Publications by authors named "Laura Botana"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ivabradine Induces Cardiac Protection against Myocardial Infarction by Preventing Cyclophilin-A Secretion in Pigs under Coronary Ischemia/Reperfusion.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), Cardiology Department, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, 28223 Madrid, Spain.

In response to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, proteolysis mediated by extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its secreted ligand cyclophilin-A (CyPA) significantly contributes to cardiac injury and necrosis. Here, we aimed to investigate if, in addition to the effect on the funny current (I(f)), Ivabradine may also play a role against cardiac necrosis by reducing EMMPRIN/CyPA-mediated cardiac inflammation. In a porcine model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR), we found that administration of 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine significantly improved cardiac function and reduced cardiac necrosis by day 7 after IR, detecting a significant increase in cardiac CyPA in the necrotic compared to the risk areas, which was inversely correlated with the levels of circulating CyPA detected in plasma samples from the same subjects. In testing whether Ivabradine may regulate the levels of CyPA, no changes in tissue CyPA were found in healthy pigs treated with 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine, but interestingly, when analyzing the complex EMMPRIN/CyPA, rather high glycosylated EMMPRIN, which is required for EMMPRIN-mediated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and increased CyPA bonding to low-glycosylated forms of EMMPRIN were detected by day 7 after IR in pigs treated with Ivabradine. To study the mechanism by which Ivabradine may prevent secretion of CyPA, we first found that Ivabradine was time-dependent in inhibiting co-localization of CyPA with the granule exocytosis marker vesicle-associated membrane protein 1 (VAMP1). However, Ivabradine had no effect on mRNA expression nor in the proteasome and lysosome degradation of CyPA. In conclusion, our results point toward CyPA, its ligand EMMPRIN, and the complex CyPA/EMMPRIN as important targets of Ivabradine in cardiac protection against IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001911PMC
March 2021

Ivabradine-Stimulated Microvesicle Release Induces Cardiac Protection against Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 8;21(18). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Cardiology Department, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), 28223 Madrid, Spain.

Ivabradine can reduce heart rate through inhibition of the current I() by still unexplored mechanisms. In a porcine model of ischemia reperfusion (IR), we found that treatment with 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine increased plasma release of microvesicles (MVs) over Placebo, as detected by flow cytometry of plasma isolated from pigs 7 days after IR, in which a tenfold increase of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) containing (both high and low-glycosylated) MVs, was detected in response to Ivabradine. The source of MVs was investigated, finding a 37% decrease of CD31+ endothelial cell derived MVs, while CD41+ platelet MVs remained unchanged. By contrast, Ivabradine induced the release of HCN4+ (mostly cardiac) MVs. While no differences respect to EMMPRIN as a cargo component were found in endothelial and platelet derived MVs, Ivabradine induced a significant release of EMMPRIN+/HCN4+ MVs by day 7 after IR. To test the role of EMMPRIN+ cardiac MVs (EMCMV), H9c2 cell monolayers were incubated for 24 h with 10 EMCMVs, reducing apoptosis, and increasing 2 times cell proliferation and 1.5 times cell migration. The in vivo contribution of Ivabradine-induced plasma MVs was also tested, in which 10 MVs isolated from the plasma of pigs treated with Ivabradine or Placebo 7 days after IR, were injected in pigs under IR, finding a significant cardiac protection by increasing left ventricle ejection fraction and a significant reduction of the necrotic area. In conclusion ivabradine induces cardiac protection by increasing at least the release of EMMPRIN containing cardiac microvesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555962PMC
September 2020

Asymptomatic immune responders to Leishmania among HIV positive patients.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 06 3;13(6):e0007461. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Madrid), Spain.

Concomitant infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the Leishmania parasite is a growing public health problem, the result of the former spreading to areas where the latter is endemic. Leishmania infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, but the proportion of HIV+ individuals in contact with the parasite who remain asymptomatic is not known. The aim of the present work was to examine the use of cytokine release assays in the detection of asymptomatic immune responders to Leishmania among HIV+ patients with no previous leishmaniasis or current symptomatology. Eighty two HIV+ patients (all from Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain, where a leishmaniasis outbreak occurred in 2009) were examined for Leishmania infantum infection using molecular and humoral response-based methods. None returned a positive molecular or serological result for the parasite. Thirteen subjects showed a positive lymphoproliferative response to soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), although the mean CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of these patients was below the normal range. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or whole blood with SLA (the lymphoproliferative assay and whole blood assay respectively), led to the production of specific cytokines and chemokines. Thus, despite being immunocompromised, HIV+ patients can maintain a Th1-type cellular response to Leishmania. In addition, cytokine release assays would appear to be useful tools for detecting these individuals via the identification of IFN-γ in the supernatants of SLA-stimulated PBMC, and of IFN-γ, MIG and IL-2 in SLA-stimulated whole blood. These biomarkers appear to be 100% reliable for detecting asymptomatic immune responders to Leishmania among HIV+ patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6564048PMC
June 2019

