Publications by authors named "Laura E Selmic"

92 Publications

Distribution of histopathologic types of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs and outcome of affected dogs: 340 cases (2010-2019).

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2022 Jan 1:1-10. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Objective: To provide updated information on the distribution of histopathologic types of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs and evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.

Animals: 340 dogs.

Procedures: Medical records of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for removal of a primary pulmonary mass were reviewed, and histopathologic type of lesions was determined. The canine lung carcinoma stage classification system was used to determine clinical stage for dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.

Results: Pulmonary carcinoma was the most frequently encountered tumor type (296/340 [87.1%]), followed by sarcoma (26 [7.6%]), adenoma (11 [3.2%]), and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (5 [1.5%]); there was also 1 plasmacytoma and 1 carcinosarcoma. Twenty (5.9%) sarcomas were classified as primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma. There was a significant difference in median survival time between dogs with pulmonary carcinomas (399 days), dogs with histiocytic sarcomas (300 days), and dogs with neuroendocrine tumors (498 days). When dogs with pulmonary carcinomas were grouped on the basis of clinical stage, there were no significant differences in median survival time between dogs that did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy.

Clinical Relevance: Results indicated that pulmonary carcinoma is the most common cause of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs; however, nonepithelial tumors can occur. Survival times were significantly different between dogs with pulmonary carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumor, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the relative incidence of these various histologic diagnoses. The therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma remains unclear and warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.20.12.0698DOI Listing
January 2022

Editorial.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec;19(4):603

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12775DOI Listing
December 2021

Case Report: Cutaneous Pleomorphic Lymphangiosarcoma in a Dog Exhibiting Features of Human Composite Hemangioendothelioma.

Front Vet Sci 2021 22;8:666226. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Angiosarcomas are a broad category of vascular origin neoplasms that are poorly characterized in veterinary species. Lymphangiosarcoma (LAS) is an uncommon type of angiosarcoma reported in humans and canines arising from lymphatic endothelium. LAS can be differentiated from other angiosarcomas in dogs based on expression of Prospero-related homeobox gene-1 (PROX-1) or lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Composite hemangioendothelioma (CHE) is a rare angiosarcoma subtype described in people and characterized by a variable biologic behavior and infrequent metastasis. This variant of angiosarcoma histologically combines features of retiform hemangioendothelioma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. Information regarding the cytologic and histopathologic appearance and clinical course of dogs with vascular tumors that exhibit features of CHE are unknown. Here, we report a case of pleomorphic LAS with features of CHE arising in a dog and treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. A 10-year-old intact male Labrador retriever presented with an approximately 6-cm-diameter cutaneous mass caudal to the left elbow that was progressively growing over 1.5 years. On physical examination, palpable extensions were identified coursing proximally over the triceps with concurrent loco-regional peripheral lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspirates (FNA) and cytologic assessment of the cutaneous mass, left prescapular, and accessory axillary lymph nodes reported that this appeared to be a metastatic epithelial neoplasm, although a mixed carcinoma or collision tumor could not be excluded. An incisional biopsy of the mass was submitted for histopathology and was consistent with a well-differentiated angiosarcoma with features of CHE. The neoplasm expressed vimentin, CD31, von Willebrand factor (vWf), and PROX-1, supporting the diagnosis of LAS. Complete staging was performed, and no additional metastatic lesions were identified. Left forelimb amputation and lymph node removal were performed. Based on the diagnosis of metastatic LAS, doxorubicin chemotherapy was administered. 7 months post-amputation, the tumor recurred at the amputation site without evidence of metastatic disease. This report describes a malignant, locally aggressive lymphatic origin vascular tumor in a dog, with features consistent with descriptions of CHE in humans. Cytologic features in this case were discordant with its true mesenchymal etiology, obfuscating diagnosis. The morphologic features of the mesenchymal neoplastic population and immunohistochemistry (IHC) labeling ultimately supported a diagnosis of pleomorphic LAS with features of CHE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.666226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8569467PMC
October 2021

Invasive Tendon Sheath Fibrosarcoma Causing Radial Osteolysis in a Golden Retriever.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2021 Nov;57(6):285-289

This case report details a previously undescribed malignancy of the tendon sheath in a golden retriever. This dog originally presented with lameness of the left forelimb, at which point radiographs revealed a monostotic, lytic lesion of the distal radius with overlying soft-tissue swelling. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytology was compatible with a sarcoma, with the primary differential being an osteosarcoma. After amputation, the leg was submitted for histopathology, which revealed inconsistencies with a typical osteosarcoma lesion, including lack of osteoid deposition. Second opinion histopathology showed a fibrosarcoma that appeared to have originated in the tendon sheath of an extensor tendon and then secondarily invaded the radius. At the time of publication, ∼17 mo after amputation, the dog continues to do well without any evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-7085DOI Listing
November 2021

Choledochal stenting for treatment of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in cats.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA.

