Publications by authors named "Laura Friedman"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Family as a Context for Child Development: Mothers with the FMR1 Premutation and Their Children with Fragile X Syndrome.

Semin Speech Lang 2021 Aug 26;42(4):277-286. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder caused by changes of the gene that is passed along among families. A range of developmental processes may be impacted with wide variation in abilities across individuals with FXS. Mothers of children with FXS are often carriers of a "premutation" expansion on the gene, which is associated with its own clinical phenotype. These maternal features may increase individual and family vulnerabilities, including increased risk for depression and anxiety disorders and difficulties in social and cognitive ability. These characteristics may worsen with age, and potentially interact with a child's challenging behaviors and with family dynamics. Thus, families of children with FXS may experience unique challenges related to genetic risk, manifested across both children and parents, that should be considered in therapeutic planning to optimize outcomes for children and their families. In this article, we review core features of the premutation as expressed in mothers and aspects of the family environment that interface with developmental outcomes of children with FXS. Recommendations for family-centered support services are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1730988DOI Listing
August 2021

Brief Report: Linguistic Mazes and Perseverations in School-Age Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Relationships with Maternal Maze Use.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS) are neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping pragmatic language impairments. Prior work suggests pragmatic language differences may run in families. This study examined specific pragmatic difficulties (i.e., linguistic mazes and perseverations) in boys (9-18 years) with idiopathic ASD (n = 26) and FXS+ASD (n = 29), and relationships with maternal maze use. Language samples were obtained separately for boys and mothers. Nonparametric analyses suggested that boys largely did not differ in their rates of mazes, but that boys with FXS+ASD exhibited more perseverations. Mazes were correlated between fragile X dyads. Maternal mazes were correlated with child perseverations among idiopathic ASD dyads. These findings have implications for the etiological significance of ASD-related language phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-04981-2DOI Listing
March 2021

"Are We Done Yet?" Question-Asking in Boys With Fragile X Syndrome and Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 06 18;63(6):1822-1834. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Purpose Question-asking serves as a tool to learn new information and is important in both academic and social settings. Boys with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and comorbid ASD (FXS + ASD) have similar social communication deficits, which may have downstream effects on their question-asking ability. This study examined question-asking in school-age boys with idiopathic ASD and FXS + ASD, including the role of ASD severity, expressive grammatical complexity (measured by mean length of utterance [MLU]), and IQ. Method Twenty-five boys with FXS + ASD and 21 boys with idiopathic ASD (ages 9-16 years) were included in this study. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessments were transcribed and coded for the frequency, function, and appropriateness of spontaneous questions asked. We examined group differences in these aspects of question-asking and relationships between question-asking and ASD severity, MLU, and IQ within each group. Results Boys with FXS + ASD asked more questions than boys with idiopathic ASD, although boys with idiopathic ASD asked a higher proportion of appropriate questions. Boys with idiopathic ASD also asked the examiner more personal questions than the boys with FXS + ASD. ASD severity and MLU were related to the proportion of clarification questions in FXS + ASD, and ASD severity was also related to the proportion of personal questions in this group. For the boys with idiopathic ASD, ASD severity was related to the total number of questions asked. Conclusions Our findings highlight similarities and differences between boys with FXS + ASD and idiopathic ASD in their spontaneous question production and indicate that ASD severity and grammatical language are differentially important for question-asking. This study has implications for targeted treatment in question-asking skills for boys with FXS + ASD and ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839035PMC
June 2020

Conversational Language Is a Predictor of Vocational Independence and Friendships in Adults with ASD.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Oct;49(10):4294-4305

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53705, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, impacting social communication and in some individuals, aspects of language such as vocabulary diversity. However, we have only a limited understanding of the verbal language abilities of adults with ASD. The present longitudinal study examined conversational language and its impact on vocational independence and friendship status measured 5 years later in a sample of 84 adults with ASD. After controlling for IQ and childhood language, vocabulary diversity (a measure of structural language) predicted vocational independence and having friendships, while topic maintenance (a measure of social communication) predicted friendships. These findings highlight the importance of adult conversational language abilities for adult outcomes and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04147-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011355PMC
October 2019

A Review of Language, Executive Function, and Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Semin Speech Lang 2019 08 16;40(4):291-304. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

Difficulties with both executive functions and language skills are common but variable in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Executive functions and language skills are related to one another, such that vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics are related to domains of working memory, shifting, and inhibition in ASD, although the directionality of these relationships remains unclear. Moreover, interventions that target pragmatic ability have been found to improve executive function skills, and conversely, executive function interventions are linked with improvements in social skills in children with ASD. We review the literature on executive functions, language skills, and their relationship in ASD; discuss factors that may be driving inconsistent findings; and explore clinical applications from the research thus far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1692964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012379PMC
August 2019

Urinary tract colonization is enhanced by a plasmid that regulates uropathogenic Acinetobacter baumannii chromosomal genes.

