a change in prosperity.

Results: Among 102 660 852 residents aged 40 to 64 years living in these counties in 2010 (51% women), 979 228 cardiovascular deaths occurred between 2010 and 2017. Age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates did not change significantly between 2010 and 2017 in counties in the lowest tertile for change in economic prosperity (mean [SD], 114.1 [47.9] to 116.1 [52.7] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, 0.2% [95% CI, -0.3% to 0.7%]). Mortality decreased significantly in the intermediate tertile (mean [SD], 104.7 [38.8] to 101.9 [41.5] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, -0.4% [95% CI, -0.8% to -0.1%]) and highest tertile for change in prosperity (100.0 [37.9] to 95.1 [39.1] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, -0.5% [95% CI, -0.9% to -0.1%]). After accounting for baseline prosperity and demographic and health care-related variables, a 10-point higher mean rank for change in economic prosperity was associated with 0.4% (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.6%) additional decrease in mortality per year.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this retrospective study of US county-level mortality data from 2010 to 2017, a relative increase in county-level economic prosperity was significantly associated with a small relative decrease in cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged adults. Individual-level inferences are limited by the ecological nature of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.26141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856543PMC
February 2021

Patient Characteristics Associated With Telemedicine Access for Primary and Specialty Ambulatory Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 12 1;3(12):e2031640. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required a shift in health care delivery platforms, necessitating a new reliance on telemedicine.

Objective: To evaluate whether inequities are present in telemedicine use and video visit use for telemedicine visits during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this cohort study, a retrospective medical record review was conducted from March 16 to May 11, 2020, of all patients scheduled for telemedicine visits in primary care and specialty ambulatory clinics at a large academic health system. Age, race/ethnicity, sex, language, median household income, and insurance type were all identified from the electronic medical record.

Main Outcomes And Measures: A successfully completed telemedicine visit and video (vs telephone) visit for a telemedicine encounter. Multivariable models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic factors, including sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and language, and the use of telemedicine visits, as well as video use specifically.

Results: A total of 148 402 unique patients (86 055 women [58.0%]; mean [SD] age, 56.5 [17.7] years) had scheduled telemedicine visits during the study period; 80 780 patients (54.4%) completed visits. Of 78 539 patients with completed visits in which visit modality was specified, 35 824 (45.6%) were conducted via video, whereas 24 025 (56.9%) had a telephone visit. In multivariable models, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.85 [95% CI, 0.83-0.88] for those aged 55-64 years; aOR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.72-0.78] for those aged 65-74 years; aOR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.64-0.70] for those aged ≥75 years), Asian race (aOR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.66-0.73]), non-English language as the patient's preferred language (aOR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78-0.90]), and Medicaid insurance (aOR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.97]) were independently associated with fewer completed telemedicine visits. Older age (aOR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.76-0.82] for those aged 55-64 years; aOR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.74-0.83] for those aged 65-74 years; aOR, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.46-0.53] for those aged ≥75 years), female sex (aOR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.90-0.95]), Black race (aOR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.62-0.68]), Latinx ethnicity (aOR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.83-0.97]), and lower household income (aOR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.54-0.60] for income <$50 000; aOR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.85-0.92], for $50 000-$100 000) were associated with less video use for telemedicine visits. These results were similar across medical specialties.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study of patients scheduled for primary care and medical specialty ambulatory telemedicine visits at a large academic health system during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, older patients, Asian patients, and non-English-speaking patients had lower rates of telemedicine use, while older patients, female patients, Black, Latinx, and poorer patients had less video use. Inequities in accessing telemedicine care are present, which warrant further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.31640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772717PMC
December 2020

Factors underlying improved mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2020 Nov 20. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Section, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2020.11.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Food Insecurity and Cardiovascular Mortality for Nonelderly Adults in the United States From 2011 to 2017: A County-Level Longitudinal Analysis.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Jan 9;14(1):e007473. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (L.A.E., S.A.M.K.), Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.007473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855295PMC
January 2021

Telemedicine and the Forgotten America.

Circulation 2020 07 11;142(4):312-314. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (H.M.J, L.A.E., S.A.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382527PMC
July 2020

Telemedicine Outpatient Cardiovascular Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Bridging or Opening the Digital Divide?