Background: Limited information currently exists regarding the clinical progression and outcomes of cats that undergo choledochal stenting as a treatment for extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO).

Hypothesis/objectives: Describe clinical characteristics, indications for choledochal stent placement, procedure, and outcomes in a cohort of cats undergoing choledochal stenting and evaluate risk factors associated with survival as well as recurrence of EHBO in affected cats.

Animals: Twenty-three client-owned cats undergoing choledochal stent placement.

Methods: Retrospective study. Medical records from 6 academic institutions were reviewed, and data were extracted and analyzed statistically.

Results: Median age of cats was 10.1 years (range, 2-16), and all cats had at least 2 clinical signs. Most common clinical signs were vomiting in 20/22 (90.9%), inappetence in 19/22 (86.4%), and lethargy in 19/23 (82.6%). Procedural complications were uncommon and rarely related to the stenting procedure. Clinical signs improved postoperatively in 15/20 (75.0%) cats and serum total bilirubin concentration decreased postoperatively in 13/19 (68.4%) cats. Eighteen (78.3%) cats survived to discharge. Recurrence of EHBO was documented in 7/18 (38.9%) cats that survived to discharge. Cholelithiasis was associated with recurrence of EHBO. Median survival time for cats that survived to discharge was 931 days (range, 19-3034). Absence of peritoneal effusion was associated with survival to discharge.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Choledochal stenting was an effective treatment modality in cats with EHBO with few procedural complications and potential for prolonged survival, but substantial risk for recurrence of EHBO was identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16176DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparison of in-hospital continuous electrocardiography versus recordable Holter monitoring in dogs with ventricular arrhythmias.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Objective: Determine the agreement between nonrecordable continuous ECG and Holter monitoring at estimating arrhythmia severity in hospitalized dogs.

Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study.

Setting: University teaching hospital.

Animals: Ten dogs.

Interventions: Heart rates and rhythms were simultaneously monitored using nonrecordable cage-side continuous ECG and Holter monitoring. Continuous ECG was assessed by ICU technicians for 1 min every hour, and heart rate and rhythm were recorded. A modified Lown score was used to grade arrhythmia severity (Grade 0 = sinus; Grade 1 = single ventricular premature complexes; Grade 2 = accelerated idioventricular; Grade 3 = bigeminy/trigeminy; Grade 4 = couplets/triplets; Grade 5 = ventricular tachycardia or R on T). Holter data were analyzed by a board-certified cardiologist, and arrhythmia grade was assigned to the same 1-min time period reported by ICU technicians. A 1-h arrhythmia grade was also determined from Holter data and was reported as the highest grade noted during the previous hour. Cohen's weighted kappa analysis was used to compare the agreement of ICU and Holter grade during the same 1-min time period and to compare 1-min Holter grade with the prior hour Holter grade.

Measurements And Main Results: Weak agreement was found between ICU-reported grade and Holter grade (κ = 0.40), as well as weak agreement between 1-min Holter grade and hour Holter grade (κ = 0.39).

Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that arrhythmia grades assessed by ICU technicians and hourly 1-min observations weakly agree with recordable Holter monitoring in hospitalized dogs with ventricular arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.13120DOI Listing
September 2021

Case Report: Metastatic Parosteal Osteosarcoma in a Dog.

Front Vet Sci 2021 24;8:715908. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

This case report describes a rare form of malignant bone tumor in an 8-year-old Labrador retriever. This dog initially presented for evaluation of a right distal humeral mass. Radiographs of the right elbow and thorax were performed, revealing a smooth mineralized mass adjacent to the lateral aspect of the distal humerus and a 5mm pulmonary nodule. Computed tomography (CT) of the humerus and thorax showed a smooth mineralized lesion adjacent to the lateral humeral epicondyle, and a right cranial lung lobe nodule with a thin mineral rim. Surgical biopsies of both lesions were diagnostic for parosteal osteosarcoma (POSA). The dog was then treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) which controlled the dog's discomfort for 14 months until he became progressively painful and subsequently had his right forelimb amputated. This case report is the first to document the CT imaging characteristics of a metastatic appendicular POSA in a dog and the first dog described with POSA treated with SBRT. The dog lived for 623 days after histopathologic diagnosis and 849 days after initial presentation with pulmonary metastatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.715908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421772PMC
August 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for surgical margin assessment of feline injection-site sarcoma.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec 14;19(4):632-640. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