Nat Commun 2019 06 24;10(1):2763. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii poses a growing threat to global health. Research on Acinetobacter pathogenesis has primarily focused on pneumonia and bloodstream infections, even though one in five A. baumannii strains are isolated from urinary sites. In this study, we highlight the role of A. baumannii as a uropathogen. We develop the first A. baumannii catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) murine model using UPAB1, a recent MDR urinary isolate. UPAB1 carries the plasmid pAB5, a member of the family of large conjugative plasmids that represses the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in multiple Acinetobacter strains. pAB5 confers niche specificity, as its carriage improves UPAB1 survival in a CAUTI model and decreases virulence in a pneumonia model. Comparative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses show that pAB5 regulates the expression of multiple chromosomally-encoded virulence factors besides T6SS. Our results demonstrate that plasmids can impact bacterial infections by controlling the expression of chromosomal genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10706-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591400PMC
June 2019

The rpf/DSF signalling system of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia positively regulates biofilm formation, production of virulence-associated factors and β-lactamase induction.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 03;366(6)

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología, Biotecnología y Genética, Cátedra de Microbiología, Junín 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogen. S. maltophilia quorum-sensing system is mediated by the diffusible signal factor (DSF), which synthesis depends on rpfF. It has been reported that rpfF disruption in S. maltophilia K279a leads to a loss of DSF synthesis, reduced levels of extracellular protease, swarming motility and virulence in the Galleria mellonella model. The aim of this work was to attain a deeper knowledge of the role of the rpf/DSF signalling system in S. maltophilia biofilm formation, phenotypic traits associated with biofilm development and virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility. To this end, comparative studies were conducted on S. maltophilia K279a and K279arpfF. The results presented here put in evidence the positive role of DSF in bacterial growth, biofilm formation, swimming and twitching motilities, DNAse, lipases and siderophores production as well as resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, DSF seems to be essential for the development of the spatially organised structure seen in mature biofilms. Therefore, DSF from S. maltophlia K279a positively regulates biofilm formation and virulence. Furthermore, DSF is necessary for the induction of L1 and L2 β-lactamase production in K279a. This is the first evidence of the role of the rpf/DSF signalling system in S. maltophilia β-lactam resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz069DOI Listing
March 2019

The use of demonstratives and personal pronouns in fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

Clin Linguist Phon 2019 22;33(5):420-436. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

a Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders , University of Wisconsin at Madison , Madison , Wisconsin , USA.

Demonstratives (e.g. here, that, these) and personal pronouns are early developing components of language, which are often impaired in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, demonstrative and personal pronoun use are linked to joint attention and language ability early in life for individuals with ASD. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder with a significant amount of overlap in its behavioural phenotype with ASD. The present study examined demonstrative and personal pronoun production during a conversation sample in adolescent boys with ASD and adolescent boys with FXS with a co-diagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD). Findings indicated that grammatical complexity was related to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of demonstrative and personal pronoun production in boys with ASD, while grammatical complexity was related to the total number of demonstratives and personal pronouns produced in the boys with FXS+ASD. ASD severity was not related to demonstrative or personal pronoun production in ASD, although it was negatively correlated with the total number of personal pronouns produced by the boys with FXS. Additionally, groups did not differ significantly in production of personal pronouns, but they did differ significantly in multiple aspects of demonstrative use. Findings suggest that these groups produce similar rates of personal pronouns in the school-age years, while production of demonstratives differentiates these groups. This study contributes to the knowledge of the language phenotypes of idiopathic ASD and FXS+ASD, and provides implications for intervention targets for school-age children with these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2018.1536727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481616PMC
July 2020

isolated from patients exposed to invasive devices in a university hospital in Argentina: molecular typing, susceptibility and detection of potential virulence factors.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Jul;67(7):992-1002