Circulation 2020 08 8;142(5):510-512. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (L.A.E., S.A.M.K., A.S.N., H.M.J., S.A.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048185DOI Listing
August 2020

Association of Race With Disease Expression and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 01;5(1):83-91

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Racial differences are recognized in multiple cardiovascular parameters, including left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure, which are 2 major manifestations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The association of race with disease expression and outcomes among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not well characterized.

Objective: To assess the association between race, disease expression, care provision, and clinical outcomes among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included data on black and white patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from the US-based sites of the Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry from 1989 through 2018.

Exposures: Self-identified race.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Baseline characteristics; genetic architecture; adverse outcomes, including cardiac arrest, cardiac transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, all-cause mortality, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV heart failure; and septal reduction therapies. The overall composite outcome consists of the first occurrence of any component of the ventricular arrhythmic composite end point, cardiac transplantation, left ventricular assist device implantation, NYHA class III or IV heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, or all-cause mortality.

Results: Of 2467 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at the time of analysis, 205 (8.3%) were black (130 male [63.4%]; mean [SD] age, 40.0 [18.6] years) and 2262 (91.7%) were white (1351 male [59.7%]; mean [SD] age, 45.5 [20.5] years). Compared with white patients, black patients were younger at the time of diagnosis (mean [SD], 36.5 [18.2] vs 41.9 [20.2] years; P < .001), had higher prevalence of NYHA class III or IV heart failure at presentation (36 of 205 [22.6%] vs 174 of 2262 [15.8%]; P = .001), had lower rates of genetic testing (111 [54.1%] vs 1404 [62.1%]; P = .03), and were less likely to have sarcomeric mutations identified by genetic testing (29 [26.1%] vs 569 [40.5%]; P = .006). Implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators did not vary by race; however, invasive septal reduction was less common among black patients (30 [14.6%] vs 521 [23.0%]; P = .007). Black patients had less incident atrial fibrillation (35 [17.1%] vs 608 [26.9%]; P < .001). Black race was associated with increased development of NYHA class III or IV heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.08-1.94) which persisted on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression (hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.34-2.88). There were no differences in the associations of race with stroke, ventricular arrhythmias, all-cause mortality, or the overall composite outcome.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings suggest that black patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are diagnosed at a younger age, are less likely to carry a sarcomere mutation, have a higher burden of functionally limited heart failure, and experience inequities in care with lower use of invasive septal reduction therapy and genetic testing compared with white patients. Further study is needed to assess whether higher rates of heart failure may be associated with underlying ancestry-based disease pathways, clinical management, or structural inequities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2019.4638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902181PMC
January 2020

Identification of Racial Inequities in Access to Specialized Inpatient Heart Failure Care at an Academic Medical Center.

Circ Heart Fail 2019 11 29;12(11):e006214. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Department of Medicine (E.F..L.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Racial inequities for patients with heart failure (HF) have been widely documented. HF patients who receive cardiology care during a hospital admission have better outcomes. It is unknown whether there are differences in admission to a cardiology or general medicine service by race. This study examined the relationship between race and admission service, and its effect on 30-day readmission and mortality Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study from September 2008 to November 2017 at a single large urban academic referral center of all patients self-referred to the emergency department and admitted to either the cardiology or general medicine service with a principal diagnosis of HF, who self-identified as white, black, or Latinx. We used multivariable generalized estimating equation models to assess the relationship between race and admission to the cardiology service. We used Cox regression to assess the association between race, admission service, and 30-day readmission and mortality.

Results: Among 1967 unique patients (66.7% white, 23.6% black, and 9.7% Latinx), black and Latinx patients had lower rates of admission to the cardiology service than white patients (adjusted rate ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98, for black; adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97 for Latinx). Female sex and age >75 years were also independently associated with lower rates of admission to the cardiology service. Admission to the cardiology service was independently associated with decreased readmission within 30 days, independent of race.