The invasive, locally aggressive nature of feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs) poses a unique challenge for surgeons to obtain complete margins with surgical excision. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), an imaging technology that uses light waves to generate real-time views of tissue architecture, provides an emerging solution to this dilemma by allowing fast, high-resolution scanning of surgical margins. The purpose of this study was to use OCT to assess surgical margins of FISS and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for detecting residual cancer using six evaluators of varying experience. Five FISSs were imaged with OCT to create a training set of OCT images that were compared with histopathology. Next, 25 FISSs were imaged with OCT prior to histopathology. Six evaluators of varying experience participated in a training session on OCT imaging after which each of the evaluators was given a dataset that included OCT images and videos to score on a scale from cancerous to non-cancerous. Diagnostic accuracy statistics were calculated. The overall sensitivity and specificity for classification of OCT images by evaluators were 78.9% and 77.6%, respectively. Correct classification rate of OCT images was associated with experience, while individual sensitivities and specificities had more variation between experience groups. This study demonstrates the ability of evaluators to correctly classify OCT images with overall low levels of experience and training and also illustrates areas where increased training can improve accuracy of evaluators in interpretation of OCT surgical margin images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8612953PMC
December 2021

Analysis of risk factors associated with complications following mandibulectomy and maxillectomy in dogs.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 Aug;259(3):265-274

Objective: To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.

Animals: 459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.

Procedures: Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.

Results: 271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.259.3.265DOI Listing
August 2021

Computed tomographic characteristics of cavitary pulmonary adenocarcinoma in 3 dogs and 2 cats.

Can Vet J 2021 07;62(7):719-724

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Cavitary pulmonary lesions can result from the localized breakdown of pulmonary parenchyma or be caused by the expulsion of a necrotic part of a mass. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and computed tomographic characteristics for cases of cavitary pulmonary adenocarcinoma and find associations between the features and those identified in human pulmonary cavitary soft tissue lesions. Five cases were identified that had a cavitary pulmonary mass on thoracic computed tomography (CT) and histopathology of the lesions. Three dogs and 2 cats had cavitary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Common features of CT in these cases included lesions in the caudal lung lobes, lobular and spiculated lesion margins, air bronchograms within the mass, pleural tags, heterogeneous contrast enhancement, and ground glass opacity in the surrounding parenchyma. The findings of this case series suggest there are similarities in the CT characteristics of malignancy in human and animal cavitary pulmonary masses.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218952PMC
July 2021

Quality of reporting of clinical trials in dogs and cats: An update.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 28;35(4):1957-1971. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Comprehensive reporting of clinical trials is essential to allow the trial reader to evaluate the methodological rigor of the trial and interpret the results. Since publication of the updated Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines for reporting of parallel clinical trials in humans, extensions for reporting of abstracts and crossover trials have been published.

Objectives: To describe the types of trials using dogs and cats published from 2015 to 2020 and to evaluate the quality of reporting of a sample of recently published parallel and crossover trials.

Animals: None.

Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted to identify parallel or crossover design clinical trials using dogs and cats published from January 1, 2015 onwards. Quality of reporting was evaluated on a subset of trials published during 2019. The reporting of items recommended in the CONSORT reporting guidelines for abstracts, parallel trials, and crossover trials was evaluated independently by 2 reviewers using standardized forms created for this study. Disagreements among reviewers were resolved by consensus. Results were tabulated descriptively.

Results: The frequency of reporting of trial features varied from low to high. There remain deficiencies in the quality of reporting of key methodological features and information needed to evaluate and interpret trial results.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: There is still a need for authors, peer-reviewers, and editors to follow reporting guidelines such as CONSORT to maximize the value of clinical trials and to increase confidence in the validity of the trial results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295703PMC
July 2021

Intraoperative assessment of canine soft tissue sarcoma by deep learning enhanced optical coherence tomography.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec 5;19(4):624-631. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a locally aggressive and infiltrative tumour in dogs. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for local tumour control. Currently, post-operative pathology is performed for surgical margin assessment. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently been evaluated for its value for surgical margin assessment in some tumour types in dogs. The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic diagnosis system that can assist clinicians in real-time for OCT image interpretation of tissues at surgical margins. We utilized a ResNet-50 network to classify healthy and cancerous tissues. A patch-based approach was adopted to achieve accurate classification with limited training data (80 cancer images, 80 normal images) and the validation set (20 cancer images, 20 normal images). The proposed method achieved an average accuracy of 97.1% with an excellent sensitivity of 94.3% on the validation set; the quadratic weighted κ was 0.94 for the STS diagnosis. In an independent test data set of 20 OCT images (10 cancer images, 10 normal images), the proposed method correctly differentiated all the STS images. Furthermore, we proposed a diagnostic curve, which could be evaluated in real-time to assist clinicians in detecting the specific location of a lesion. In short, the proposed method is accurate, operates in real-time and is non-invasive, which could be helpful for future surgical guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12747DOI Listing
December 2021

