Publications by authors named "Laura Guidetti"

76 Publications

Are there sex differences in physiological parameters and reaction time responses to overload in firefighters?

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0249559. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

Male and female firefighters work side-by-side in the same in strenuous and risky conditions. Anthropometrics, physiological, and reaction time (mean of reaction time -MRT-, and errors made -E) parameters of 12 Female and 13 Male firefighters were compared. Effect of overload (step test with and without equipment) on the MRT and E were analyzed on 3 trials (T1 = 1-1s, T2 = 0.5-1s, T3 = 0.5-0.5s), compared with a pre-test condition (basal). T-test between males and females was applied to assess differences (p<0.05) in all parameters. ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni on 3 conditions of step test between males and females was applied in reaction time variables. Between MRT and E, in T1, T2 and T3 trials and the 3 test conditions, ANCOVA models with interactions were used. Differences (p<0.05) in anthropometric, physiological and reaction time data emerged across groups, and on the 3rd trials (T3 vs T1 and T2) in reaction time parameters of each group. ANCOVA showed differences (p<0.001) in E among trials. Post hoc showed significant differences in T1vsT3 and T1vsT2. MRT x trial interaction was extremely significant (P<0.001). Implementing fitness and reaction time exercise programs is important to decrease the injury risk and increase work capacity in firefighters with reference to female workers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249559PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092788PMC
May 2021

Initial validation of the Italian version of the Volition in Exercise Questionnaire (VEQ-I).

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249667. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

The purpose of this study was to validate the Volition in Exercise Questionnaire in Italian language (VEQ-I). The translation and cultural adaptation of the VEQ-I was conducted using the forward-backward translation method. VEQ-I eighteen items correspond to the six-factors structure of the original version. The construct validity was verified by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (CFI = 0.960; TLI = 0.943; RMSEA = 0.039; and SRMR = 0.040). The eighteen items were well distributed in six subscales and the six-factors structure of the questionnaire was supported. Internal Consistency value of the questionnaire was investigated for each subscale of the VEQ-I. Cronbach's alpha and Omega values of the Reasons, Postponing Training, Unrelated Thoughts, Self-Confidence, Approval from Others and Coping with Failure subscales were 0.76 (α) and 0.76 (ω), 0.76 (α) and 0.76 (ω), 0.87 (α) and 0.88 (ω), 0.85 (α) and 0.85 (ω), 0.70 (α) and 0.72 (ω) and 0.74 (α) and 0.74 (ω), respectively. They were acceptable in all the six subscales. The concurrent validity was assessed using the correlation among the subscales of VEQ-I measures and those contained in two questionnaires: Psychobiosocial States in Physical Education (PBS-SPE) and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249667PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034746PMC
April 2021

Effects of Ballroom Dance on Physical Fitness and Reaction Time in Experienced Middle-Aged Adults of Both Genders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 19;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, "Magna Graecia" University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Ballroom dance practice might play a pivotal role for successful aging, but its effects could differ depending on dancers' experience level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of six months of ballroom dance (three times/w) on physical fitness and reaction time (RT) in 24 middle-aged adults who are experienced dancers (age: 59.4 ± 11.6 years). Body composition, handgrip test (HG), standing long-jump test (SLJ), step test (ST), one-legged stance balance test (OLSB), and RT were assessed before (T) and after six months (T) of dance practice. RT was re-evaluated four months later (T). RT was significantly (p < 0.05) lower at T (221.2 ± 20.3 ms) and T (212.0 ± 21.9 ms) than T (239.1 ± 40,7 ms); no significant differences were found between T and T. No significant differences were observed for all the other parameters between T and T: weight and muscle mass were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in females than in males, and percentage of fat mass was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in females than in males. HG was significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.01). Results suggest that in experienced middle-aged adults of both genders, ballroom dance may positively influence RT, and this result could be maintained for four months.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922230PMC
February 2021

Factors Influencing Weight Loss Practices in Italian Boxers: A Cluster Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 24;17(23). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, 61027 Urbino, Italy.

It is common practice in combat sports that athletes rapidly lose body weight before a match, by applying different practices-some safer and others possibly dangerous. The factors behind the choice of practices utilised have not been fully studied. This study aimed to investigate the weight loss strategies used by Italian boxers and to look at the difference between higher and lower risk practice adaptors. A modified version of a validated questionnaire has been sent to 164 amateur (88%) and professional (12%) boxers by email. A heatmap with hierarchical clustering was used to explore the presence of subgroups. Weight loss strategies were used by 88% of the athletes. Two clusters were found, defined by the severity of weight loss behaviours. Professional fighters, high-level athletes and females were more represented in Cluster 2, the one with more severe weight-loss practices. These athletes were characterised by a higher weight loss magnitude and frequency throughout the season and reported being more influenced by physicians and nutritionists, compared with the boxers in Cluster 1. Not all the weight loss practices are used with the same frequency by all boxers. The level of the athlete and the boxing style have an influence on the weight-cutting practices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727866PMC
November 2020

Can Haematological and Hormonal Biomarkers Predict Fitness Parameters in Youth Soccer Players? A Pilot Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 29;17(17). Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, "Sapienza" University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy.

