Publications by authors named "Laura Zamurs"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Aberrant mitochondria in a Bethlem myopathy patient with a homozygous amino acid substitution that destabilizes the collagen VI α2(VI) chain.

J Biol Chem 2015 Feb 22;290(7):4272-81. Epub 2014 Dec 22.

From the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville 3052, Australia, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia,

Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) sit at opposite ends of a clinical spectrum caused by mutations in the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI. Bethlem myopathy is relatively mild, and patients remain ambulant in adulthood while many UCMD patients lose ambulation by their teenage years and require respiratory interventions. Dominant and recessive mutations are found across the entire clinical spectrum; however, recessive Bethlem myopathy is rare, and our understanding of the molecular pathology is limited. We studied a patient with Bethlem myopathy. Electron microscopy of his muscle biopsy revealed abnormal mitochondria. We identified a homozygous COL6A2 p.D871N amino acid substitution in the C-terminal C2 A-domain. Mutant α2(VI) chains are unable to associate with α1(VI) and α3(VI) and are degraded by the proteasomal pathway. Some collagen VI is assembled, albeit more slowly than normal, and is secreted. These molecules contain the minor α2(VI) C2a splice form that has an alternative C terminus that does include the mutation. Collagen VI tetramers containing the α2(VI) C2a chain do not assemble efficiently into microfibrils and there is a severe collagen VI deficiency in the extracellular matrix. We expressed wild-type and mutant α2(VI) C2 domains in mammalian cells and showed that while wild-type C2 domains are efficiently secreted, the mutant p.D871N domain is retained in the cell. These studies shed new light on the protein domains important for intracellular and extracellular collagen VI assembly and emphasize the importance of molecular investigations for families with collagen VI disorders to ensure accurate diagnosis and genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.632208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326835PMC
February 2015

Chain-specific antibodies for laminin-511.

Growth Factors 2013 Dec;31(6):209-19

The Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne Branch , Parkville, Victoria , Australia .

Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to specific chains of laminin-511 (LM-511) have been developed. Antibody 2F12 binds to the LMα5 chain, 3G10 binds to the LMβ1 chain and 3C12 binds to the LMγ1 chain. These antibodies can be used to purify LM-511, to detect LM-511 in cell extracts or to detect the location of LM-511 in tissue by immunohistochemistry. In combination, the antibodies recognize all three chains of LM-511 and combinations of the antibodies can be used to quantitate levels of LM-511 in physiological fluids. One of the antibodies (3G10) is a potent inhibitor of the activity of LM-511 in cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08977194.2013.859684DOI Listing
December 2013

Collagen VI microfibril formation is abolished by an {alpha}2(VI) von Willebrand factor type A domain mutation in a patient with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy.

J Biol Chem 2010 Oct 21;285(43):33567-76. Epub 2010 Aug 21.

Departments of Paediatrics, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, University of Melbourne, Royal Children’s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

Collagen VI is an extracellular protein that most often contains the three genetically distinct polypeptide chains, α1(VI), α2(VI), and α3(VI), although three recently identified chains, α4(VI), α5(VI), and α6(VI), may replace α3(VI) in some situations. Each chain has a triple helix flanked by N- and C-terminal globular domains that share homology with the von Willebrand factor type A (VWA) domains. During biosynthesis, the three chains come together to form triple helical monomers, which then assemble into dimers and tetramers. Tetramers are secreted from the cell and align end-to-end to form microfibrils. The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for assembly are unclear. Mutations in the three collagen VI genes can disrupt collagen VI biosynthesis and matrix organization and are the cause of the inherited disorders Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. We have identified a Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy patient with compound heterozygous mutations in α2(VI). The first mutation causes skipping of exon 24, and the mRNA is degraded by nonsense-mediated decay. The second mutation is a two-amino acid deletion in the C1 VWA domain. Recombinant C1 domains containing the deletion are insoluble and retained intracellularly, indicating that the mutation has detrimental effects on domain folding and structure. Despite this, mutant α2(VI) chains retain the ability to associate into monomers, dimers, and tetramers. However, we show that secreted mutant tetramers containing structurally abnormal C1 VWA domains are unable to associate further into microfibrils, directly demonstrating the critical importance of a correctly folded α2(VI) C1 domain in microfibril formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.152520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2963345PMC
October 2010

Mice lacking the extracellular matrix protein WARP develop normally but have compromised peripheral nerve structure and function.

J Biol Chem 2009 May 11;284(18):12020-30. Epub 2009 Mar 11.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

WARP is a recently identified extracellular matrix molecule with restricted expression in permanent cartilages and a distinct subset of basement membranes in peripheral nerves, muscle, and the central nervous system vasculature. WARP interacts with perlecan, and we also demonstrate here that WARP binds type VI collagen, suggesting a function in bridging connective tissue structures. To understand the in vivo function of WARP, we generated a WARP-deficient mouse strain. WARP-null mice were healthy, viable, and fertile with no overt abnormalities. Motor function and behavioral testing demonstrated that WARP-null mice exhibited a significantly delayed response to acute painful stimulus and impaired fine motor coordination, although general motor function was not affected, suggesting compromised peripheral nerve function. Immunostaining of WARP-interacting ligands demonstrated that the collagen VI microfibrillar matrix was severely reduced and mislocalized in peripheral nerves of WARP-null mice. Further ultrastructural analysis revealed reduced fibrillar collagen deposition within the peripheral nerve extracellular matrix and abnormal partial fusing of adjacent Schwann cell basement membranes, suggesting an important function for WARP in stabilizing the association of the collagenous interstitial matrix with the Schwann cell basement membrane. In contrast, other WARP-deficient tissues such as articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and skeletal muscle showed no detectable abnormalities, and basement membranes formed normally. Our data demonstrate that although WARP is not essential for basement membrane formation or musculoskeletal development, it has critical roles in the structure and function of peripheral nerves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M806968200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2673271PMC
May 2009

Collagen VI glycine mutations: perturbed assembly and a spectrum of clinical severity.