Exploring optical coherence tomography imaging depth to differentiate tissues at surgical margins.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec 6;19(4):763-769. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that provides real-time visualization of tissue microstructure. The goals of this study were to assess OCT image tissue depths (TD) with image processing, and other objective characteristics of tissue types at surgical margins in canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS). In this study, a single observer reviewed 248 images of four tissue types (sarcoma, skeletal muscle, adipose and fascia) collected from 24 dogs with STS. The observer evaluated for tissue characteristics and measured TDs utilizing ImageJ software. Images were evaluated in normal, Threshold and Binary conditions. Measurements were repeated 1 week later to evaluate for intra-observer variability. In all three image processing conditions, the order of TD from greatest to least light penetration was adipose, skeletal muscle, fascia and sarcoma tissue. Neovascularization was observed in 53.2% sarcoma, and lines of fascia surrounding muscle bundles was present in 93.5% of skeletal muscle images. These observed differences between tissue types in OCT images can be utilized to improve observer evaluation, aid in development of algorithms, and improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12745DOI Listing
December 2021

A retrospective analysis of 11 dogs with surface osteosarcoma.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

While the majority of canine osteosarcomas (OSA) arise from the medullary cavity, a subset arises from the surface of bone. In humans, surface OSA often has a more indolent disease course with better outcomes than medullary OSA. The aim of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the clinical outcome and potential prognostic factors of dogs with surface OSA. Medical records from 11 dogs previously diagnosed with surface OSA were included. Histopathology of cases was evaluated during case review by two veterinary anatomic pathologists. Median progression free interval (PFI) and overall median survival time (OST) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Intergroup comparisons were performed using log-rank tests. Six dogs were diagnosed with periosteal OSA, 4 dogs with parosteal OSA, and one dog with an unclassified surface OSA. Two dogs were found to have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis and four developed metastatic lesions after treatment. The median PFI and median OST for all dogs with surface OSA was 425 and 555 days, respectively. The 6 dogs diagnosed with periosteal OSA had a median PFI of 461 days and median OST of 555 days, while the 4 dogs with parosteal OSA had a PFI of 350 days and the OST could not be calculated. Multiple prognostic factors (surgery, systemic adjunctive therapy, elevated alkaline phosphatase at diagnosis, appendicular vs axial location, mitotic count, and tumour grade) were evaluated and none were prognostic for PFI or OST. Dogs with surface OSA appear to have prolonged PFI and OST, consistent with humans with surface OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12741DOI Listing
May 2021

Case Report: Use of PET/CT to Guide Treatment in a Cat With Presentation Consistent With Hodgkin's-Like Lymphoma.

Front Vet Sci 2021 29;8:619264. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Veterinary Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

An 8-year-old male neutered Domestic Long Hair cat was presented for a cervical swelling that was suspected to be an enlarged left retropharyngeal lymph node. In the absence of other lymphadenopathy, this was initially suspected to be Hodgkin's-like lymphoma. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) scan was performed using 2-deoxy-2-[F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) to assess for evidence of disease in other locations to guide treatment. Multifocal increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was identified, indicating disease in multiple organs. High-grade lymphoma was confirmed on tissue biopsy. As such, systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy was recommended instead of lymph node extirpation surgery. The cat received a modified CHOP chemotherapy protocol and attained a temporary partial remission. After 2 months of treatment, the cat stopped responding to chemotherapy and was eventually euthanized due to a relapse of disease and decreased quality of life. This case describes the utility of PET/CT to guide treatment in a cat with a presentation consistent with Hodgkin's-like lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.619264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116528PMC
April 2021

Outcome and postoperative complications in 73 dogs with thyroid carcinoma with gross vascular invasion managed with thyroidectomy.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec 4;19(4):685-696. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Excellent outcomes have been reported following thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma in dogs, but outcomes for thyroid carcinomas with gross vascular invasion are poorly described. This study describes the clinical outcomes and complications in dogs with thyroid carcinomas with gross vascular invasion undergoing thyroidectomy. Medical records of dogs that underwent thyroidectomy between January 1st 2010 and December 31st 2019 were reviewed at 10 hospitals. Signalment, diagnostic data, primary and adjuvant treatments performed, and outcome were abstracted. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with disease-specific survival. Seventy-three dogs were included, of which 58 underwent unilateral thyroidectomy and 15 underwent bilateral thyroidectomy. Complications were reported in five dogs (three major, two minor; 6.8%) intraoperatively and 12 dogs (two major leading to death, 10 minor; 16.4%) postoperatively. Seven (9.6%) dogs developed locoregional recurrence at a median of 238 days postoperatively (range: 15-730 days). Distant metastasis was suspected or confirmed in nine dogs (12.3%) at a median of 375 days postoperatively (range: 50-890 days). Twenty-seven dogs (37%) received adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy: n = 21; radiotherapy: n = 6). Thirty-nine dogs were euthanized or died, with 20 deaths related to disease (n = 10) or of unknown cause (n = 10), 19 due to unrelated causes, and nine lost to follow-up. Median overall and disease-specific survival were 621 days and not reached respectively. One-year disease-specific survival rate was 82.5%. No variables were associated with disease-specific survival in our dataset. Surgery may be considered for loco-regional therapy in dogs with thyroid carcinoma with gross vascular invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12739DOI Listing
December 2021

Pharmacological Regulation of Tumor Hypoxia in Model Murine Tumors and Spontaneous Canine Tumors.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: Hypoxia is found in many solid tumors and is associated with increased disease aggressiveness and resistance to therapy. Reducing oxygen demand by targeting mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is an emerging concept in translational cancer research aimed at reducing hypoxia. We have shown that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug papaverine and its novel derivative SMV-32 are potent mitochondrial complex I inhibitors.

