Publications by authors named "Laura H Bukkems"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Population pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous infliximab CT-P13 in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 11 24;54(10):1309-1319. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Hospital Pharmacy - Clinical Pharmacology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor-alpha for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Recently, a subcutaneous formulation of CT-P13, an infliximab biosimilar, was approved for clinical use.

Aims: To characterise CT-P13 pharmacokinetics (PK) and its clinically relevant determinants after subcutaneous administration through population PK modelling.

Methods: Data from a two-part Phase I study with intravenous (5 mg/kg) and variable maintenance subcutaneous dosing of CT-P13 with frequent PK sampling in patients with CD or UC were used. Population PK analysis was conducted by non-linear mixed effects modelling. Covariates affecting PK parameters were chosen based on their clinical relevance (effect size of ≥20%) using a full fixed-effect modelling approach.

Results: CT-P13 PK was described by a two-compartment model with linear elimination. The half-life in a typical 70 kg patient with serum albumin of 44 g/L was 10.8 days. The typical value for clearance was 0.355 L/d, absorption constant 0.273/d, bioavailability 79.1%, central volume of distribution 3.10 L and peripheral volume of distribution 1.93 L. Clinically relevant covariates affecting clearance were body weight (+43.2% from 70 to 120 kg), the presence of anti-drug antibodies (+39%) and serum albumin concentration (+30.1% from 44 to 32 g/L). Simulated drug exposure was comparable between routes of administration for patients weighing 50 or 70 kg, but lower with subcutaneous dosing in patients weighing 120 kg.

Conclusions: This first population PK model for subcutaneous CT-P13 supports fixed subcutaneous maintenance dosing, although heavy patients had lower cumulative drug exposure.
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November 2021

Population pharmacokinetic modeling of factor concentrates in hemophilia: an overview and evaluation of best practice.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct;5(20):4314-4325

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; and.

The accuracy of pharmacokinetic (PK)-guided dosing depends on the clinical and laboratory data used to construct a population PK model, as well as the patient's individual PK profile. This review provides a detailed overview of data used for published population PK models for factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates, to support physicians in their choices of which model best suits each patient. Furthermore, to enhance detailed data collection and documentation, we do suggestions for best practice. A literature search was performed; publications describing prophylactic population PK models for FVIII and FIX concentrates based on original patient data and constructed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling were included. The following data were collected: detailed demographics, type of product, assessed and included covariates, laboratory specifications, and validation of models. Included models were scored according to our recommendations for best practice, specifically scoring the quality of data documentation as reported. Respectively, 20 models for FVIII and 7 for FIX concentrates were retrieved. Although most models (22/27) included pediatric patients, only 4 reported detailed demographics. The wide range of body weights suggested that overweight and obese adults were represented. Twenty-six models reported the assay applied to measure factor levels, whereas only 16 models named reagents used. Eight models were internally validated using a data subset. This overview presents detailed information on clinical and laboratory data used for published population PK models. We provide recommendations on data collection and documentation to increase the reliability of PK-guided prophylactic dosing of factor concentrates in hemophilia A and B.
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October 2021

Pharmacokinetics of perioperative FVIII in adult patients with haemophilia A: An external validation and development of an alternative population pharmacokinetic model.

Haemophilia 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Introduction: Haemophilia A patients require perioperative clotting factor replacement to limit excessive bleeding. Weight-based dosing of Factor VIII (FVIII) does not account for inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability, and may lead to suboptimal FVIII exposure.

Aim: To perform an external validation of a previously developed population PK (popPK) model of perioperative FVIII in haemophilia A patients.

Methods: A retrospective chart review identified perioperative haemophilia A patients at the University of North Carolina (UNC) between April 2014 and November 2019. Patient data was used to externally validate a previously published popPK model proposed by Hazendonk. Based on these validation results, a modified popPK model was developed to characterize FVIII PK in our patients. Dosing simulations were performed using this model to compare FVIII target attainment between intermittent bolus (IB) and continuous infusion (CI) administration methods.

Results: A total of 521 FVIII concentrations, drawn from 34 patients, were analysed. Validation analyses revealed that the Hazendonk model did not fully capture FVIII PK in the UNC cohort. Therefore, a modified one-compartment model, with weight and age as covariates on clearance (CL), was developed. Dosing simulations revealed that CI resulted in improved target attainment by 16%, with reduced overall FVIII usage by 58 IU/kg, compared to IB.

