Publications by authors named "Laura R Johnson"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

Psych J 2016 Jun 11;5(2):92-100. Epub 2016 May 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi University, Mississippi, USA.

Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pchj.124DOI Listing
June 2016

Distinct structural features of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) regulate its nuclear localization and DNA-binding ability.

PLoS One 2013 2;8(5):e62508. Epub 2013 May 2.

Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) act to desensitize G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In addition to this role at the plasma membrane, a nuclear function for GRK5, a member of the GRK4 subfamily of GRKs, has been reported. GRK5 phosphorylates and promotes the nuclear export of the histone deacetylase, HDAC5. Here we demonstrate that the possession of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) is a common feature of GRK4 subfamily members (GRKs 4, 5 and 6). However, the location of the NLS and the ability of these GRKs to bind DNA in vitro are different. The NLSs of GRK5 and 6 bind DNA in vitro, whilst the NLS of GRK4 does not. Using mutants of GRK5 we identify the regions of GRK5 required for DNA-binding in vitro and nuclear localization in cells. The DNA-binding ability of GRK5 requires both the NLS and an N-terminal calmodulin (CaM)-binding site. A functional nuclear export sequence (NES), required for CaM-dependent nuclear export of the kinase, is also identified. Based on our observations we propose a model to explain how nuclear localization of GRK5 may be regulated. Notably, the nuclear localization of GRK5 and 6 is differentially regulated. These results suggest subfamily specific nuclear functions for the GRK4 subfamily members. Identification of GRK specific small molecule inhibitors of nuclear localization and/or function for the GRK4 subfamily may thus be an achievable goal.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0062508PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3642199PMC
December 2013

Salmonella infections associated with international travel: a Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) study.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2011 Sep 12;8(9):1031-7. Epub 2011 May 12.

Emory University School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Salmonella species cause an estimated 1.2 million infections per year in the United States, making it one of the most commonly reported enteric pathogens. In addition, Salmonella is an important cause of travel-associated diarrhea and enteric fever, a systemic illness commonly associated with Salmonella serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A. We reviewed cases of Salmonella infection reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), a sentinel surveillance network, from 2004 to 2008. We compared travelers with Salmonella infection to nontravelers with Salmonella infection with respect to demographics, clinical characteristics, and serotypes. Among 23,712 case-patients with known travel status, 11% had traveled internationally in the 7 days before illness. Travelers with Salmonella infection tended to be older (median age, 30 years) than nontravelers (median age, 24 years; p<0.0001), but were similar with respect to gender. The most common destinations reported were Mexico (38% of travel-associated infections), India (9%), Jamaica (7%), the Dominican Republic (4%), China (3%), and the Bahamas (2%). The proportions of travelers with Salmonella infection hospitalized and with invasive disease were inversely related to the income level of the destination (p<0.0001). The most commonly reported serotypes, regardless of travel status, were Enteritidis (19% of cases), Typhimurium (14%), Newport (9%), and Javiana (5%). Among infections caused by these four serotypes, 22%, 6%, 5%, and 4%, respectively, were associated with travel. A high index of clinical suspicion for Salmonella infection is appropriate when evaluating recent travelers, especially those who visited Africa, Asia, or Latin America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2011.0854DOI Listing
September 2011

GDP-mannose transporter paralogues play distinct roles in polarized growth of Aspergillus nidulans.

Mycologia 2010 Mar-Apr;102(2):305-10

Department of Chemistry, Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee 38112, USA.

GDP-mannose transporters (GMT) carry GDP-mannose nucleotide sugars from the cytosol across the Golgi apparatus membrane for use as substrates in protein glycosylation in plants, animals and fungi. Genomes of some fungal species, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contain only one gene encoding a GMT, while others, including Aspergillus nidulans, contain two (gmtA and gmtB). We previously showed that cell wall integrity and normal hyphal morphogenesis in A. nidulans depend upon the function of GmtA and that GmtA localizes to a Golgi-like compartment. Cells bearing the calI11 mutation in gmtA also have reduced cell surface mannosylation. Here we show that GmtB colocalizes with GmtA, suggesting that the role of GmtB is similar to that of GmtA, although the respective transcript levels differ during spore germination and early development. Transcript levels of gmtB are high in ungerminated spores and remain so throughout the first 16 h of germination. In contrast, transcript levels of gmrtA are negligible in ungerminated spores but increase to levels comparable to those of gmtB during germination. These observations suggest that although GmtA and GmtB reside within the same subcellular compartments, they nevertheless perform distinct functions at different stages of development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/09-138DOI Listing
May 2010

Contrasting concepts of depression in Uganda: implications for service delivery in a multicultural context.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2009 Apr;79(2):275-89

Department of Psychology, University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA.