Methods: We used a dynamic in vivo luciferase reporter system, pODD-Luc, to evaluate the impact of pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial metabolism on the levels of tumor hypoxia in transplanted mouse tumors. We also imaged canine patients with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI at baseline and one hour after a dose of 1 or 2 mg/kg papaverine.

Results: We showed that the pharmacological suppression of mitochondrial oxygen consumption (OCR) in tumor-bearing mice increases tumor oxygenation, while the stimulation of mitochondrial OCR decreases tumor oxygenation. In parallel experiments in a small series of spontaneous canine sarcomas treated at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center, we observed a significant increase in BOLD signals indicative of an increase in tumor oxygenation of up to 10-50 mm HgO.

Conclusion: In both transplanted murine tumors and spontaneous canine tumors we found that decreasing mitochondrial metabolism can decrease tumor hypoxia, potentially offering a therapeutic advantage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038388PMC
April 2021

Influence of normograde versus retrograde catheterization of bile ducts in dogs treated for gallbladder mucocele.

Vet Surg 2021 May 1;50(4):784-793. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Objective: To determine the influence of normograde (NG) versus retrograde (RG) catheterization of the cystic duct and common bile duct (CBD) in dogs with gallbladder mucoceles (GBM) treated with open cholecystectomy.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Animals: Dogs (n = 117) with GBM.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical laboratory and diagnostic imaging findings, details of surgery including catheterization method, complications, and outcome. Long-term follow-up data were obtained by telephone or electronic communication. Relationships between catheterization method and clinical variables and outcome were evaluated.

Results: Dogs catheterized RG were more likely to experience any postoperative complication (p = .0004) including persistence of gastrointestinal signs (p = .0003). Survival to discharge and long-term survival did not differ by group (p = .23 and p = .49). Total bilirubin (TB) decreased by 70.3% after NG catheterization compared to 39.1% after RG catheterization (p = .03) and increased in 14.9% dogs catheterized NG and 38.0% dogs catheterized RG (p = .004). The presence of a diplomate surgeon at surgery resulted in decreased incidences of any perioperative or postoperative complication (p = .003 and p = .05).

Conclusion: Retrograde catheterization was associated with more postoperative concerns than NG catheterization, but similar survival times. Surgery should be performed by diplomates experienced in biliary surgery to minimize complications.

Clinical Significance: Although both NG and RG techniques to catheterize the cystic duct and CBD are options for treatment of GBM with low mortality, results of this study provide some evidence to recommend NG over RG catheterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13632DOI Listing
May 2021

Adjuvant Sirolimus Does Not Improve Outcome in Pet Dogs Receiving Standard-of-Care Therapy for Appendicular Osteosarcoma: A Prospective, Randomized Trial of 324 Dogs.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 22;27(11):3005-3016. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts.

Purpose: The mTOR pathway has been identified as a key nutrient signaling hub that participates in metastatic progression of high-grade osteosarcoma. Inhibition of mTOR signaling is biologically achievable with sirolimus, and might slow the outgrowth of distant metastases. In this study, pet dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma were leveraged as high-value biologic models for pediatric osteosarcoma, to assess mTOR inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for attenuating metastatic disease progression.

Patients And Methods: A total of 324 pet dogs diagnosed with treatment-naïve appendicular osteosarcoma were randomized into a two-arm, multicenter, parallel superiority trial whereby dogs received amputation of the affected limb, followed by adjuvant carboplatin chemotherapy ± oral sirolimus therapy. The primary outcome measure was disease-free interval (DFI), as assessed by serial physical and radiologic detection of emergent macroscopic metastases; secondary outcomes included overall 1- and 2-year survival rates, and sirolimus pharmacokinetic variables and their correlative relationship to adverse events and clinical outcomes.

Results: There was no significant difference in the median DFI or overall survival between the two arms of this trial; the median DFI and survival for standard-of-care (SOC; defined as amputation and carboplatin therapy) dogs was 180 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 144-237] and 282 days (95% CI, 224-383) and for SOC + sirolimus dogs, it was 204 days (95% CI, 157-217) and 280 days (95% CI, 252-332), respectively.