Conclusions: Black and Latinx patients were less likely to be admitted to cardiology for HF care. This inequity may, in part, drive racial inequities in HF outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183732PMC
November 2019

Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Inequities in the Prescription of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Venous Thromboembolism in the United States.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2019 04;12(4):e005600

Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (A.S.N., Z.G., E.J.D., S.A.M.K., T.K., S.A., J.G., P.W.G.).

Background: Beginning in 2012, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were approved for treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism. Prior investigations have demonstrated slow rates of adoption of novel therapeutics for black patients. We assessed the association of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors with DOAC use among commercially insured venous thromboembolism patients.

Methods And Results: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients with an incident diagnosis of venous thromboembolism between January 2010 and December 2016 using OptumInsight's Clinformatics Data Mart. We identified the first filled oral anticoagulant prescription within 30 days of discharge of an inpatient admission. We performed a multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, region, zip code-linked household income, and clinical covariates to identify factors associated with the use of DOACs. Race and ethnicity were determined in this database through a combination of public records, self-report, and proprietary ethnicity code tables. There were 14 140 patients included in the analysis. Treatment with DOACs increased from <0.1% in 2010 to 65.6% in 2016. In multivariable analyses, black patients were less likely to receive a DOAC compared with white patients (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97; P=0.02). There were no differences in DOAC utilization among Asian (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.75-1.49; P=0.74) or Hispanic patients (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.88-1.22; P=0.66) compared with whites. Patients with a household income over $100 000 per year were more likely to receive DOAC therapy compared with patients with a household income of <$40 000 per year (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.33-1.69; P<0.0001).

Conclusions: Although DOAC adoption has increased steadily since 2012, among a commercially insured population, black race and low household income were associated with lower use of DOACs for incident venous thromboembolism despite controlling for other clinical and socioeconomic factors. These findings suggest the possibility of both racial and socioeconomic inequity in access to this novel pharmacotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.119.005600DOI Listing
April 2019

10-Year Heart Failure Outcomes From Nurse-Driven Clinics in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 03;73(8):977-980

Division of Global Health Equity, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Partners in Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Nurse-led delivery care models have the potential to address the significant burden of heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa. Starting in 2006, the Rwandan Ministry of Health, supported by Inshuti Mu Buzima (Partners In Health-Rwanda), decentralized heart failure diagnosis and care delivery in the context of advanced nurse-led integrated noncommunicable clinics at rural district hospitals. Here, the authors describe the first medium-term survival outcomes from the district level in rural sub-Saharan Africa based on their 10-year experience providing care in rural Rwanda. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine median time to event for: 1) composite event of known death from any cause, lost to follow-up, or transfer to estimate worst-case mortality; and 2) known death only. Five-year event-free rates were 41.7% for the composite outcome and 64.3% for known death. While death rates are encouraging, efforts to reduce loss to follow-up are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.12.028DOI Listing
March 2019

Understanding the Etiology of Heart Failure Among the Rural Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa: A 10-Year Experience From District Hospitals in Rwanda.

J Card Fail 2018 Dec 10;24(12):849-853. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Division of Global Health Equity, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Partners in Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Program in Global Noncommunicable Diseases and Social Change, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Our understanding of the heart failure burden in this region has been limited mainly to registries from urban referral centers. Starting in 2006, a nurse-driven strategy was initiated to provide echocardiography and decentralized heart failure care within noncommunicable disease (NCD) clinics in rural district hospitals in Rwanda.

Methods And Results: We conducted a retrospective review of patients with cardiologist-confirmed heart failure treated at 3 district hospital NCD clinics in Rwanda from 2006 to 2017 to determine patient clinical characteristics and disease distribution. Over 10 years, 719 patients with confirmed heart failure were identified. Median age was 27 years overall, and 42 years in adults. Thirty-six percent were children (age <18 years), 68% were female, and 78% of adults were farmers. At entry, 39% were in New York Heart Association functional class III-IV. Among children, congenital heart disease (52%) and rheumatic heart disease (36%) were most common. In adults, cardiomyopathy (40%), rheumatic heart disease (27%), and hypertensive heart disease (13%) were most common. No patients were diagnosed with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Conclusions: The results of the largest single-country heart failure cohort from rural sub-Saharan Africa demonstrate a persistent burden of rheumatic disease and nonischemic cardiomyopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018