Conclusion: External validation revealed a previously published popPK model of FVIII did not adequately characterize UNC patients, likely due to differences in patient populations. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate our model prior to implementation into clinical practice.
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August 2021

Perioperative pharmacokinetic-guided factor VIII concentrate dosing in haemophilia (OPTI-CLOT trial): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Jul;8(7):e492-e502

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Dosing of replacement therapy with factor VIII concentrate in patients with haemophilia A in the perioperative setting is challenging. Underdosing and overdosing of factor VIII concentrate should be avoided to minimise risk of perioperative bleeding and treatment costs. We hypothesised that dosing of factor VIII concentrate on the basis of a patient's pharmacokinetic profile instead of bodyweight, which is standard treatment, would reduce factor VIII consumption and improve the accuracy of attained factor VIII levels.

Methods: In this open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial (OPTI-CLOT), patients were recruited from nine centres in Rotterdam, Groningen, Utrecht, Nijmegen, The Hague, Leiden, Amsterdam, Eindhoven, and Maastricht in The Netherlands. Eligible patients were aged 12 years or older with severe or moderate haemophilia A (severe haemophilia was defined as factor VIII concentrations of <0·01 IU/mL, and moderate haemophilia as 0·01-0·05 IU/mL), without factor VIII inhibitors, and planned for elective low or medium risk surgery as defined by surgical risk score. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a web-based randomisation system and treatment minimisation, stratified by method of administration of factor VIII concentrate (continuous infusion vs bolus administration) and risk level of surgery (low and medium risk surgery), to the pharmacokinetic-guided or standard treatment group. The primary endpoint was total amount of infused factor VIII concentrate (IU per kg bodyweight) during perioperative period (from day of surgery up to 14 days after surgery). Analysis was by intention to treat and the safety analysis population comprised all participants who underwent surgery with factor VIII concentrate. This study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Registry, NL3955, and is now closed to accrual.

Findings: Between May 1, 2014, and March 1, 2020, 98 patients were assessed for eligibility and 66 were enrolled in the trial and randomly assigned to the pharmacokinetic-guided treatment group (34 [52%]) or the standard treatment group (32 [48%]). Median age was 49·1 years (IQR 35·0 to 62·1) and all participants were male. No difference was seen in consumption of factor VIII concentrate during the perioperative period between groups (mean consumption of 365 IU/kg [SD 202] in pharmacokinetic-guided treatment group vs 379 IU/kg [202] in standard treatment group; adjusted difference -6 IU/kg [95% CI -88 to 100]). Postoperative bleeding occurred in six (18%) of 34 patients in the pharmacokinetic-guided treatment group and three (9%) of 32 in the standard treatment group. One grade 4 postoperative bleeding event occurred, which was in one (3%) patient in the standard treatment group. No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Although perioperative pharmacokinetic-guided dosing is safe, it leads to similar perioperative factor VIII consumption when compared with standard treatment. However, pharmacokinetic-guided dosing showed an improvement in obtaining factor VIII concentrations within the desired perioperative factor VIII range. These findings provide support to further investigation of pharmacokinetic-guided dosing in perioperative haemophilia care.

Funding: Dutch Research Council (NWO)-ZonMw and Takeda.
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July 2021

Emicizumab Dosing in Children and Adults with Hemophilia A: Simulating a User-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Regimen.

Thromb Haemost 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hospital Pharmacy-Clinical Pharmacology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, The Netherlands.

Background:  When emicizumab is dosed according to label, clinicians are obligated to discard or overdose medication due to discrepancies between calculated dose and vial content. The aim of this study was to compose a cost-efficient emicizumab maintenance dosing regimen using Monte Carlo simulation based on vial size, patient-friendly intervals, and patient characteristics, while striving for similar plasma concentrations as observed in clinical trials.

Methods:  Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate alternative dosing regimens in patients weighing 3 to 150 kg. Simulated regimens were targeted to achieve median emicizumab plasma concentrations at a steady state ( ) of 40 to 60 (90% range: 25-95) µg/mL. The cost-efficiency of the alternative dosing regimen was calculated in mg and costs saved per patient per year.

Results:  The developed alternative dosing regimen achieved similar emicizumab levels compared with the registered dosing regimen with a median deviation of less than 2 µg/mL in 78% of the body-weight categories. A dose of 60 mg every 3 weeks was advised for children weighing 12 to 16 kg, while adults weighing 76 to 85 kg can receive 120 mg emicizumab every week. Compared with the registered weekly dosing of 1.5 mg/kg, alternative dosing saved €35,434 per year in children weighing between 12 and 16 kg. For patients weighing 76 to 85 kg, the median saving was €29,529 (range: €0-€59,057).