The study aimed to investigate the correlations among immune, haematological, endocrinological markers and fitness parameters, and assess if the physiological parameters could be a predictor of fitness values. Anthropometric, physical evaluations (countermovement jump-CMJ, 10 m sprint, VOmax, repeated sprint ability-RSA total time and index) and determination of blood (IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and tumour necrosis factor) and salivary (testosterone and cortisol) samples parameters in 28 young male soccer players (age: 13.0 ± 0.2 years, body mass index (BMI): 19.5 ± 2.2 kg/m) were analysed. To evaluate the dependence of the variables related to athletic performance, multiple linear regression with backward stepwise elimination was considered. A significant regression equation was found in CMJ (F = 9.86, < 0.001, R adjusted = 0.679) and in the RSA index (F = 15.39, < 0.001, R adjusted = 0.774) considering only five variables, in a 10 m sprint (F = 20.25, < 0.001, R adjusted = 0.786) and in the RSA total time (F = 15.31, < 0.001, R adjusted = 0.732) considering only four variables and in VOmax (F = 32.09, < 0.001, R adjusted = 0.930) considering nine variables. Our study suggests the use of regression equations to predict the fitness values of youth soccer players by blood and saliva samples, during different phases of the season, short periods of match congestion or recovery from an injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503944PMC
August 2020

Effects of Acute Whole-Body Vibration Practice on Maximal Fat Oxidation in Adult Obese Males: A Pilot Study.

Obes Facts 2020 23;13(2):117-129. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Section of Health Sciences, University "Foro Italico" of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has been established as a useful method to improve physical fitness in obese individuals. However, the effects of WBV exercise on maximal fat oxidation (MFO) have not been examined in obese subjects yet.

Method: MFO was eval-uated during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill in 12 adult obese males (BMI = 34.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2) after three different warm-up conditions: static half squat plus WBV (HSV), static half squat without WBV (HSWV), and rest (REST). Cortisol levels were evaluated before and after the warm-up, and 1 min (T1), 10 min (T10), and 30 min (T30) of the recovery phase.

Results: MFO was significantly higher in HSV (p = 0.013; 569.4 ± 117.9 mg/min) and HSWV (p = 0.033; 563.8 ± 142.9 mg/min) than REST (445.5 ± 117.9 mg/min). Cortisol concentrations at T1 were significantly higher in HSV (p = 0.023) and HSWV (p = 0.015) than REST. Moreover, cortisol concentrations were significantly lower at T30 than T1 in HSWV (p = 0.04). No differences were found between T30 and T1 in HSV.

Conclusions: Active warm-up increases MFO; however, vibration stimulus during half squatting does not increase MFO during a CPET in obese subjects. The lack of significant differences of cortisol concentrations in HSV during the recovery phase might suggest a long-term effect of WBV on the endocrine system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250328PMC
September 2020

Effect of pre-season training phase on anthropometric, hormonal and fitness parameters in young soccer players.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(11):e0225471. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Faculty of Psychology, eCampus University, Novedrate, Como, Italy.

The aims of the study were to investigate 1) the effect of 8 weeks of PSP training on anthropometrics, salivary hormones and fitness parameters in youth soccer players, 2) the correlations between fitness and hormonal parameters, and 3) the impact of the experience of the coach and his methodology of training on these parameters. Weight, height, BMI, pubertal development (PDS), salivary Cortisol (sC), salivary Testosterone (sT), salivary sDHEAS, intermittent tests (VO2max), and countermovement jump test (CMJ) modifications of 35 youth soccer players (age: 14±0 yrs; BMI: 20.8±1.8 k/m2) from two Italian clubs ("Lupa Frascati" -LF-; "Albalonga" -AL) were analysed. A significant (p<0.05) time by club effect was observed in sC (F(1,31) = 9.7, ES = 1.13), sT (F(1,31) = 4.2, ES = 0.74), CMJ (F(1,28) = 26.5, ES = 1.94), and VO2max (F(1,28) = 8.5, ES = 1.10). Statistical differences (p<0.05) in weight (F(1,32) = 25.5, ES = 0.11), sC (F(1,31) = 32.1, ES = 1.43), sT/sC ratio (F(1,31) = 10.1, ES = 0.97), sDHEAS/sC ratio (F(1,31) = 6.3, ES = 0.70), and VO2max (F(1,28) = 64.3, ES = 1.74) were found within time factor. Between clubs, differences (p<0.05) in sC (F(1,32) = 8.5, ES = 1.17), sT (F(1,31) = 4.2, ES = 0.74), CMJ (F(1,28) = 26.5, ES = 1.50), and VO2max (F(1,28) = 8.5, ES = 1.10) were found. CMJ was inversely correlated with sDHEAS (r = -0.38) before PSP, while Δ of CMJ showed significant correlations with Δ of sC (r = 0.43) and ΔVO2max was inversely correlated with ΔBMI (r = -0.54) and ΔsC (r = -0.37) in all subjects. Considering each single club, ΔVO2max showed correlations with ΔBMI (r = -0.45) in AL, while ΔCMJ showed correlations with ΔPDS (r = 0.72) in LF club. Since the PSP is often limited training time to simultaneously develop physical, technical and tactical qualities, an efficient method to distribute the training load is important in youth soccer players to increase the performance and to avoid injuries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225471PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6876839PMC
March 2020

Characterization of the Effects of a Six-Month Dancing as Approach for Successful Aging.

Int J Endocrinol 2019 17;2019:2048391. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, "Magna Graecia" University, Catanzaro, Italy.