Conclusions: In a population of pet dogs nongenomically segmented for predicted mTOR inhibition response, sequentially administered adjuvant sirolimus, although well tolerated when added to a backbone of therapy, did not extend DFI or survival in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172450PMC
June 2021

Common Neoplastic Diseases Affecting the Forelimb.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2021 Mar 11;51(2):343-356. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon L Tharp Street, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

Lameness, new swelling, or mass occurrence are the most common reasons for presentation when neoplasia affects the limbs. Tumors of the skin or subcutaneous tissues, joints, muscles, bones, or digits of the forelimb are reported. Diagnosis with fine needle aspiration or biopsy is necessary before treatment to allow staging, planning of treatment, and prognostication. The planning of surgical treatment of limb tumors is essential to maximize the chance of a complete resection on the first surgery, given that less skin is available for primary closure in subsequent revision or recurrence surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2020.11.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (VCOG-CTCAE v2) following investigational therapy in dogs and cats.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Jun 18;19(2):311-352. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Comparative Oncology Program, Center for Cancer Research, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The updated VCOG-CTCAE v2 guidelines contain several important updates and additions since the last update (v1.1) was released in 2011 and published within Veterinary and Comparative Oncology in 2016. As the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) is no longer an active entity, the original authors and contributors to the VCOG-CTCAE v1.0 and v1.1 were consulted for input, and additional co-authors sought for expansion and refinement of the adverse event (AE) categories. VCOG-CTCAE v2 includes expanded neurology, cardiac and immunologic AE sections, and the addition of procedural-specific AEs. It is our intent that, through inclusion of additional authors from ACVIM subspecialties and the American College of Veterinary Surgery, that we can more comprehensively capture AEs that are observed during clinical studies conducted across a variety of disease states, clinical scenarios, and body systems. It is also our intent that these updated veterinary CTCAE guidelines will offer improved application and ease of use within veterinary practice in general, as well as within clinical trials that assess new therapeutic strategies for animals with a variety of diseases. Throughout the revision process, we strived to ensure the grading structure for each AE category was reflective of the decision-making process applied to determination of dose-limiting events. As phase I trial decisions are based on these criteria and ultimately determine the maximally tolerated dose, there is impact on standard dosing recommendations for any new drug registration or application. This document should be updated regularly to reflect ongoing application to clinical studies carried out in veterinary patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248125PMC
June 2021

Variability in tumor margin reporting for soft tissue sarcoma and cutaneous mast cell tumors in dogs: A systematic review.

Vet Surg 2021 Feb 16;50(2):259-272. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objective: To identify which classification systems have been used for tumor margin reporting and to determine whether factors (publication year, tumor type, and specialty of the contributing authors) influenced trends in margin reporting within literature describing canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT).

Study Design: Systematic literature review.

Methods: Eligible articles were identified through electronic database searches performed for STS and MCT. Data abstracted from relevant studies included publication year, author list, specialty of contributing authors, criteria used to report the planned surgical margins, and the status of histologic margins. Categorization of papers was based on the classification systems used to report surgical and histologic tumor margins.

Results: Fifty-three articles were included, 11 on STS, 37 on MCT, and five that included both tumor types. Criteria for classifying the planned surgical margins were described in only 50.9% of studies. Articles that listed a veterinary surgeon as a contributing author (P = .01) and STS articles compared to MCT papers (P = .01) were more likely to report surgical margins. Most (56.6%) studies reported the status of histologic margins dichotomously as "complete" or "incomplete." Although a previously published consensus statement recommended that quantitative criteria be used to report histologic margins, only 7.5% of articles used quantitative methods.

Conclusion: Classification systems used for reporting tumor margins were highly variable among studies.

Clinical Significance: The findings of this review provide evidence that a standardized classification system for reporting surgical and histologic tumor margins is required in veterinary medicine. A universal system may support more consistent reporting of neoplastic biopsy specimens and allow for more meaningful comparisons across research studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13539DOI Listing
February 2021

A Comparative Oncology Drug Discovery Pipeline to Identify and Validate New Treatments for Osteosarcoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 11;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Background: Osteosarcoma is a rare but aggressive bone cancer that occurs primarily in children. Like other rare cancers, treatment advances for osteosarcoma have stagnated, with little improvement in survival for the past several decades. Developing new treatments has been hampered by extensive genomic heterogeneity and limited access to patient samples to study the biology of this complex disease.

Methods: To overcome these barriers, we combined the power of comparative oncology with patient-derived models of cancer and high-throughput chemical screens in a cross-species drug discovery pipeline.

Results: Coupling in vitro high-throughput drug screens on low-passage and established cell lines with in vivo validation in patient-derived xenografts we identify the proteasome and CRM1 nuclear export pathways as therapeutic sensitivities in osteosarcoma, with dual inhibition of these pathways inducing synergistic cytotoxicity.

Conclusions: These collective efforts provide an experimental framework and set of new tools for osteosarcoma and other rare cancers to identify and study new therapeutic vulnerabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696249PMC
November 2020

Demographics of dogs and cats with oral tumors presenting to teaching hospitals: 1996-2017.