Conclusion:  This alternative maintenance dosing scheme-applicable in patients with hemophilia A receiving emicizumab prophylaxis-reduces financial costs, avoids medication spillage, and is patient-friendly without loss of efficacy.
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May 2021

Impact of extreme weight loss on factor VIII concentrate pharmacokinetics in haemophilia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 12;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Paediatric Haematology, Erasmus University Medical Center-Sophia Childrens Hospital Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

We explored the effects of extreme weight loss after gastric bypass surgery on factor VIII concentrate pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in a patient with haemophilia A. We present a 32-year-old man with severe haemophilia A, with a body mass index (BMI) of 42.6 kg/m who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. We showed that a population PK model with ideal body weight as morphometric variable instead of bodyweight led to an adequate description of the individual PKs in this patient with a variable BMI. Strikingly, no differences were observed in the individual PK parameters after extreme weight loss. Therefore, the resulting extreme weight loss after surgery did not lead to prophylactic dose changes in this patient with severe haemophilia. We carefully conclude that population PK-pharmacodynamic models are still obligatory to give more insight into functional effects of significant weight loss on the haemostatic balance.
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April 2021

Population pharmacokinetics of the von Willebrand factor-factor VIII interaction in patients with von Willebrand disease.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(5):1513-1522

Hospital Pharmacy-Clinical Pharmacology, Amsterdam University Medical Center (UMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Recent studies have reported that patients with von Willebrand disease treated perioperatively with a von Willebrand factor (VWF)/factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate with a ratio of 2.4:1 (Humate P/Haemate P) often present with VWF and/or FVIII levels outside of prespecified target levels necessary to prevent bleeding. Pharmacokinetic (PK)-guided dosing may resolve this problem. As clinical guidelines increasingly recommend aiming for certain target levels of both VWF and FVIII, application of an integrated population PK model describing both VWF activity (VWF:Act) and FVIII levels may improve dosing and quality of care. In total, 695 VWF:Act and 894 FVIII level measurements from 118 patients (174 surgeries) who were treated perioperatively with the VWF/FVIII concentrate were used to develop this population PK model using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. VWF:Act and FVIII levels were analyzed simultaneously using a turnover model. The protective effect of VWF:Act on FVIII clearance was described with an inhibitory maximum effect function. An average perioperative VWF:Act level of 1.23 IU/mL decreased FVIII clearance from 460 mL/h to 264 mL/h, and increased FVIII half-life from 6.6 to 11.4 hours. Clearly, in the presence of VWF, FVIII clearance decreased with a concomitant increase of FVIII half-life, clarifying the higher FVIII levels observed after repetitive dosing with this concentrate. VWF:Act and FVIII levels during perioperative treatment were described adequately by this newly developed integrated population PK model. Clinical application of this model may facilitate more accurate targeting of VWF:Act and FVIII levels during perioperative treatment with this specific VWF/FVIII concentrate (Humate P/Haemate P).
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March 2021

Comparison of the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Extended Half-Life and Recombinant Factor VIII Concentrates by In Silico Simulations.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Jun 27;121(6):731-740. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Hospital Pharmacy-Clinical Pharmacology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background:  The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates differ, leading to variation in the optimal dosing regimen for the individual patient. The aim of this study was to establish these PK differences for various EHL FVIII concentrates by in silico simulations.

Methods:  FVIII level over time profiles of rFVIII-SC, BAY 81-8973, rFVIII-Fc, BAX 855, BAY 94-9027, and standard half-life (SHL) rFVIII concentrates were simulated for 1,000 severe hemophilia A patients during steady-state dosing of 40 IU/kg every 72 hours or dosing as advised in the summary of product characteristics (SmPC).

Results:  Although the elimination half-life values were comparable for rFVIII-FC, BAX 855, and BAY 94-9027, a higher area under the curve (AUC; 2,779 IU/h/dL) for BAY 94-9027 was obtained. During steady-state dosing of 40 IU/kg every 72 hours, 58.5% (rFVIII-SC), 69.3% (BAY 81-8972), 89.0% (rFVIII-Fc), 83.9% (BAX 855), and 93.7% (BAY 94-9027) of the patients maintained a trough level of 1 IU/dL, compared with 56.0% for SHL rFVIII. Following dosing schemes described in the SmPC, between 51.0 and 65.4% or 23.2 and 31.1% of the patients maintained a target trough level of 1 IU/dL or 3 IU/dL, respectively.