Aging is accompanied by a decline in multiple domains. Positive effects of dance practice on several health issues have been evaluated in young adults, while the effects of regular social dance practice on physical fitness, sexual health, and cognitive functions have not been studied yet in older experienced dancers. Thus, the aim of this study has been to investigate whether a 6-month social dance practice might influence fitness performance, sexual health, and specific cognitive functions and/or mood characteristics in older experienced dancers. Thirty experienced dancers (age: 71.2±5.1 years, 18 females/12 males) were enrolled from the dance school "NonSoloLiscio" of Catanzaro. Body composition, physical fitness, sexual health, and cognitive functions were assessed before (T0) and after (T6) intervention. After 6 months of dance practice, percent of fat mass (%FM) significantly decreased (p<0.01), while fat-free mass (FFM) significantly increased (p<0.01) in both genders. Moreover, significant main effects of time on physical fitness tests, such as chair stand test (CST) (p<0.01), gait speed (p<0.05), and timed up and go (p<0.05), were found. Sexual health was significantly higher in males than in females at T0 and no significant effects of dance on subjects' sexual health were found. Interestingly, trait of anxiety significant decreased (p<0.05) and perception of retrospective memory significantly increased (p=0.05) after training independently of gender. Our preliminary results suggest that, even in older intermediate-level dancer, the practice of social dance might positively influence body composition and also increase fitness performance, memory functions, and anxiety. In contrast, no effects on sexual health were observed after 6 months of dancing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2048391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601485PMC
June 2019

Dynamic motor imagery mentally simulates uncommon real locomotion better than static motor imagery both in young adults and elderly.

PLoS One 2019 26;14(6):e0218378. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Section of Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

A new form of Motor Imagery (MI), called dynamic Motor Imagery (dMI) has recently been proposed. The dMI adds to conventional static Motor Imagery (sMI) the presence of simultaneous actual movements partially replicating those mentally represented. In a previous research conducted on young participants, dMI showed to be temporally closer than sMI in replicating the real performance for some specific locomotor conditions. In this study, we evaluated if there is any influence of the ageing on dMI. Thirty healthy participants were enrolled: 15 young adults (27.1±3.8 y.o.) and 15 older adults (65.9±9.6y.o.). The performance time and the number of steps needed to either walk to a target (placed at 10m from participants) or to imagine walking to it, were assessed. Parameters were measured for sMI, dMI and real locomotion (RL) in three different locomotor conditions: forward walking (FW), backward walking (BW), and lateral walking (LW). Temporal performances of sMI and dMI did not differ between RL in the FW, even if significantly different to each other (p = 0.0002). No significant differences were found for dMI with respect to RL for LW (p = 0.140) and BW (p = 0.438), while sMI was significantly lower than RL in LW (p<0.001). The p-value of main effect of age on participants' temporal performances was p = 0.055. The interaction between age and other factors such as the type of locomotion (p = 0.358) or the motor condition (p = 0.614) or third level interaction (p = 0.349) were not statistically significant. Despite a slight slowdown in the performance of elderly compared to young participants, the temporal and spatial accuracy was better in dMI than sMI in both groups. Motor imagery processes may be strengthened by the feedback generated through dMI, and this effect appears to be unaffected by age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218378PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594612PMC
February 2020

Relationship between individual ventilatory threshold and maximal fat oxidation (MFO) over different obesity classes in women.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(4):e0215307. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Section of Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

Objective: The use of the Individual Ventilatory Threshold (IVT), as parameter to prescribe exercise intensity in individuals with obesity, has become more frequent during the last years. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between IVT and Maximal Fat Oxidation (MFO) in women with obesity.

Methods: Fifty-two obese female adults (age = 43.6±10.9 years; BMI = 38.5±5.2 kg/m2) were included in this study. According to the BMI classification, subjects were divided into three groups: Obese Class I (OBI, n = 16); Obese Class II (OBII, n = 20) and Obese Class III (OBIII, n = 16). All subjects performed an incremental graded exercise test to evaluate peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), IVT and MFO. MFO was evaluated using a stoichiometric equation. Fat max zone was determined for each subject within 10% of fat oxidation rates at MFO. For each HR, %HRmax, VO2 and %VO2peak variable, Pearson's correlation test was done between IVT and MFO exercise intensity. When statistical correlation was found we used a comparative statistical analysis to assess differences between IVT and MFO. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: For each HR, %HRmax, VO2 and %VO2peak variable there was a positive significant correlation (P<0.01) between IVT and MFO. No significant differences were found for HR, %HRmax, and VO2 between IVT and MFO. %VO2peak was significantly higher at IVT than at MFO (P = 0.03). MFO rates were significantly higher in OBIII women than in women of the other two classes. In all subjects, IVT was within the fat max zone.

Conclusion: The use of HR and VO2 corresponding to IVT could be a useful parameter not only to improve cardiorespiratory fitness but also to prescribe physical activity that maximize fat oxidation in obese subjects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215307PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459513PMC
January 2020

Effects of Continuous vs Discontinuous Aerobic Training on Cardiac Autonomic Remodeling.

Int J Sports Med 2019 Mar 10;40(3):180-185. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

HES, Appalachian State University, Boone, United States.