J Vet Sci 2020 Sep;21(5):e70

Department of Public Health, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Oral neoplasia has been reported to account for 6-7% of all canine cancer and 3% of all feline cancers. To the authors' knowledge the last epidemiologic analysis of general oral cancer in dogs and cats was published in 1976.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to report contemporary demographic information regarding oral tumors in dogs and cats.

Methods: Information was collected from cats or dogs diagnosed with oral neoplasia from the Veterinary Medical Data Base. Medical records representing cases that presented to one of 26 veterinary teaching hospitals from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2017 were included.

Results: A total of 1,810 dogs and 443 cats were identified. A total of 962 cases (53.6%) of canine oral tumors were classified as malignant and 455 cases as benign (25.4%). The majority of feline oral tumors were classified as malignant (257 cases, 58.1%) and only a few benign (11 cases, 2.5%). The incidence of oral tumors was calculated to be 4.9 per 1,000 dogs (0.5%) and 4.9 per 1,000 cats (0.5%).

Conclusions: This incidence of oral tumors is considerably higher than previously reported in both dogs and cats. These results provide valuable information for generation of hypotheses for future investigations of breed-based and pathology-based oral neoplastic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533385PMC
September 2020

Corrective osteotomy and partial tarsal arthrodesis in two greyhounds with calcaneal malunion.

Vet Surg 2020 Dec 3;49(8):1600-1608. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and outcome of two greyhounds with calcaneal malunions that were treated with corrective osteotomy and partial tarsal arthrodesis.

Study Design: Short case series.

Animals: Two adult racing greyhounds.

Methods: Varus and recurvatum deformity of the calcaneus was ascribed to malunion of prior calcaneal fracture with concomitant central bone fracture that had been sustained during racing in both dogs. Both dogs exhibited severe, weight-bearing lameness and had radiographic evidence of moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the proximal intertarsal joint. A closing wedge corrective osteotomy and partial tarsal arthrodesis were performed with a 2.7-mm locking compression plate and cancellous autograft.

Results: Calcaneal morphology and alignment of the common calcaneal tendon seemed restored postoperatively. The implant was removed in one dog, while the other dog experienced no postoperative complications. Lameness improved in both dogs, although residual intermittent lameness after heavy exercise was reported by owners of both dogs 1 year after surgery. Overall, owner satisfaction and outcome were considered good-to-excellent in both dogs.

Conclusion: Corrective osteotomy and partial tarsal arthrodesis for treatment of malunited calcaneal fractures may be considered in dogs with clinical signs related to calcaneal malunion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13517DOI Listing
December 2020

The feasibility and utility of optical coherence tomography directed histopathology for surgical margin assessment of canine mast cell tumours.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec 1;19(4):616-623. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Histopathologic surgical margin assessment in veterinary patients is an imprecise science with assessment limited to a small proportion of the surgical margin due to time and finances. Incomplete excision of canine mast cell tumours (MCTs) alters treatment recommendations and prognosis. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging modality that has been reported in a single veterinary study for surgical margin assessment. Twenty-five dogs with 34 MCTs were enrolled in a prospective pilot-study to assess the imaging characteristics of canine MCTs with OCT and to evaluate the feasibility and utility of OCT-guided histopathology. All dogs underwent routine surgical excision of MCTs. OCT imaging was used to assess the entire surgical margin prior to placement in formalin. Either normal areas or areas suspected of incomplete MCT excision were inked. Standard histopathologic sectioning and tangential sectioning of inked areas were performed and compared to OCT results. OCT identified MCT near the surgical margin in 10 of 26 specimens (38.4%). Four specimens suspicious for incomplete margins on OCT had incomplete MCT excision that was missed on standard histopathologic sectioning. Six specimens had OCT-guided sections taken as suspicious, which did not show MCT on histopathology. OCT-guided pathology sections were able to detect incompletely excised MCT near the surgical margin with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 56.2% in this preliminary study. OCT imaging shows promise for guiding pathologists to areas of interest to improve the diagnostic accuracy of surgical margin assessment in excised canine MCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12654DOI Listing
December 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for assessing surgical margins of canine soft tissue sarcomas in observers of different specialties.

Vet Surg 2021 Jan 11;50(1):111-120. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.

Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess surgical margins of canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and determine the influence of observer specialty and training.

Study Design: Blinded clinical prospective study.

Animals: Twenty-five dogs undergoing surgical excision of STS.

Methods: In vivo and ex vivo surgical margins were imaged with OCT after tumor resection. Representative images and videos were used to generate a training presentation and data sets. These were completed by 16 observers of four specialties (surgery, radiology, pathology, and OCT researchers). Images and videos from data sets were classified as cancerous or noncancerous.

Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.2% and 92.8%, respectively, for in vivo tissues and 82.5% and 93.3%, respectively, for ex vivo specimens. The overall accurate classification for all specimens was 91.4% in vivo and 89.5% ex vivo. There was no difference in accuracy of interpretation of OCT imaging by observers of different specialties or experience levels.