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología, Biotecnología y Genética, Cátedra de Microbiología, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of selected potential virulence factors, susceptibility and clonal relatedness among 63 isolates recovered from patients exposed to invasive devices in a university hospital in Argentina between January 2004 and August 2012. Genetic relatedness was assessed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial resistance, the presence and/or expression of potential virulence determinants, and virulence in the model. ERIC-PCR generated 52 fingerprints, and PFGE added another pattern. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (6.35 %), levofloxacin (9.52 %) and ciprofloxacin (23.80 %) was detected. All isolates were susceptible to minocycline. All isolates were lipase, protease and siderophore producers, while all but Sm61 formed biofilms. However, 11/63 isolates did not amplify the major extracellular protease-coding gene (). Sm61 is an negative isolate, and showed (as did Sm13 and the reference strain K279a) strong proteolysis and siderophore production, and high resistance to hydrogen peroxide. The three isolates were virulent in the . model, while Sm10, a low-resistance hydrogen peroxide negative isolate, and weak proteolysis and siderophore producer, was not virulent. This is the first epidemiological study of the clonal relatedness of clinical isolates in Argentina. Great genomic diversity was observed, and only two small clusters of related types were found. Minocycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were the most active agents. virulence in the model is multifactorial, and further studies are needed to elucidate the role of each potential virulence factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000764DOI Listing
July 2018

Gaze avoidance and perseverative language in fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder: brief report.

Dev Neurorehabil 2018 Feb 15;21(2):137-140. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

b University of Wisconsin-Madison, Waisman Center , Madison , WI , USA.

Gaze avoidance and perseverative language impact pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined these features during conversation samples in boys with ASD (n = 10) and boys with FXS and ASD (FXS+ASD; n = 10). Both groups had similar high rates of gaze avoidance and topic and conversation device perseverations, yet these features were not correlated with one another. Boys with FXS+ASD produced a higher proportion of single utterance perseverations. Results from this study highlight the need for future research to identify potential mechanisms influencing the presence of language perseverations and gaze avoidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17518423.2018.1424264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236677PMC
February 2018

Production of Verb Tense in Agrammatic Aphasia: A Meta-Analysis and Further Data.

Behav Neurol 2015 20;2015:983870. Epub 2015 Sep 20.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

In a majority of languages, the time of an event is expressed by marking tense on the verb. There is substantial evidence that the production of verb tense in sentences is more severely impaired than other functional categories in persons with agrammatic aphasia. The underlying source of this verb tense impairment is less clear, particularly in terms of the relative contribution of conceptual-semantic and processing demands. This study aimed to provide a more precise characterization of verb tense impairment by examining if there is dissociation within tenses (due to conceptual-semantic differences) and an effect of experimental task (mediated by processing limitations). Two sources of data were used: a meta-analysis of published research (which yielded 143 datasets) and new data from 16 persons with agrammatic aphasia. Tensed verbs were significantly more impaired than neutral (nonfinite) verbs, but there were no consistent differences between past, present, and future tenses. Overall, tense accuracy was mediated by task, such that picture description task was the most challenging, relative to sentence completion, sentence production priming, and grammaticality judgment. An interaction between task and tense revealed a past tense disadvantage for a sentence production priming task. These findings indicate that verb tense impairment is exacerbated by processing demands of the elicitation task and the conceptual-semantic differences between tenses are too subtle to show differential performance in agrammatism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/983870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4592739PMC
July 2016

Polycationic glycosides.

Molecules 2011 Feb 11;16(2):1508-18. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Queens College of the City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367, USA.

Cationic lipids have long been known to serve as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Prior efforts with attachment of cationic lipids to carbohydrate-based surfaces have suggested the possibility that carbohydrate-attached cationic lipids might serve as antibacterial and antifungal pharmaceutical agents. Toward the understanding of this possibility, we have synthesized several series of cationic lipids attached to a variety of glycosides with the intent of generating antimicrobial agents that would meet the requirement for serving as a pharmaceutical agent, specifically that the agent be effective at a very low concentration as well as being biodegradable within the organism being treated. The initial results of our approach to this goal are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules16021508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6259828PMC
February 2011

Polycations. 17. Synthesis and properties of polycationic derivatives of carbohydrates.