Depression is a rising public health concern worldwide. Understanding how people conceptualize depression within and across cultures is crucial to effective treatment in a global environment. In this article, we highlight the importance of considering both lay and professional perspectives when developing a culturally competent and contextually relevant model for service delivery. We conducted interviews with 246 Ugandan adults to elicit their explanatory belief models (EMs) about the nature of depression, its causes, social meanings, effects, help seeking, and treatment. Interviews were transcribed, content analyzed, and coded. We compared EMs of community members (n = 135) to those of professional practitioners (n = 111), whom we further categorized into traditional healers, primary care providers, and mental health professionals. We found significant differences between lay and professional EMs and between 3 types of professionals. Contrary to our expectations, lay concepts did not overlap more with traditional healers than with other professional EMs. We discuss the diverse concepts of depression in Uganda, the nature of group differences, and implications for service delivery and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015818DOI Listing
April 2009

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 contains a DNA-binding nuclear localization sequence.

Mol Cell Biol 2004 Dec;24(23):10169-79

Laboratory for Molecular and Cellular Biology and Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) mediate desensitization of agonist-occupied G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here we report that GRK5 contains a DNA-binding nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and that its nuclear localization is regulated by GPCR activation, results that suggest potential nuclear functions for GRK5. As assessed by fluorescence confocal microscopy, transfected and endogenous GRK5 is present in the nuclei of HEp2 cells. Mutation of basic residues in the catalytic domain of GRK5 (between amino acids 388 and 395) results in the nuclear exclusion of the mutant enzyme (GRK5(Delta)(NLS)), demonstrating that GRK5 contains a functional NLS. The nuclear localization of GRK5 is subject to dynamic regulation. Calcium ionophore treatment or activation of Gq-coupled muscarinic-M3 receptors promotes the nuclear export of the kinase in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM)-dependent fashion. Ca(2+)/CaM binding to the N-terminal CaM binding site of GRK5 mediates this effect. Furthermore, GRK5, but not GRK5(Delta)(NLS) or GRK2, binds specifically and directly to DNA in vitro. Consistent with their presence in the nuclei of transfected cells, all the GRK4, but not GRK2, subfamily members contain putative NLSs. These results suggest that the GRK4 subfamily of GRKs may play a signaling role in the nucleus and that GRK4 and GRK2 subfamily members perform divergent cellular functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.24.23.10169-10179.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC529036PMC
December 2004

Stable expression and characterisation of a human alpha 7 nicotinic subunit chimera: a tool for functional high-throughput screening.

Eur J Pharmacol 2004 Oct;502(1-2):31-40

Eli Lilly and Company Ltd., Lilly Research Centre, Erl Wood Manor, Windlesham, Surrey GU20 6PH, UK.

A chimera comprising the N-terminal region of the human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, fused to the transmembrane/C-terminal domains of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, was constructed. Injection of the chimera cDNA into Xenopus oocytes, or transient transfection in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, resulted in the expression of functional channels that were sensitive to nicotinic acetylcholine, but not serotonin receptor ligands. In both systems, the responses obtained from chimeric receptors inactivated more slowly than those recorded following activation of wild-type alpha7 receptors. A stable HEK-293 cell line expressing the human alpha7/mouse 5-HT3 chimera was established, which showed that the chimera displayed a similar pharmacological profile to wild-type alpha7 receptors. Use of this chimera in high-throughput screening may enable the identification of novel pharmacological agents that will help to define further the role of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in physiology and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.08.042DOI Listing
October 2004

XPD codon 751 polymorphism, metabolism genes, smoking, and bladder cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002 Oct;11(10 Pt 1):1004-11

Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709, USA.

Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for bladder cancer, accounting for at least 50% of bladder cancer in men. Cigarette smoke is a rich source of arylamines, which are detoxified by the NAT2 enzyme and activated by the NAT1 enzyme to highly reactive species that can form bulky adducts on DNA. DNA damage from such adducts is mainly repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway, in which the XPD protein functions in opening the DNA helix. We hypothesized that an XPD codon 751 polymorphism (Lys-to-Gln amino acid change) could affect the repair of smoking-induced DNA damage and could be associated with bladder-cancer risk. We also hypothesized that allelic variants of the NAT1 and NAT2 genes might modify the effect of the XPD codon 751 polymorphism on smoking-associated bladder-cancer risk. We determined the XPD codon 751 genotype for 228 bladder-cancer cases and 210 controls who were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex, and ethnicity, and we used our previously published data on the NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes for these same individuals (J. A. Taylor et al., Cancer Res., 58: 3603-3610, 1998). We found a slight decrease in risk for the XPD codon 751 Gln/Gln genotype (adjusted odds ratio: 0.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.4-1.3) compared with subjects with the Lys/Lys or Lys/Gln genotypes. The analysis with smoking showed that smokers with the Lys/Lys or Lys/Gln genotypes were twice as likely to have bladder cancer than smokers with the Gln/Gln genotype (test of interaction P = 0.03). The combined presence of the NAT1/NAT2 high-risk genotype and the XPD Lys/Lys or Lys/Gln genotypes ignoring smoking had an odds ratio that was only slightly higher than expected, assuming no genotype-genotype interaction (P = 0.52). We found little evidence for a gene-gene-exposure, three-way interaction among the XPD codon 751 genotype, smoking, and the NAT1/NAT2 genotype.
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October 2002