Conclusion: Use of OCT to accurately assess surgical margins after STS excision was associated with a high sensitivity and specificity among various specialties. Personnel of all specialties and experience levels could effectively be trained to interpret OCT imaging.

Clinical Significance: Optical coherence tomography can be used by personnel of different specialty experience levels and from various specialties to accurately identify canine STS in vivo and ex vivo after a short training session. These encouraging results provide evidence to justify further research to assess the ability of OCT to provide real-time assessments of surgical margins and its applicability to other neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13510DOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluation of microwave ablation for local treatment of dogs with distal radial osteosarcoma: A pilot study.

Vet Surg 2020 Oct 22;49(7):1396-1405. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of microwave ablation (MWA) as a modality to induce tumor necrosis within distal radial osteosarcoma (OSA).

Study Design: Pilot study.

Animals: Six client-owned dogs with distal radius OSA confirmed by cytological examination.

Methods: Dogs underwent computed tomography for surgical planning before general anesthesia for fluoroscopy-guided ablation. Computed tomography was repeated 48 hours after MWA, before amputation. The ablated tumor was evaluated with histopathology.

Results: Six dogs underwent MWA of distal radius OSA. A lower power setting (30 W) was selected for the first two dogs to avoid collateral soft tissue damage. The power was increased to 75 W for the last four dogs. The temperature was maintained between 45°C and 55°C (113 °F-131 °F) at the bone/soft tissue interface. Tumor necrosis varied between 30% and 90% (median, 55%) according to histopathology. No intraoperative or periprocedural complications were observed.

Conclusion: Microwave ablation induced variable tumor necrosis and did not induce immediate postablation complications in these six dogs with distal radius OSA.

Clinical Significance: These results justify further evaluation of MWA as a potential modality to treat primary bone lesions in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13491DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of perioperative desmopressin in cats with mammary carcinoma treated with bilateral mastectomy.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec 11;19(4):724-734. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

VCA Canada - Alta Vista Animal Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Perioperative administration of desmopressin has shown to significantly decrease rates of local recurrence and metastasis, and increase survival times in dogs with grade II and III mammary carcinomas. The objective of this study was to compare the oncologic outcome of cats with mammary carcinoma treated with bilateral mastectomy with or without perioperative administration of desmopressin. Medical records from nine veterinary institutions were searched to identify cats diagnosed with mammary carcinoma treated with bilateral mastectomy. Sixty cats treated with single-session or staged bilateral mastectomy were included. There were no significant differences in oncologic outcomes found between cats treated and not treated with desmopressin. No adverse effects were seen in any of the cats treated with perioperative desmopressin. Postoperative complications occurred in 18 cats (38.3%) treated with single-session bilateral mastectomy and in three cats (23.1%) treated with staged bilateral mastectomy (P = .48). Histologic grade and a modification of a proposed five-stage histologic staging system were both prognostic for disease-free interval. Incomplete histologic excision was associated with significantly increased rates of metastasis and tumour progression, and a shorter median survival time (MST). Cats that developed local recurrence also had a significantly shorter MST. The results of this study do not support the use of perioperative desmopressin to improve outcome when performing bilateral mastectomy for the treatment of mammary carcinoma in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12636DOI Listing
December 2021

Outcomes of cats treated with maxillectomy: 60 cases. A Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology retrospective study.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Dec 16;19(4):641-650. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Maxillectomy is poorly described for the management of oral tumours in cats and is occasionally not recommended because of the high complication rate and sub-optimal outcome reported in cats treated with mandibulectomy. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the complications and oncologic outcome in cats treated with maxillectomy. Sixty cats were included in the study. Maxillectomy procedures included unilateral rostral (20.0%), bilateral rostral (23.3%), segmental (10.0%), caudal (20.0%) and total unilateral maxillectomy (26.7%). Intra-operative and post-operative complications were reported in 10 (16.7%) and 34 (56.7%) cats, respectively. The most common post-operative complications were hyporexia (20.0%) and incisional dehiscence (20.0%). The median duration of hyporexia was 7 days. Benign tumours were diagnosed in 19 cats (31.7%) and malignant tumours in 41 cats (68.3%). Local recurrence and metastatic rates were 18.3% and 4.9%, respectively; the median progression-free interval (PFI) was not reached. The disease-related median survival time was not reached overall or for either benign or malignant tumours. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were, respectively, 100% and 79% for cats with benign tumours, 89% and 89% for cats with malignant tumours, 94% and 94% for cats with fibrosarcomas, 83% and 83% for cats with squamous cell carcinomas, and 80% and 80% for cats with osteosarcomas. Poor prognostic factors included mitotic index for PFI, adjuvant chemotherapy for both PFI and survival time, and local recurrence for survival time. Maxillectomy is a viable treatment option for cats resulting in good local tumour control and long survival times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12634DOI Listing
December 2021
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