Publications by authors named "Laura Bonanni"

113 Publications

Being the Family Caregiver of a Patient With Dementia During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Lockdown.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 20;13:653533. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Primary Care, Regional Neurogenetic Centre, Catanzaro, Italy.

Family caregivers of patients with dementia are at high risk of stress and burden, and quarantine due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have increased the risk of psychological disturbances in this population. The current study was carried out during the national lockdown declared in March 2020 by the Italian government as a containment measure of the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic and is the first nationwide survey on the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the mental health of dementia informal caregivers. Eighty-seven dementia centers evenly distributed on the Italian territory enrolled 4,710 caregiver-patient pairs. Caregivers underwent a telephone interview assessing classical symptoms of caregiver stress and concern for the consequences of COVID-19 infection on patient's health. We calculated prevalence of symptoms and regressed them on various potential stress risk factors: caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle, patients' clinical features, and lockdown-related elements, like discontinuity in medical care. Approximately 90% of caregivers reported at least one symptom of stress, and nearly 30% reported four or more symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were concern for consequences of COVID-19 on patient's health (75%) and anxiety (46%). The main risk factors for stress were identified as a conflicting relationship with the patient and discontinuity in assistance, but caregiver's female sex, younger age, lower education, and cohabitation with the patient also had an impact. Availability of help from institutions or private individuals showed a protective effect against sense of abandonment but a detrimental effect on concern about the risk for the patient to contract COVID-19. The only protective factor was mild dementia severity, which was associated with a lower risk of feeling isolated and abandoned; type of dementia, on the other hand, did not affect stress risk. Our results demonstrate the large prevalence of stress in family caregivers of patients with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic and have identified both caregivers and situations at a higher risk of stress, which should be taken into account in the planning of interventions in support of quarantined families and patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.653533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098661PMC
April 2021

Plasma NfL, clinical subtypes and motor progression in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Apr 27;87:41-47. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Introduction: neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels have been proposed as reliable biomarkers of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) but the relationship between plasma NfL, clinical subtypes of PD and motor progression is still debated.

Methods: plasma NfL concentration was measured in 45 healthy controls and consecutive 92 PD patients who underwent an extensive motor and non-motor assessment at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. PD malignant phenotype was defined as the combination of at least two out of cognitive impairment, orthostatic hypotension and REM sleep behavior disorder. PD patients were divided according to the age-adjusted cut-offs of plasma NfL levels into high and normal NfL (H-NfL and N-NfL, respectively). A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the value of plasma NfL as predictor of 2-years progression in PD.

Results: NfL was higher in PD patients than in controls (p = 0.037). H-NfL (n = 16) group exhibited more severe motor and non-motor symptoms, higher prevalence of malignant phenotype and worse motor progression (MDS-UPDRS-III 11.3 vs 0.7 points, p = 0.003) compared to N-NfL group (n = 76). In linear regression analyses plasma NfL emerged as the best predictor of 2-year motor progression compared to age, sex, disease duration, baseline motor/non-motor variables.

Conclusion: increased plasma NfL concentration is associated with malignant PD phenotype and faster motor progression. These findings support the role of NfL assessment as a useful measure for stratifying patients with different baseline slopes of decline in future clinical trials of putative disease-modifying treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.04.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Functional motor phenotypes: to lump or to split?

J Neurol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Introduction: Functional motor disorders (FMDs) are usually categorized according to the predominant phenomenology; however, it is unclear whether this phenotypic classification mirrors the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms.

Objective: To compare the characteristics of patients with different FMDs phenotypes and without co-morbid neurological disorders, aiming to answer the question of whether they represent different expressions of the same disorder or reflect distinct entities.

Methods: Consecutive outpatients with a clinically definite diagnosis of FMDs were included in the Italian registry of functional motor disorders (IRFMD), a multicenter data collection platform gathering several clinical and demographic variables. To the aim of the current work, data of patients with isolated FMDs were extracted.

Results: A total of 176 patients were included: 58 with weakness, 40 with tremor, 38 with dystonia, 23 with jerks/facial FMDs, and 17 with gait disorders. Patients with tremor and gait disorders were older than the others. Patients with functional weakness had more commonly an acute onset (87.9%) than patients with tremor and gait disorders, a shorter time lag from symptoms onset and FMDs diagnosis (2.9 ± 3.5 years) than patients with dystonia, and had more frequently associated functional sensory symptoms (51.7%) than patients with tremor, dystonia and gait disorders. Patients with dystonia complained more often of associated pain (47.4%) than patients with tremor. No other differences were noted between groups in terms of other variables including associated functional neurological symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities, and predisposing or precipitating factors.