Conclusion:  BAY 94-9027 showed the largest increase of AUC and best target attainment compared with SHL rFVIII, followed closely by BAX 855 and rFVIII-Fc. BAY 81-8973 and rFVIII-SC showed smaller PK improvements. Although our analyses increase insight into the PK of these FVIII concentrates, more studies evaluating the relation between factor levels and bleeding risk are needed.
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June 2021

Pharmacodynamic monitoring of factor VIII replacement therapy in hemophilia A: Combining thrombin and plasmin generation.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 12 21;18(12):3222-3231. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Hematology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Clinical severity of hemophilia A (HA) varies, possibly due to interplay of many factors in the hemostatic pathway. Pharmacokinetic monitoring of factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy in HA patients consists of measuring FVIII activity levels and subsequent dose adjustment. The Nijmegen Hemostasis Assay (NHA) measures thrombin generation (TG) and plasmin generation (PG).

Objective: To determine differences in TG and PG between HA patients before and during a pharmacokinetic study and identify best parameters to develop a pharmacodynamic model.

Methods: Twenty-five HA patients (baseline FVIII < 1-9 IU/dL) underwent a pharmacokinetic study with a single dose of 25-50 IU/kg standard half-life FVIII concentrate. At baseline and after administration of FVIII TG and PG parameters were measured with the NHA.

Results: FVIII activity level increased from median 1.0 IU/dL (interquartile range < 1.0-6.0) to 71 IU/dL (62-82) 15 minutes after administration and decreased to 15 IU/dL (10-26) at 24 hours. TG was enhanced simultaneously, with thrombin peak height (TPH) increasing from 22nM (15-35) to 222nM (159-255), and thrombin potential (TP) from 404nM/min (undetectable-876) to 1834nM/min (1546-2353). Twenty-four hours after infusion, TG parameters remained high (TPH 73nM [58.5-126.3]; TP 1394nM/min [1066-1677]) compared to FVIII activity level. PG showed hyperfibrinolysis in severe HA patients compared to mild patients and controls, which normalized after FVIII supplementation.

Conclusion: HA patients showed clear differences in baseline TG and PG despite having comparable FVIII activity levels. These results reveal a discrepancy between FVIII activity level and TG, in which the latter may be a better parameter to monitor individualized treatment in HA patients.
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December 2020

von Willebrand Factor and Factor VIII Clearance in Perioperative Hemophilia A Patients.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Jul 1;120(7):1056-1065. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center - Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background:  von Willebrand factor (VWF) is crucial for optimal dosing of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A patients as it protects FVIII from premature clearance. To date, it is unknown how VWF behaves and what its impact is on FVIII clearance in the perioperative setting.

Aim:  To investigate VWF kinetics (VWF antigen [VWF:Ag]), VWF glycoprotein Ib binding (VWF:GPIbM), and VWF propeptide (VWFpp) in severe and moderate perioperative hemophilia A patients included in the randomized controlled perioperative OPTI-CLOT trial.

Methods:  Linear mixed effects modeling was applied to analyze VWF kinetics. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were used to investigate perioperative VWFpp/VWF:Ag ratios and associations with surgical bleeding.

Results:  Fifty-nine patients with median age of 48.8 years (interquartile range: 34.8-60.0) were included. VWF:Ag and VWF:GPIbM increased significantly postoperatively. Blood type non-O or medium risk surgery were associated with higher VWF:Ag and VWF:GPIbM levels compared with blood type O and low risk surgery. VWFpp/VWF:Ag was significantly higher immediately after surgery than 32 to 57 hours after surgery ( < 0.001). Lowest VWF:Ag quartile (0.43-0.92 IU/mL) was associated with an increase of FVIII concentrate clearance of 26 mL/h (95% confidence interval: 2-50 mL/h) compared with highest VWF antigen quartile (1.70-3.84 IU/mL). VWF levels were not associated with perioperative bleeding (4,227) = 0.54,  = 0.710.

Conclusion:  VWF:Ag and VWF:GPIbM levels increase postoperatively, most significantly in patients with blood type non-O or medium risk surgery. Lower VWF antigen levels did not lead to clinically relevant higher FVIII clearance. VWF:Ag or VWF:GPIbM levels were not associated with perioperative hemorrhage.
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July 2020

A Novel, Enriched Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Recombinant Factor VIII-Fc Fusion Protein Concentrate in Hemophilia A Patients.