The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic nervous system differences following either continuous vs. discontinuous exercise in males and females. Forty-seven healthy male and female subjects (M=19, F=28; Age=36.95±13.79) underwent a baseline test for VO and tilt table testing. They were assigned to a one-month control period before returning to repeat the testing and then begin one month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work for 30 min at 70% peak heart rate (N=23) or 3 bouts of 10 min at 70% of peak heart rate with two 10-min break periods in between (N=24). Following exercise, both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in VO (p<0.001). Treatment differences were detected while tilted in continuous as a decreases in the percentage of instances within an hour that the normal sinus interval exceeds 50 ms (p=0.036) and in the high-frequency component (p=0.023). While supine, the discontinuous group saw reduction in heart rate (p=0.004), and an increase in high-frequency (p=0.018). These data suggest that for healthy people either continuous or discontinuous aerobic training is effective in improving measures of fitness; however discontinuous is better able to improve supine indices of vagal activity on heart rate variability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0044-100921DOI Listing
March 2019

Validity, reliability and minimum detectable change of COSMED K5 portable gas exchange system in breath-by-breath mode.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(12):e0209925. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the validity, reliability and minimum detectable change (MDC) of the Cosmed K5 in breath by breath (BxB) mode, against VacuMed metabolic simulator. Intra and inter-units reliability was also assessed.

Methods: Fourteen metabolic rates (from 0.9 to 4 L.min-1) were reproduced by a VacuMed system and pulmonary ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured by two different K5 units. Validity was assessed by ordinary least products (OLP) regression analysis, Bland-Altman plots, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), mean percentage differences, technical errors (TE) and MDC for VE, VO2, and VCO2. Intra- and inter-K5 reliability was evaluated by absolute percentage differences between measurements (MAPE), ICCs, TE, and MDC.

Results: Validity analysis from OLP regression data and Bland- Altman plots indicated high agreement between K5 and simulator. ICC values were excellent for all variables (>0.99). Mean percentage differences in VE (-0.50%, p = 0.11), VO2 (-0.04%, p = 0.80), and VCO2 (-1.03%, p = 0.09) showed no significant bias. The technical error (TE) ranged from 0.73% to 1.34% (VE and VCO2 respectively). MDC were lower than 4% (VE = 2.0%, VO2 = 3.8%, VCO2 = 3.7%). The intra and inter K5 reliability assessment reveled excellent ICCs (>0.99), MAPE <2% (no significant differences between trials), TE < or around 1%, MDC
Conclusions: K5 in BxB mode is a valid and reliable system for metabolic measurements. This is the first study assessing the MDC accounting only for technical variability reporting intra- and inter-units MDCs <3.3%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209925PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312326PMC
May 2019

Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Psychophysiological Responses to Maximal Incremental Exercise Test in Recreational Endurance Runners.

Front Psychol 2018 9;9:1867. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

Previous studies have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might improve exercise performance and alter psychophysiological responses to exercise. However, it is presently unknown whether this simple technique has similar (or greater) effects on running performance. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to test the hypothesis that, compared with sham and cathodal tDCS, anodal tDCS applied over the M1 region would attenuate perception of effort, improve affective valence, and enhance exercise tolerance, regardless of changes in physiological responses, during maximal incremental exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced design, 13 healthy recreational endurance runners, aged 20-42 years, volunteered to participate in this study. On three separate occasions, the subjects performed an incremental ramp exercise test from rest to volitional exhaustion on a motor-driven treadmill following 20-min of brain stimulation with either placebo tDCS (sham) or real tDCS (cathodal and anodal). Breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation and indices of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation were collected continuously during the ramp exercise test. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affective valence in response to the ramp exercise test were also measured. Compared with sham, neither anodal tDCS nor cathodal tDCS altered the physiological responses to exercise ( > 0.05). Similarly, RPE and affective responses during the incremental ramp exercise test did not differ between the three experimental conditions at any time ( > 0.05). The exercise tolerance was also not significantly different following brain stimulation with either sham (533 ± 46 s) or real tDCS (anodal tDCS: 530 ± 44 s, and cathodal tDCS: 537 ± 40 s; > 0.05). These results demonstrate that acute tDCS applied over the M1 region did not alter physiological responses, perceived exertion, affective valence, or exercise performance in recreational endurance runners.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189328PMC
October 2018

Effects of body weight loss program on parameters of muscle performance in female obese adults.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2019 Apr 18;59(4):624-631. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Section of Health Sciences, Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

Background: Body weight loss program may lead to a decrease in lean body mass affecting negatively muscle performance in obese subjects. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of weight loss on muscle performance in female obese subjects.

Methods: Eighty obese female adults were enrolled for a 2-month unsupervised aerobic training (UAT) plus nutritional program. In the pre- and postintervention body composition was evaluated by hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance method, body strength using handgrip test, and lower muscle power was assessed by a 5-repetition chair stand test (CST) and 30-s chair stand test (30sCST) wearing a dynamometer.

Results: Thirty-six subjects completed the protocol, 39% had high compliance (HC), while 61% had low compliance (LC) to exercise prescription. HC group showed a significant decreased body weight, percent of fat mass and lean muscle mass after training. Both groups significantly increased CST performance while only HC significantly increased 30sCST. No differences were found in CST muscle power in both groups between pre- and post-training. However, evaluation of muscle power during 30sCST showed significantly higher value in HC group than LC group after training.

Conclusions: The results of our study show that although total lean muscle mass decreased after UAT, lower body muscle efficiency increased while muscle power did not change suggesting that in obese patients UAT can help to optimize weight loss and body efficiency. The data might be helpful for exercise professionals to evaluate correctly the muscle performance in obese adults after weight loss programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08578-XDOI Listing
April 2019

Prediction equation to estimate heart rate at individual ventilatory threshold in female and male obese adults.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(5):e0197255. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Section of Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

Objective: Prescribing individualized moderate exercise intensity is a useful method to reach positive effects on health status in obese adults. This study aimed to establish a practical reference equation to estimate the heart rate (HR) at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT) (HRIVT).