Conclusions: Our data support the evidence of a large overlap between FMD phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10583-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Agitation and Dementia: Prevention and Treatment Strategies in Acute and Chronic Conditions.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:644317. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Agitation is a behavioral syndrome characterized by increased, often undirected, motor activity, restlessness, aggressiveness, and emotional distress. According to several observations, agitation prevalence ranges from 30 to 50% in Alzheimer's disease, 30% in dementia with Lewy bodies, 40% in frontotemporal dementia, and 40% in vascular dementia (VaD). With an overall prevalence of about 30%, agitation is the third most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia, after apathy and depression, and it is even more frequent (80%) in residents of nursing homes. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying agitation is represented by a frontal lobe dysfunction, mostly involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), respectively, meaningful in selecting the salient stimuli and subsequent decision-making and behavioral reactions. Furthermore, increased sensitivity to noradrenergic signaling has been observed, possibly due to a frontal lobe up-regulation of adrenergic receptors, as a reaction to the depletion of noradrenergic neurons within the locus coeruleus (LC). Indeed, LC neurons mainly project toward the OFC and ACC. These observations may explain the abnormal reactivity to weak stimuli and the global arousal found in many patients who have dementia. Furthermore, agitation can be precipitated by several factors, e.g., the sunset or low lighted environments as in the sundown syndrome, hospitalization, the admission to nursing residencies, or changes in pharmacological regimens. In recent days, the global pandemic has increased agitation incidence among dementia patients and generated higher distress levels in patients and caregivers. Hence, given the increasing presence of this condition and its related burden on society and the health system, the present point of view aims at providing an extensive guide to facilitate the identification, prevention, and management of acute and chronic agitation in dementia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.644317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085397PMC
April 2021

Measures of resting state EEG rhythms for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations of an expert panel.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The Electrophysiology Professional Interest Area (EPIA) and Global Brain Consortium endorsed recommendations on candidate electroencephalography (EEG) measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. The Panel reviewed the field literature. As most consistent findings, AD patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia showed abnormalities in peak frequency, power, and "interrelatedness" at posterior alpha (8-12 Hz) and widespread delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms in relation to disease progression and interventions. The following consensus statements were subscribed: (1) Standardization of instructions to patients, resting state EEG (rsEEG) recording methods, and selection of artifact-free rsEEG periods are needed; (2) power density and "interrelatedness" rsEEG measures (e.g., directed transfer function, phase lag index, linear lagged connectivity, etc.) at delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands may be use for stratification of AD patients and monitoring of disease progression and intervention; and (3) international multisectoral initiatives are mandatory for regulatory purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12311DOI Listing
April 2021

EEG measures for clinical research in major vascular cognitive impairment: recommendations by an expert panel.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Mar 10;103:78-97. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA), School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales; Neuropsychiatric Institute, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Vascular contribution to cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia is related to etiologies that may affect the neurophysiological mechanisms regulating brain arousal and generating electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. A multidisciplinary expert panel reviewed the clinical literature and reached consensus about the EEG measures consistently found as abnormal in VCI patients with dementia. As compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals, those VCI patients showed (1) smaller amplitude of resting state alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms dominant in posterior regions; (2) widespread increases in amplitude of delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms; and (3) delayed N200/P300 peak latencies in averaged event-related potentials, especially during the detection of auditory rare target stimuli requiring participants' responses in "oddball" paradigms. The expert panel formulated the following recommendations: (1) the above EEG measures are not specific for VCI and should not be used for its diagnosis; (2) they may be considered as "neural synchronization" biomarkers to enlighten the relationships between features of the VCI-related cerebrovascular lesions and abnormalities in neurophysiological brain mechanisms; and (3) they may be tested in future clinical trials as prognostic biomarkers and endpoints of interventions aimed at normalizing background brain excitability and vigilance in wakefulness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.03.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Status epilepticus and COVID-19: A systematic review.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 05 17;118:107887. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurology, Hospital of Merano (SABES-ASDAA), Merano, Italy.

Purpose: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 infection-related coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) a pandemic. During the first and second waves of the pandemic spread, there have been several reports of COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations, including acute seizures and status epilepticus (SE). In this systematic review, we summarized the available data on clinical features, diagnosis, and therapy of COVID-19-related SE.

Methods: We performed a systematic search of the literature to identify data on demographics, clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological data of patients with COVID-19-related SE. We used regression models (linear or logistic) with a stepwise forward method to identify features associated with mortality or severity of SE.