Cellular Markers of Active Disease and Cure in Different Forms of -Induced Disease.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 13;8:381. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Increased numbers of peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMC) and increased IFN-γ secretion following challenge of blood samples with soluble antigen (SLA), have been proposed as biomarkers of specific cell-mediated immunity, indicating that treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been successful. However, infection may manifest as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and less commonly as localized leishmanial lymphadenopathy (LLL) or mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). The present work examines the value of these biomarkers as indicators of cured leishmaniasis presenting in these different forms. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment from patients living in Fuenlabrada (Madrid, Spain), an endemic area recently the center of a leishmaniasis outbreak. All samples were subjected to -specific PCR, serological tests (IFAT and rK39-ICT), and the SLA-cell proliferation assay (SLA-CPA), recording PBMC proliferation and the associated changes in IFN-γ production. Differences in the results recorded for the active and cured conditions were only significant for VL. PCR returned positive results in 67% of patients with active VL and in 3% of those with cured leishmaniasis. Similarly, rK39-ICT returned a positive result in 77% of active VL samples . 52% in cured VL samples, and IFAT in 90% . 56%; in the SLA-CPA, PBMC proliferation was seen in 16% . 90%, and an associated increase in IFN-γ production of 14 and 84%, respectively. The present findings reinforce the idea that PBMC proliferation and increased IFN-γ production in SLA-stimulated PBMC provide biomarkers of clinical cure in VL. Other tests are urgently needed to distinguish between the cured and active forms of the other types of clinical leishmaniasis caused by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243388PMC
September 2019

Genome Dynamics during Environmental Adaptation Reveal Strain-Specific Differences in Gene Copy Number Variation, Karyotype Instability, and Telomeric Amplification.

mBio 2018 11 6;9(6). Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Unité de Parasitologiemoléculaire et Signalisation, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Protozoan parasites of the genus adapt to environmental change through chromosome and gene copy number variations. Only little is known about external or intrinsic factors that govern genomic adaptation. Here, by conducting longitudinal genome analyses of 10 new clinical isolates, we uncovered important differences in gene copy number among genetically highly related strains and revealed gain and loss of gene copies as potential drivers of long-term environmental adaptation in the field. In contrast, chromosome rather than gene amplification was associated with short-term environmental adaptation to culture. Karyotypic solutions were highly reproducible but unique for a given strain, suggesting that chromosome amplification is under positive selection and dependent on species- and strain-specific intrinsic factors. We revealed a progressive increase in read depth towards the chromosome ends for various isolates, which may represent a nonclassical mechanism of telomere maintenance that can preserve integrity of chromosome ends during selection for fast growth. Together our data draw a complex picture of genomic adaptation in the field and in culture, which is driven by a combination of intrinsic genetic factors that generate strain-specific phenotypic variations, which are under environmental selection and allow for fitness gain. Protozoan parasites of the genus cause severe human and veterinary diseases worldwide, termed leishmaniases. A hallmark of biology is its capacity to adapt to a variety of unpredictable fluctuations inside its human host, notably pharmacological interventions, thus, causing drug resistance. Here we investigated mechanisms of environmental adaptation using a comparative genomics approach by sequencing 10 new clinical isolates of the , , and complexes that were sampled across eight distinct geographical regions. Our data provide new evidence that parasites adapt to environmental change in the field and in culture through a combination of chromosome and gene amplification that likely causes phenotypic variation and drives parasite fitness gains in response to environmental constraints. This novel form of gene expression regulation through genomic change compensates for the absence of classical transcriptional control in these early-branching eukaryotes and opens new venues for biomarker discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01399-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222132PMC
November 2018

Lymphoproliferative response after stimulation with soluble leishmania antigen (SLA) as a predictor of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse in HIV+ patients.

Acta Trop 2016 Dec 28;164:345-351. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

The introduction of HAART resulted in the decrease of Leishmania/HIV co-infection cases; nevertheless, the number of relapses remains high and secondary prophylaxis is recommended. However, secondary prophylaxis is not necessary in all patients, and presents a high risk of toxicity and an elevated cost. Our aim was to study whether specific cellular response to Leishmania infantum (measured by cell proliferation response after stimulation with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA)), could be a useful tool to attempt a secondary prophylaxis withdrawal. In June 2009 an outbreak of leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum was declared in the southeast of Madrid, and since January 2013, we recruited 10 HIV+ patients that had been treated for visceral leishmaniasis. 6 patients had positive SLA-cell proliferation test. The mean CD4 cell counts of those patients with positive SLA were 140 cel/mm3 and 40 cel/mm3 in those with negative SLA test. 3 patients with positive SLA-cell proliferation test (CD4 count: 336, 307, 625) were not on prophylaxis, and the other 3 patients (CD4 count: 152, 189, 359) were on secondary prophylaxis that was withdrawn after the positive SLA-cell proliferation test with no posterior relapses (mean follow up 60 weeks). From the 4 patients, which had negative SLA-cell proliferation test and continued on prophylaxis, 3 had positive PCR for Leishmania at the end of the follow-up and 2 presented clinical relapses. The performance of SLA-cell proliferation test can be a useful tool that can permit us to try withdrawal of the prophylaxis in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients with low CD4 counts under clinical supervision, diminishing risk of toxicity and cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.09.026DOI Listing
December 2016