Methods: One hundred sixty-one obese subjects were clinically evaluated and characterized by anthropometric and body composition. Participants performed the six-minute walking test (6-MWT) and the cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess IVT. Multiple regression analysis for HRIVT, including 6-MWT, anthropometric, and body composition parameters, as independent variables, was performed for both gender separately. A cross-validation study was also performed to determine the accuracy of the prediction equation.

Results: Whereas HRIVT was not significantly different between males (121.5±18.3 bpm) and females (117.6±17.1 bpm), it differently correlated with physical and performance parameters. Therefore, two sex-specific equations were developed including 6-MWTHR and HRrest (R2 = 0.69 and 0.65 and root mean square errors of 8.8 and 10.1 bpm for females and males, respectively).

Conclusion: In conclusion, in female and male obese adults, the 6-MWT might be used to predict HR at IVT. These outcomes are useful to prescribe optimal physical activity intensity when gold standard methods (e.g. gas exchange analysis) are unavailable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197255PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5947910PMC
December 2018

Relationship Among Repeated Sprint Ability, Chronological Age, and Puberty in Young Soccer Players.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Feb;32(2):364-371

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

Perroni, F, Pintus, A, Frandino, M, Guidetti, L, and Baldari, C. Relationship among repeated sprint ability, chronological age, and puberty in young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 364-371, 2018-The aim of this study was to analyzed the relationship of repeated sprint ability (RSA) with chronological age and puberty in 100 young soccer players (age: 13 ± 3 years-160 ± 33 months-; height: 159 ± 16 cm, mass: 49.7 ± 14.1 kg; body mass index [BMI] 19.2 ± 2.5 kg/m) grouped on "Pulcini" (9-10 years), "Esordienti" (11-12 years), "Giovanissimi" (13-14 years), "Allievi" (15-16 years), and "Juniores" (>17 years) categories. Anthropometric (weight, height, BMI), RSA (7 × 30 m sprint with 25 seconds active rest: total time-TT, the lowest sprinting time, and the fatigue index percentage-%IF), and development (self-administered rating scale for pubertal development PDS; puberty) parameters were measured. ANOVA among categories was applied to asses differences (p ≤ 0.05) in TT and %IF. When a significant effect was found, Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used. Pearson correlation among all variables was calculated considering all subjects and also within categories. Among categories, statistical analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.001) in TT and a considerable trend toward significance (p = 0.06) in %IF. Significant correlations among variables were found in all subjects and within categories. In particular, TT showed large significant correlation with PDS (r = -0.66) and puberty (r = -0.67) only in "Esordienti." This study provides useful information for the coach to propose an appropriate training and to obtain the optimal training effect and to minimize the risk of injury and overtraining during the different phases of growth and maturation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001799DOI Listing
February 2018

Metabolomic Shifts Following Play-Based Activity in Overweight Preadolescents.

Curr Pediatr Rev 2017 ;13(2):144-151

Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC. United States.

Background: Play-based activities can be a positive intervention to increase participation of overweight children. Metabolomics can reveal elemental shifts in the metabolome, lending to potential mechanistic explanations behind improvements in physiological systems.

Objective: To elucidate dose-response urinary metabolomic signature shifts in overweight preadolescents following four or eight weeks of supervised play-based activity versus a typical summer break control group. We hypothesized that eight weeks of activity would cause the greatest shift in the metabolites.

Study Design: Twenty-two recreationally active preadolescents (12 males, 10 females) were randomly assigned to a four-week (4w) or eight-week (8w) activity group or to a control group (C). Participants reported to the laboratory on two separate occasions during which descriptive characteristics were recorded and urine samples were obtained. Children in the 4w and 8w cohort were tested at the beginning and end of the four and eight weeks of a supervised play-based physical activity program where they were active for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week. Children in the C group were tested before and after eight weeks of an unsupervised summer break.

Results: A valid supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis model was obtained between post-exercise subjects in 8w and C (3 components, R2X = 0.332, R2Y = 0.976, Q2 = 0.091). The eight week intervention yielded significant metabolomic changes in several identified compounds.

Conclusion: When compared to a typical unsupervised summer break, a supervised play-based intervention provides enough of a stimulus for a shift in the metabolome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573396313666170113145553DOI Listing
February 2018

Physical activity and hypocaloric diet recovers osteoblasts homeostasis in women affected by abdominal obesity.

Endocrine 2017 Nov 16;58(2):340-348. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Section of Health Sciences, Foro Italico University, Rome, Italy.