Results: Thirty-nine articles were included with a total of 47 cases of SE associated with COVID-19. Age, time between the acute respiratory phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection and SE onset, and hospitalization correlated with a higher SE severity as assessed by quantitative validated scales.

Conclusions: SE can be a neurological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although a possible association between SE and COVID-19 has been reported, the exact mechanisms are still not fully understood. Systemic inflammatory syndrome due to cytokine release could play a role in COVID-19-related SE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968345PMC
May 2021

Visual evoked potential abnormalities in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neurophysiol Clin 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy; Department of Neurology, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: Visuo-perceptual deficits and visual hallucinations (VHs) are common disturbances in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and those with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, delays in visual evoked potential (VEP), reversed by l-dopa administration, have previously been observed in PD patients. Impairment in metabolic functions of dopaminergic amacrine cells within the inner plexiform layer of the retina has been largely documented and has been posited as the underlying cause of visual and retinal alterations in PD. The aims of the present study were to investigate the presence of VEP abnormalities in DLB patients, as compared to a PD control group, and to assess the presence of significant correlations between neurophysiological measures and clinical symptoms (i.e., presence of visuospatial deficits and/or visual hallucinations).

Methods: Fifteen DLB patients and fifteen matched PD patients underwent pattern reversal before and after l-dopa administration, and a short neuropsychological assessment.

Results: In DLB patients, we observed delay of the P100 latency to foveal stimuli in both eyes compared to normative values. Compared to PD, DLB patients showed higher values of the P100 latency for foveal stimulation from the right eye prior to l-dopa administration (p = 0.018). No correlations between VEP alterations, visuo-spatial deficit and visual hallucinations were found.

Discussion: Our findings demonstrated a longer P100 delay in DLB than in PD patients, especially along the right visual pathway. In contrast to previous studies, which focused on a dopaminergic pre-geniculate impairment of visual pathways, our evidence suggests that other mechanisms, possibly relying on thalamic involvement, which is known to be dysfunctional in DLB, can interfere with VEP abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2021.02.003DOI Listing
February 2021

Resting-state EEG alpha/theta ratio related to neuropsychological test performance in Parkinson's Disease.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Mar 13;132(3):756-764. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Centre for Age-Related Medicine (SESAM), Stavanger University Hospital. Stavanger, Norway; KCL-PARCOG Group, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London. London, UK.

Objective: To determine possible associations of hemispheric-regional alpha/theta ratio (α/θ) with neuropsychological test performance in Parkinson's Disease (PD) non-demented patients.

Methods: 36 PD were matched to 36 Healthy Controls (HC). The α/θ in eight hemispheric regions was computed from the relative power spectral density of the resting-state quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG). Correlations between α/θ and performance in several neuropsychological tests were conducted, significant findings were included in a moderation analysis.

Results: The α/θ in all regions was lower in PD than in HC, with larger effect sizes in the posterior regions. Right parietal, and right and left occipital α/θ had significant positive correlations with performance in Judgement of Line Orientation Test (JLOT) in PD. Adjusted moderation analysis indicated that right, but not left, occipital α/θ influenced the JLOT performance related to PD.

Conclusions: Reduction of the occipital α/θ, in particular on the right side, was associated with visuospatial performance impairment in PD.

Significance: Visuospatial impairment in PD, which is highly correlated with the subsequent development of dementia, is reflected in α/θ in the right posterior regions. The right occipital α/θ may represent a useful qEEG marker for evaluating the presence of early signs of cognitive decline in PD and the subsequent risk of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2021.01.001DOI Listing
March 2021

The Impact of COVID-19 Quarantine on Patients With Dementia and Family Caregivers: A Nation-Wide Survey.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 18;12:625781. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Medicine and Surgery and Milan Center for Neuroscience (NeuroMi), University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Introduction: Previous studies showed that quarantine for pandemic diseases is associated with several psychological and medical effects. The consequences of quarantine for COVID-19 pandemic in patients with dementia are unknown. We investigated the clinical changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, and evaluated caregivers' distress during COVID-19 quarantine.

Methods: The study involved 87 Italian Dementia Centers. Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Dementia (VD) were eligible for the study. Family caregivers of patients with dementia were interviewed by phone in April 2020, 45 days after quarantine declaration. Main outcomes were patients' changes in cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms. Secondary outcomes were effects on caregivers' psychological features.