Carbohydr Res 2009 Sep 24;344(13):1620-7. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Queens College CUNY, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367, USA.

In our continuing investigation of polycationic salts for purposes of antimicrobial action, ion-channel blocking, and construction of ionic liquids, we have prepared several series of polycationic salts derived from carbohydrate precursors. These salts are currently being investigated for optimal efficacy as antibacterials and antifungals, as well as for other applications. The syntheses of such series of salts are described here along with preliminary antibacterial testing results and a discussion of their properties indicating their potential utility for several purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2009.04.021DOI Listing
September 2009

Polymorphisms in the pertussis toxin promoter in Bordetella bronchiseptica veterinary isolates from Argentina.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2004 Aug;49(4):227-9

Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, República Argentina.

Five restriction patterns (including a novel one) could be defined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism on the pertussis toxin (PT) promoter region in local veterinary isolates, suggesting that PT gene analysis is a potential molecular marker for Bordetella bronchiseptica detection and typing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2004.04.004DOI Listing
August 2004

Vir90, a virulence-activated gene coding for a Bordetella pertussis iron-regulated outer membrane protein.

Res Microbiol 2003 Jul-Aug;154(6):443-50

Cátedra de Microbiología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Bordetella pertussis undergoes phenotypic changes modulated by the bvgAS locus, which regulates the expression of many genes related to virulence and immunogenicity. We previously reported the N-terminal sequence of a 90 kDa bvg-regulated outer membrane protein (OMP) of B. pertussis (SWISS-PROT accession No. p81549), a novel potential virulence factor that we named Vir90. The open reading frames (ORFs) which potentially code for Vir90 in B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica were identified by computer analysis of the genomic sequences available for the three Bordetella species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the vir90 upstream region revealed the presence of a putative promoter, a BvgA binding site and a putative Fur binding site. The B. pertussis Vir90 protein showed significant homology with ferrisiderophore receptors from Gram-negative bacteria. An antiserum raised against Vir90His recombinant protein recognized the 90-kDa protein in immunoblots of OMPs from these three virulent Bordetella species. The accumulation of the Vir90 protein increased 4-fold under low iron growth conditions. Therefore, the vir90 gene is expressed in the tested species and its expression is regulated positively by the BvgAS system and negatively under high iron concentration, likely by Fur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0923-2508(03)00115-3DOI Listing
October 2003

Characterization of intermediate phenotypes induced by chemically undefined laboratory media in virulent Bordetella bronchiseptica strains.

J Gen Appl Microbiol 2001 Feb;47(1):39-46

Cátedra de Microbiología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, Buenos Aires (1113), Argentina.

The expression of many virulence factors of Bordetella bronchiseptica is regulated by the bvgAS locus and reduced in response to environmental signals called modulators. Virulent strains can alternate between virulent (Bvg(+)), intermediate (Bvg(i)), and modulated (Bvg(+)mod) phenotypes. Potential vaccine antigens can be expressed by Bvg1 strains grown only in the absence of modulators. In the present study we evaluated filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and outer membrane protein (OMP) expression in Bvg(+) B. bronchiseptica strains grown in chemically undefined media: nutrient agar (NA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), tryptose phosphate broth (TPB), and brain-heart infusion (BHI). Our results suggest that TSA and TPB usually induce semimodulation, since Bvg(+) strains cultured in these media retained the expression of FHA and virulence-associated OMPs in the 30 kDa region, but failed to express other virulence markers such as OMPs in the regions of 90 and 200 kDa, though they expressed flagellin (avirulence marker). On the other hand, NA and BHI usually induce modulation. Thus the assayed chemically undefined media should not be used in vaccine production. Semimodulation induced by TSA and TPB can be accurately detected by SDS-PAGE Sarkosyl-insoluble OMP-enriched profiles. The reduction or absence of OMPs in the regions of 90 and 200 kDa is the most sensitive marker, and in some cases the presence of flagellin in intermediate profiles is another trait of the Bvg(i) phenotypes. Therefore these markers could be useful for selecting media for vaccine production. We also characterized the phenotype of Bvg(+) strains grown in Stainer-Scholte broth, an expensive medium, with and without glutathione, and we have detected no differences; this is the first attempt to reduce the cost of a Bordetella growth medium for veterinary vaccine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2323/jgam.47.39DOI Listing
February 2001
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