Obesity is a multifactorial disease linked to metabolic chronic disorders such as diabetes, and hypertension. Also, it has recently been associated with skeletal alterations and low bone mineral density. We previously demonstrated that exposure of osteoblasts to sera of sedentary subjects affected by obesity alters cell homeostasis in vitro, leading to disruption of intracellular differentiation pathways and cellular activity. Thus, the purpose of the present study has been to evaluate whether sera of sedentary obese women, subjected to physical activity and hypocaloric diet, could recover osteoblast homeostasis in vitro as compared to the sera of same patients before intervention protocol. To this aim, obese women were evaluated at time 0 and after 4, 6, and 12 months of individualized prescribed physical activity and hypocaloric diet. Dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed at each time point, as well as blood was collected at the same points. Cells were incubated with sera of subjects before and after physical activity as described: obese at baseline and after for 4, 6, and 12 months of physical activity and nutritional protocol intervention. Osteoblasts exposed to sera of patients, who displayed increased lean and decreased fat mass (from 55.5 ± 6.5 to 57.1 ± 5.6% p ≤ 0.05; from 44.5 ± 1.1 to 40.9 ± 2.6% p ≤ 0.01 respectively), showed a time-dependent increase of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, versus cells exposed to sera of obese patients before intervention protocol, suggesting recovery of osteoblast homeostasis upon improvement of body composition. An increase in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and nuclear translocation was also observed, accompanied by an increase in Adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression, suggesting positive effect on cell differentiation program. Furthermore, a decrease in sclerostin amount and an increase of type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide were depicted as compared to baseline, proportionally to the time of physical activity, suggesting a recovery of bone remodeling modulation and an increase of osteoblast activity induced by improvement of body composition. In conclusion, our results show for the first time that sera of obese sedentary women who increased lean mass and decreased fat mass, by physical activity and hypocaloric diet, rescue osteoblasts differentiation and activity likely due to a reactivation of Wnt/β-catenin-pathway, suggesting that a correct life style can improve skeletal metabolic alteration induced by obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-1193-1DOI Listing
November 2017

Differential Effects of Continuous Versus Discontinuous Aerobic Training on Blood Pressure and Hemodynamics.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Jan;32(1):97-104

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, College of Health Sciences, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina.

Landram, MJ, Utter, AC, Baldari, C, Guidetti, L, McAnulty, SR, and Collier, SR. Differential effects of continuous versus discontinuous aerobic training on blood pressure and hemodynamics. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 97-104, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the hemodynamic, arterial stiffness, and blood flow changes after 4 weeks of either continuous or discontinuous aerobic exercise in adults. Forty-seven subjects between the ages of 18 and 57 were recruited for 1 month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work for 30 minutes at 70% max heart rate or 3 bouts of 10 minutes of exercise at 70% of max heart rate with two 10 minutes break periods in between, totaling 30 minutes of aerobic work. After exercise, both continuous (CON) and discontinuous (DIS) groups demonstrated a significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, CON 35.39 ± 1.99 to 38.19 ± 2.03; DIS 36.18 ± 1.82 to 39.33 ± 1.75), heart rate maximum (CON 183.5 ± 3.11 to 187.17 ± 3.06; DIS 179.06 ± 2.75 to 182 ± 2.61), decreases in systolic blood pressure (CON 119 ± 1.82 to 115.11 ± 1.50; DIS 117.44 ± 1.90 to 112.67 ± 1.66), diastolic blood pressure (CON 72.56 ± 1.65 to 70.56 ± 1.06; DIS 71.56 ± 1.59 to 69.56 ± 1.43), augmentation index (CON 17.17 ± 2.17 to 14.9 ± 1.92; DIS 19.71 ± 2.66 to 13.91 ± 2.46), central pulse wave velocity (CON 8.29 ± 0.32 to 6.92 ± 0.21; DIS 7.85 ± 0.30 to 6.83 ± 0.29), peripheral pulse wave velocity (CON 9.49 ± 0.35 to 7.72 ± 0.38; DIS 9.11 ± 0.37 to 7.58 ± 0.47), and significant increases in average forearm blood flow (CON 4.06 ± 0.12 to 4.34 ± 0.136; DIS 4.26 ± 0.18 to 4.53 ± 0.15), peak forearm blood flow (FBF) after reactive hyperemia (CON 28.45 ± 0.094 to 29.96 ± 0.45; DIS 29.29 ± 0.46 to 30.6 ± 0.38), area under the curve (AUC) of FBF (CON 28.65 ± 1.77 to 30.4 ± 1.08; DIS 30.52 ± 1.9 to 31.67 ± 1.44), and AUC peak FBF after reactive hyperemia (CON 222.3 ± 5.68 to 231.95 ± 4.42; DIS 230.81 ± 6.91 to 237.19 ± 5.39). These data suggest that for healthy people either 4 weeks of continuous or discontinuous aerobic training is effective in improving measures of fitness and vascular health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001661DOI Listing
January 2018

Effects of different physical education programmes on children's skill- and health-related outcomes: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

J Sports Sci 2017 Aug 3;35(15):1547-1555. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

a Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences , University of Rome "Foro Italico" , Rome , Italy.

Aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different 5-month physical education (PE) interventions conducted by a specialist PE teacher on primary school children's skill- and health-related outcomes. About 230 children were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: experimental_1 group, experimental_2 group or control group (school curriculum given by the generalist teacher). Pre- and post-intervention tests assessed pupils' fitness (pacer, curl-up, push-up, trunk lift, sit and reach tests) and gross motor coordination (shifting platforms, balance beam, jumping laterally, hopping on one leg over an obstacle tests). Both experimental groups significantly improved some fitness and coordinative tests after the intervention period when compared with control group. However, no differential changes on coordinative development were observed between the 2 experimental groups. Results of this study demonstrated that children benefitted from a well-structured PE intervention conducted and supervised by a specialist PE teacher improving their motor skills and fitness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1225969DOI Listing
August 2017

Wii Fit is effective in women with bone loss condition associated with balance disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2016 Dec 6;28(6):1187-1193. Epub 2016 May 6.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome Foro Italico, Piazza Lauro De Bosis, 15, 00135, Rome, Italy.