Ann Neurol 2008 Sep;64(3):294-303

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: The collagen VI muscular dystrophies, Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, form a continuum of clinical phenotypes. Glycine mutations in the triple helix have been identified in both Bethlem and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, but it is not known why they cause these different phenotypes.

Methods: We studied eight new patients who presented with a spectrum of clinical severity, screened the three collagen VI messenger RNA for mutations, and examined collagen VI biosynthesis and the assembly pathway.

Results: All eight patients had heterozygous glycine mutations toward the N-terminal end of the triple helix. The mutations produced two assembly phenotypes. In the first patient group, collagen VI dimers accumulated in the cell but not the medium, microfibril formation in the medium was moderately reduced, and the amount of collagen VI in the extracellular matrix was not significantly altered. The second group had more severe assembly defects: some secreted collagen VI tetramers were not disulfide bonded, microfibril formation in the medium was severely compromised, and collagen VI in the extracellular matrix was reduced.

Interpretation: These data indicate that collagen VI glycine mutations impair the assembly pathway in different ways and disease severity correlates with the assembly abnormality. In mildly affected patients, normal amounts of collagen VI were deposited in the fibroblast matrix, whereas in patients with moderate-to-severe disability, assembly defects led to a reduced collagen VI fibroblast matrix. This study thus provides an explanation for how different glycine mutations produce a spectrum of clinical severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.21439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2743946PMC
September 2008

Evidence for a role of tumor-derived laminin-511 in the metastatic progression of breast cancer.

Am J Pathol 2007 Jun;170(6):2135-48

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, A'Beckett Street, Melbourne, Victoria 8006, Australia.

Most studies investigating laminins (LMs) in breast cancer have focused on LM-111 or LM-332. Little is known, however, about the expression and function of alpha5 chain-containing LM-511/521 during metastatic progression. Expression of LM-511/521 subunits was examined in genetically related breast tumor lines and corresponding primary tumors and metastases in a syngeneic mouse model using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The results from our investigation indicate that LM-511 rather than LM-111, -332, or -521 correlates with metastatic potential in mouse mammary tumors. LM-511 was a potent adhesive substrate for both murine and human breast carcinoma cells and promoted strong haptotactic responses in metastatic lines. Haptotaxis was mediated by alpha3 integrin in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and was strongly inhibited by blocking antibodies against this integrin subunit. However, whereas nonmetastatic MCF-7 cells migrated toward LM-511 primarily via alpha3beta1 integrin, results from antibody perturbation experiments and flow cytometry analysis suggest that this response is mediated by an as yet unidentified alpha3beta integrin heterodimer (other than alpha3beta1) in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results are consistent with earlier reports implicating alpha3 integrins in breast cancer progression and support the role of LM-511 as a functional substrate regulating breast cancer metastasis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1899445PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2007.060709DOI Listing
June 2007

Extracellular matrix remodeling by human granzyme B via cleavage of vitronectin, fibronectin, and laminin.

J Biol Chem 2005 Jun 19;280(25):23549-58. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia.

Human granzyme B (GrB) released from cytotoxic lymphocytes plays a key role in the induction of target cell apoptosis when internalized in the presence of perforin. Here we demonstrate that GrB also possesses a potent extracellular matrix remodeling activity. Both native and recombinant GrB caused detachment of immortalized and transformed cell lines, primary endothelial cells, and chondrocytes. Cell detachment by GrB induced endothelial cell death (anoikis). GrB also inhibited tumor cell spreading, migration, and invasion in vitro. Investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that GrB efficiently cleaves three proteins involved in extracellular matrix structure and function: vitronectin, fibronectin, and laminin. In vitronectin, GrB cleaves after an Arg-Lys-Asp (RGD) motif, which is part of the integrin-binding site found in matrix proteins. We propose that targeting of the integrin-extracellular matrix interface by GrB may allow perforin-independent killing of target cells via anoikis, restrict motility of tumor cells, facilitate lymphocyte migration, or directly reduce virus infectivity. It may also contribute to tissue destruction in diseases in which extracellular GrB is evident, such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M412001200DOI Listing
June 2005

Strategies for the purification of laminin-10 for studies on colon cancer metastasis.

Biomed Chromatogr 2003 Mar-Apr;17(2-3):201-11

The Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne Tumour Biology Branch, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Signals from the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family are thought to combine with integrin-dependent adhesion to laminins to contribute to disease progression and metastasis in cancer. To date, little is known about the mechanisms by which these signals interact. Recently, we have shown that the colon cancer cell line LIM1215 secretes and adheres to laminin-10 through multiple integrin receptors, and that EGF stimulates spreading and migration of these cells on the same substrate. Additionally laminin-10/11 has been shown by immunohistochemistry to be present at the invasive edge of moderately differentiated colon cancers. To enable detailed structure-function studies to be undertaken, it is important to be able to rapidly obtain highly purified native laminin-10 from bulk biological samples in reasonable yield. The development of a multidimensional micropurification scheme to achieve this is presented and compared with other reported methods for the purification of laminins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.248DOI Listing
December 2003