Thromb Haemost 2020 May 5;120(5):747-757. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center - Sophia Children's Hospital Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background:  The currently published population pharmacokinetic (PK) models used for PK-guided dosing in hemophilia patients are based on clinical trial data and usually not externally validated in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to validate a published model for recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein (rFVIII-Fc) concentrate and to develop an enriched model using independently collected clinical data if required.

Methods:  Clinical data from hemophilia A patients treated with rFVIII-Fc concentrate (Elocta) participating in the United Kingdom Extended Half-Life Outcomes Registry were collected. The predictive performance of the published model was assessed using mean percentage error (bias) and mean absolute percentage error (inaccuracy). An extended population PK model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM).

Results:  A total of 43 hemophilia A patients (FVIII ≤ 2 IU/dL), aged 5 to 70 years, were included. The prior model was able to predict the collected 244 rFVIII-Fc levels without significant bias (-1.0%, 95% CI: -9.4 to 7.3%) and with acceptable accuracy (12.9%). However, clearance and central distribution volume were under predicted in patients <12 years, which was expected as this age group was not represented in the previous model population. An enriched population PK model was constructed, which was able to successfully characterize PK profiles of younger children.

Conclusion:  We concluded that the existing rFVIII-Fc population PK model is valid for patients ≥ 12 years. However, it is not reliable in younger patients. Our alternative model, constructed from real world patient data including children, allows for better description of patients ≥5 years.
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May 2020

One piece of the puzzle: Population pharmacokinetics of FVIII during perioperative Haemate P /Humate P treatment in von Willebrand disease patients.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 02 21;18(2):295-305. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Hospital Pharmacy - Clinical Pharmacology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Many patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) are treated on demand with von Willebrand factor and factor VIII (FVIII) containing concentrates present with VWF and/or FVIII plasma levels outside set target levels. This carries a risk for bleeding and potentially for thrombosis. Development of a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model based on FVIII levels is a first step to more accurate on-demand perioperative dosing of this concentrate.

Methods: Patients with VWD undergoing surgery in Academic Haemophilia Treatment Centers in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2018 treated with a FVIII/VWF plasma-derived concentrate (Haemate® P/Humate P®) were included in this study. Population PK modeling was based on measured FVIII levels using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM).

Results: The population PK model was developed using 684 plasma FVIII measurements of 97 VWD patients undergoing 141 surgeries. Subsequently, the model was externally validated and reestimated with independent clinical data from 20 additional patients undergoing 31 surgeries and 208 plasma measurements of FVIII. The observed PK profiles were best described using a one-compartment model. Typical values for volume of distribution and clearance were 3.28 L/70 kg and 0.037 L/h/70 kg. Increased VWF activity, decreased physical status according to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification (ASA class >2), and increased duration of surgery were associated with decreased FVIII clearance.

Conclusion: This population PK model derived from real world data adequately describes FVIII levels following perioperative administration of the FVIII/VWF plasma-derived concentrate (Haemate P/Humate P ) and will help to facilitate future dosing in VWD patients.
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February 2020

Predictive performance of a gentamicin population pharmacokinetic model in two western populations of critically ill patients.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Aug 26;52(2):218-225. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Hospital Pharmacy & Clinical Pharmacology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

External validation of population pharmacokinetic (PK) models is warranted before they can be clinically applied to aid in antibiotic dose selection. The primary objective of this study was to assess the predictive performance of a gentamicin population PK model in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in two independent western populations of critically ill patients.

Methods: Data were collected from the ICU where the model was developed (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam [AMC]) and from the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nîmes (CHU Nîmes). Primary endpoints were bias and accuracy. The model was regarded as valid if bias was not significantly different from 0 and accuracy was equal to or less than 2.5 mg/L. Non-linear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM) was used for data analysis.

Results: The AMC validation dataset consisted of 192 samples from 66 ICU patients and the CHU Nîmes dataset of 230 gentamicin samples from 50 ICU patients. The structural model predicted the gentamicin plasma concentrations in the AMC population with a non-significant bias (0.35, 95%CI: -0.11-0.81) and a sufficient accuracy of 2.5 mg/L (95%CI: 2.3-2.8). The gentamicin plasma concentrations were overpredicted in the CHU Nîmes population with a significant bias of 4.8 mg/L (95%CI: 4.00-5.62) and an accuracy of 5.5 mg/L (95%CI: 4.7-6.2).

Conclusion: The model is valid for use in the AMC ICU population but not in the CHU Nîmes ICU population. This illustrates that caution is needed when using a population PK model in an external population.
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August 2018