The use of exergame for balance competencies was recently explored in women affected by balance ability reduction with non-conclusive results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a supervised exergame performed with the Wii Fit compared to conventional exercises on balance function, quality of life, fear of fall and well-being in women with bone loss. Thirty-eight female participants aged over 65 years, with a bone loss condition, were enrolled and random allocated in the Wii group or control group. Subject enrolled in Wii group performed a balance training with a Wii Fit supervised by a physiotherapist (1 h, 2 days per week, during 8 weeks) while in control subjects performed the same amount of conventional balance exercises. Subject enrolled in experimental group showed significantly higher scores in terms of Berg Balance Scale (p = 0.027). In SF-36 scores, a significant difference was reported for physical activity score after treatment (p = 0.031). Fear of falling and the psychological scales were not significantly different between the two groups. In women with bone loss condition, a supervised Wii Fit training has shown better efficacy in improving balance performance with respect to conventional balance exercises.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-016-0578-6DOI Listing
December 2016

Effects of combined physical education and nutritional programs on schoolchildren's healthy habits.

PeerJ 2016 11;4:e1880. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico," Rome , Italy.

Background. A multidisciplinary approach seems to be effective in creating healthy habits in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three 5-month combined physical education (PE) and nutritional interventions on body composition, physical activity (PA) level, sedentary time and eating habits of schoolchildren. Methods. Anthropometric data, weekly PA level, sedentary time and eating habits of 230 healthy students were analysed using a repeated-measures ANOVA with Group (experimental group 1 vs experimental group 2 vs control group), Adiposity Status (under fat vs normal fat vs obese), and Time (pre vs post) as factors. Results. Body fat mass percentage increased after intervention (18.92 ± 8.61% vs 19.40 ± 8.51%) in all groups. The weekly PA level significantly increased after intervention in both experimental groups. Sedentary time significantly decreased after the intervention period (565.70 ± 252.93 vs 492.10 ± 230.97 min/week, p < 0.0001). Moreover, obese children were more sedentary than under fat and normal fat children. Children significantly changed the consumption of some specific foods after intervention. Discussion. This study revealed the effectiveness of a combined PE and nutritional intervention to improve children's healthful dietary practices and to encourage an active lifestyle. However, it needs a further appropriate development to establish patterns of healthful dietary practices that encourage an active lifestyle with which to maintain healthy habits through life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830254PMC
April 2016

Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Smartphone Inclinometer Application to Quantify Cervical Spine Mobility.

Clin Spine Surg 2017 Dec;30(10):E1359-E1366

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico," Rome, Italy.

Study Design: In this observational study, we compare fluid inclinometer and smartphone measures to analyze active cervical range of motion (ACROM) in healthy individuals.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and the criterion validity of a smartphone application to analyze head movements.

Summary Of Background Data: Recent studies on the reliability and the validity of customized smartphone applications to measure ACROM show good results for frontal and lateral planes' movement analysis, but poor results for the transverse plane. This can be due to the surrounding magnetic fields that affect the compass application used during head rotation valuation.

Methods: Twenty-three individuals were asked to perform neck maximal (end-range) movements (frontal flex-extension and left-right side flexion in the sitting position, left-right rotation in the prone position). Two separate examiners took all ACROM measures and were assigned to each device (iPhone 5c and the inclinometer) contemporary for each individual.

Results: All measurements were taken twice to assess the intraobserver reliability. Interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The criterion validity between the 2 instruments was also assessed in terms of the ICC. The procedures used in this investigation for measuring ACROM yielded good validity (Pearson r≥0.99 and ICC≥0.99) between the 2 instruments for all movements. The Bland and Altman's 95% LoA ranged from -1.8 to 1.15 degrees. Percentage error values ranged from 1% to 3%. The intrarater and the interrater reliabilities were good (ICC≥0.9) for both instruments in all movements including the rotation movements (ICC>0.95). The minimal detectable change (MDC95) ranged from 4 to 8 degrees.

Conclusions: This study confirms that the tested smartphone is valid and reliable to measure ACROM on the frontal and the sagittal planes; furthermore, it also demonstrates its usefulness for rotation movement analysis, using the inclinometric application.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000364DOI Listing
December 2017

The dynamic motor imagery of locomotion is task-dependent in patients with stroke.

Restor Neurol Neurosci 2016 ;34(2):247-56

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome Foro Italico, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Recently, Motor Imagery (MI) has been associated with the execution of movements miming in part the mentally represented action (dynamic MI, dMI). Preliminary studies have reported as dMI may improve trainings in sport, with imagery timing close to the physical execution one. This study was aimed to investigate time and spatial parameters of dMI with actual locomotion in people with stroke.

Methods: Twelve patients (stroke group, SG) were compared with twelve healthy elderly (elderly group, EG) and twenty young adults (young group, YG). Subjects performed mental representations of different walking (forward, FW; lateral, LW, backward, BW), accompanied or not by movements imitating walking (dMI and static MI, sMI). Then, they performed actual locomotion (AL). Outcome measures were related to the time and the number of steps spent for completing the tasks for all the given locomotor conditions.

Results: Significant differences were found in patients with respect to healthy subjects, with time in sMI significantly shorter than in dMI (p < 0.004) and AL (p < 0.002), but not between dMI and AL in FW (p = 0.806). In patients, times obtained in sMI and dMI was significantly shorter with respect to those of AL in LW and BW. Patients performed imagery tasks with similar times in all locomotion. Healthy groups did not reveal differences among tasks in BW, while significant differences were found in LW. Analogous results were found in terms of number of performed steps.

