Publications by authors named "Laura Chiu"

6 Publications

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The association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiac structure and function-Framingham Heart Study.

Liver Int 2020 10 25;40(10):2445-2454. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Section of Gastroenterology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease confers increased risk for cardiovascular disease, including heart failure (HF), for reasons that remain unclear. Possible pathways could involve an association of liver fat with cardiac structural or functional abnormalities even after accounting for body size.

Methods: We analysed N = 2356 Framingham Heart Study participants (age 52 ± 12 years, 52% women) who underwent echocardiography and standardized computed tomography measures of liver fat.

Results: In cross-sectional multivariable regression models adjusted for age, gender, cohort and cardiovascular risk factors, liver fat was positively associated with left ventricular (LV) mass (β = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 2.88), LV wall thickness (β = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.02), mass volume ratio (β = 0.02; 95% CI 0.01, 0.03), mitral peak velocity (E) (β = 0.83; 95% CI 0.31, 1.36) and LV filling pressure (E/e' ratio) (β = 0.16; 95% CI 0.09, 0.23); and inversely associated with global systolic longitudinal strain (β = 0.20, 95% CI 0.07, 0.33), diastolic annular velocity (e') (β = -0.12; 95% CI - 0.22, -0.03), and E/A ratio (β = -0.01; 95% CI - 0.02, -0.00). After additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI), statistical significance was attenuated for all associations except for that of greater liver fat with increased LV filling pressure, a possible precursor to HF (β = 0.11; 95% CI 0.03, 0.18).

Conclusion: Increased liver fat was associated with multiple subclinical cardiac dysfunction measures, with most of associations mediated by obesity. Interestingly, the association of liver fat and LV filling pressure was only partially mediated by BMI, suggesting a possible direct effect of liver fat on LV filling pressure. Further confirmatory studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669676PMC
October 2020

Dental microwear texture analysis of Homo sapiens sapiens: Foragers, farmers, and pastoralists.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 06 19;169(2):207-226. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Anthropology, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.

Objectives: The current study seeks to determine if a sample of foragers, farmers, and pastoralists are distinguishable based on their dental microwear texture signatures.

Materials And Methods: The study included a sample of 719 individuals from 51 archeological sites (450 farmers, 192 foragers, 77 pastoralists). All were over age 12 and sexes were pooled. Using a Sensofar® white-light confocal profiler we collected dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) data from a single first or second molar from each individual. We leveled and cleaned data clouds following standard procedures and analyzed the data with Sfrax® and Toothfrax® software. The DMTA variables were complexity and anisotropy. Statistics included ANOVA with partial eta squared and Hedges's g. We also performed a follow-up K-means cluster analysis.

Results: We found significant differences between foragers and farmers and pastoralists for complexity and anisotropy, with foragers having greater complexity than either the farmers or the pastoralists. The farmers and pastoralists had greater anisotropy than the foragers. The Old World foragers had significantly higher anisotropy values than New World foragers. Old and New World farmers did not differ. Among the Old World farmers, those dating from the Neolithic through the Late Bronze Age had higher complexity values than those from the Iron Age through the medieval period. The cluster analysis discerned foragers and farmers but also indicated similarity between hard food foragers and hard food farmers.

Discussion: Our findings reaffirm that DMTA is capable of distinguishing human diets. We found that foragers and farmers, in particular, differ in their microwear signatures across the globe. There are some exceptions, but nothing that would be unexpected given the range of human diets and food preparation techniques. This study indicates that in general DMTA is an efficacious means of paleodietary reconstruction in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23815DOI Listing
June 2019

Metastatic Esophageal Cancer Presenting as an Orbital Mass.

ACG Case Rep J 2016 Aug 23;3(4):e154. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Albany Medical College, Albany, NY.

We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus presenting as an orbital metastasis prior to the primary diagnosis. A 66-year-old white male presented to his ophthalmologist with right orbital swelling for several months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a supraorbital infiltrative mass. Pathology from the mass revealed findings consistent with adenocarcinoma of gastrointestinal origin. Upper endoscopy revealed distal esophageal stricture and irregularities. Pathology from the esophagus showed the same malignancy found in the orbit. An orbital swelling can manifest as the initial presentation of metastatic disease and should be taken seriously to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.2016.127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126490PMC
August 2016

Social Interactions of School-Aged Children With Craniofacial Anomalies: Mothers' Perspectives and Advice.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2016 09 29;53(5):622-3. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

Division of Plastic Surgery Section Chief, Pediatric Plastic Surgery Albany Medical Center & The Bernard & Millie Duker Children's Hospital at Albany Medical Center 50 New Scotland Avenue, MC-190 Albany, New York 12208 E-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/15-113DOI Listing
September 2016

Institutions with accredited residencies in New York State with an interest in developing new residencies or expanding existing ones.

Acad Med 2013 Sep;88(9):1287-92

Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036, USA.

Purpose: In view of the looming physician shortage, especially in primary care specialties, there have been calls for increasing graduate medical education (GME). However, the capacity for increases of GME in institutions accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has not been determined.

Method: In 2009, the authors surveyed the 48 designated institutional officials supervising ACGME-accredited residencies in New York State that were eligible for their study, to determine interest in and capacity for development of new core residencies and expansion of existing ones if additional funds were made available at current Medicare rates.

Results: Thirty-six (75%) responded; 39% would add new programs and 47% would expand current programs with additional funding. The major interest in adding new programs was in emergency medicine (35%). Notably, only 11% would add family medicine. The major interest in program expansion was internal medicine (48%), urology (42%), diagnostic radiology (35%), obstetrics-gynecology (26%), and emergency medicine (25%).

Conclusions: Fewer than 50% of current training institutions are interested in or have the capacity for expansion of core residencies. The interest in establishing or expanding primary care is especially problematic. Because 70% of internal medicine residents become subspecialists, additional funds for GME at current rates would largely encourage the training of additional hospital-based and hospital-intensive specialists, with little impact on those who would practice adult primary care medicine. Significantly increasing the physician training for adult primary care medicine will require more substantial institutional incentives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31829e581fDOI Listing
September 2013

Endotoxin neutralization as a biomonitor for inflammatory bowel disease.

PLoS One 2013 24;8(6):e67736. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

BioDtech, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America.

Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin is a potent immunostimulant implicated in the development and/or progression of a variety of diseases. The mammalian immune system has both innate and adaptive immune responses to neutralize endotoxin. In this study, a system was developed to monitor bacterial exposure by measuring the extent and nature of endotoxin neutralization in plasma. In control patients, females had higher levels of endotoxin neutralization than males, mirroring clinical outcomes from bacterial infection and sepsis. In addition to the total amount of neutralization, we used inactivation techniques to elucidate the nature of this activity and develop a system to compare early and late immune responses. Using this method to monitor patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we found a more robust total response that relies more on long-term, adaptive components of the immune system and less on early, innate components. Our results indicate that endotoxin neutralization is a valuable method to discern inflammatory bowel disease patients from a control population. Additionally, the nature of neutralization may be valuable in monitoring disease severity and/or the role of medication.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0067736PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3691319PMC
February 2014
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