Conclusions: In patients with stroke, a spatiotemporal functional equivalence with AL was found only for dMI, and not for sMI, in forward walking. This could be due to familiarity with this task. These results might have implications for the rehabilitative techniques based on MI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/RNN-150573DOI Listing
December 2016

A New Rehabilitation Tool in Fibromyalgia: The Effects of Perceptive Rehabilitation on Pain and Function in a Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016 13;2016:7574589. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Department of Movement, Human, and Health Sciences, Foro Italico University, Rome, Italy.

Introduction/Objective. Fibromyalgia might benefit from a specific tactile and proprioceptive rehabilitation approach. The aim of this study was to perform a randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of perceptual surfaces (PS) and physical exercises with regard to chronic pain and physical function in fibromyalgia compared with a control group. Methods. Data from 54 females (18-60 years old) with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia and scoring >5 on the visual analog scale were divided into 3 groups and analyzed: group treated with perceptual surfaces (PS-group), physical exercises group (PE-group), and control group (CG). The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and Fibromyalgia Assessment Scale (FAS) were administered at baseline (T0), at the end of the treatment (T1) (after 10 rehabilitation sessions over a 5-week period), and at the 12-week follow-up (T2). Results. The PS-group experienced a statistically significant improvement versus the CG in FAS and HAQ scores. Good efficacy with respect to pain and function in the PE-group compared with the CG in terms of FAS, HAQ, and FIQ scores was observed. The adherence ratio was 86% for the PE-group and CG and 90% for the PS-group. Conclusions. According to the results, the PS are as promising as the physical exercises, since results were similar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7574589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4738703PMC
February 2016

Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects.

Int J Endocrinol 2016 14;2016:6739150. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Piazza Lauro de Bosis 6, 00135 Rome, Italy.

Aim of the study was to examine cardiorespiratory parameters at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT) and peak exercise capacity ([Formula: see text]) in outpatient diabetic and sarcopenic obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects (BMI: 36.6 ± 4.1 kg·m(-1)) and sixteen SO subjects (BMI: 37.0 ± 7.3 kg·m(-1)) were compared with sixteen T2DM subjects (BMI: 37.7 ± 5.6 kg·m(-1)). All groups performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill according to their physical ability. [Formula: see text], %HRmax, and maximal metabolic equivalent (METmax) were evaluated at maximal effort. Moreover, [Formula: see text], %[Formula: see text], %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were assessed at IVT. No significant differences were found in any physiological parameters at maximal effort ([Formula: see text], %HRmax, and METmax) in all groups. On the contrary, [Formula: see text], %[Formula: see text], %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were significantly lower in T2DM subjects as compared to OB and SO subjects at IVT (p < 0.05). Our results show that while at maximal effort there are no differences among groups, at IVT the physiological parameters are lower in T2DM subjects than in OB and SO subjects. Therefore, due to the differences observed in the groups, we suggest usng the IVT as a useful parameter to prescribe aerobic exercise in obese with sarcopenia or diabetes mellitus conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6739150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4738975PMC
February 2016

Exercise at lunchtime: effect on glycemic control and oxidative stress in middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2016 Mar 28;116(3):573-82. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome Foro Italico, Piazza Lauro de Bosis 6, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Postprandial hyperglycemia and glycemic oscillations have been associated with increased oxidative stress. We sought to investigate the effect of two walking exercise protocols performed during lunchtime on glycemic control and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients.

Methods: Nine T2D patients participated in three randomized crossover trials; a control trial (Con), with participants having a standard lunch followed by their normal daily activities and two exercise trials (ContEx and Splitex). In ContEx, subjects performed 40 min of brisk walking 40 min after lunch, whereas in SplitEx the walking exercise was divided in two 20-min isoenergetic bouts, before and 40 min after meal. 24-h glycemic control was monitored by continuous glucose monitoring. 24-h urinary levels of 8-iso PGF2ɑ were measured as a marker of oxidative stress.

Results: SplitEx resulted in less time spent in moderate hyperglycemia after lunch vs ContEx (42.4 ± 38.7% vs 68.2 ± 32.7%, P = 0.04). ContEx reduced hyperglycemic time after breakfast consumed the morning after the exercise session (58.3 ± 29.6 Con vs 40.2 ± 33.4% ContEx, P = 0.02). Compared with Con, 24-h urinary isoprostanes were decreased both in ContEx (-68%, P = 0.02) and SplitEx (-63%, P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Splitting an exercise session into two bouts, pre- and post-lunch, affects mainly the glycemic response to lunch, while a single-continuous isoenergetic session exerts its effect later in the 24-h period. Both exercise modalities effectively attenuate systemic oxidative stress with similar overall benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3317-3DOI Listing
March 2016

PSYCHOPHYSICAL BENEFITS OF ROCK-CLIMBING ACTIVITY.

Percept Mot Skills 2015 Dec 10;121(3):675-89. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

1 Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico," Rome.

The aim of the study was to compare the psychophysical effects of rock climbing with a supervised fitness training in adults. Thirty-three healthy participants (M age=32 yr., SD=7) participated in rock climbing or in fitness training. The participants' functional fitness, anxiety, and mood states were tested before and after 3 mo. of training. There was significant improvement of physical fitness in both groups after the intervention period. Anxiety significantly decreased after each single training session at the end of both courses. Differential effects in the rock-climbing group, as compared to the fitness group, emerged only on Vigor. Specifically, the rock-climbing group showed a decreasing trend in Vigor while the fitness group showed an increasing trend of Vigor after the intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/30.PMS.121c26x9DOI Listing
December 2015
-->