Results: 4913 patients (2934 females, 1979 males) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Caregivers reported a worsening in cognitive functions in 55.1% of patients, mainly in subjects with DLB and AD. Aggravation of behavioral symptoms was observed in 51.9% of patients. In logistic regression analysis, previous physical independence was associated with both cognitive and behavioral worsening (odds ratio 1.85 [95% CI 1.42-2.39], 1.84 [95% CI 1.43-2.38], respectively). On the contrary, pandemic awareness was a protective factor for the worsening of cognitive and behavioral symptoms (odds ratio 0.74 [95% CI 0.65-0.85]; and 0.72 [95% CI 0.63-0.82], respectively). Approximately 25.9% of patients showed the onset of new behavioral symptoms. A worsening in motor function was reported by 36.7% of patients. Finally, caregivers reported a high increase in anxiety, depression, and distress.

Conclusion: Our study shows that quarantine for COVID-19 is associated with an acute worsening of clinical symptoms in patients with dementia as well as increase of caregivers' burden. Our findings emphasize the importance to implement new strategies to mitigate the effects of quarantine in patients with dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.625781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849158PMC
January 2021

Functional motor disorders associated with other neurological diseases: Beyond the boundaries of "organic" neurology.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 2;28(5):1752-1758. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Movement Disorder Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background And Purpose: The aims of this study were to describe the clinical manifestations of functional motor disorders (FMDs) coexisting with other neurological diseases ("comorbid FMDs"), and to compare comorbid FMDs with FMDs not overlapping with other neurological diseases ("pure FMDs").

Methods: For this multicenter observational study, we enrolled outpatients with a definite FMD diagnosis attending 25 tertiary movement disorder centers in Italy. Each patient with FMDs underwent a detailed clinical assessment including screening for other associated neurological conditions. Group comparisons (comorbid FMDs vs. pure FMDs) were performed in order to compare demographic and clinical variables. Logistic regression models were created to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of comorbid FMDs (dependent variable) in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (independent variables).

Results: Out of 410 FMDs, 21.7% of patients (n = 89) had comorbid FMDs. The most frequent coexisting neurological diseases were migraine, cerebrovascular disease and parkinsonism. In the majority of cases (86.5%), FMDs appeared after the diagnosis of a neurological disease. Patients with comorbid FMDs were older, and more frequently had tremor, non-neurological comorbidities, paroxysmal non-epileptic seizures, major depressive disorders, and benzodiazepine intake. Multivariate regression analysis showed that diagnosis of comorbid FMDs was more likely associated with longer time lag until the final diagnosis of FMD, presence of tremor and non-neurological comorbidities.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for prompt diagnosis of FMDs, given the relatively high frequency of associated neurological and non-neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14674DOI Listing
May 2021

Low molecular weight heparin in COVID-19 patients prevents delirium and shortens hospitalization.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 13;42(4):1527-1530. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Background: COVID-19 patients present with delirium during their hospitalization.

Aims: To assess the incidence of delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyze the possible association with demographic, clinical, laboratory, and pharmacological factors.

Methods: COVID-19 patients were assessed for clinical signs of delirium and administered the assessment test for delirium and cognitive impairment (4AT) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) scales.

Results: Out of the 56 patients of our cohort, 14 (25.0%) experienced delirium. The use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (enoxaparin 1 mg/kg/daily) was less frequent in patients with delirium (p = 0.004) and was accompanied by lower C reactive protein (CRP) levels (p = 0.006).

Discussion: The use of LMWH was associated with absence of delirium, independently of comorbidities and age.

Conclusions: The use of LMWH may help preventing the occurrence of delirium in COVID-19 patients, with possible reduction of length of stay in the hospital and sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04887-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664586PMC
April 2021

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) in post SARS-CoV-2 autoimmune encephalitis: a case report.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jan 3;42(1):35-38. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Science, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

The 2019 new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel respiratory virus which has increasingly spread all over the world. Although the predominant clinical presentation is represented by respiratory symptoms, neurological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 is being increasingly recognized. In the present report, we present a case of post SARS-CoV-2 autoimmune encephalitis associated with a new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04846-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608104PMC
January 2021

Diaphragmatic myoclonus due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Neurol Sci 2020 Dec 22;41(12):3471-3474. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

A wide range of neurological signs and symptoms have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present report, we described two Italian patients diagnosed with diaphragmatic myoclonus after COVID-19. In both cases, mild lymphocytosis at cerebrospinal fluid analysis and no structural brain changes were reported. The pathophysiological origin of the myoclonus in the two cases was different. In case 1, electroencephalogram did not reveal any cortical correlates and brain imaging of the spine was unremarkable, while in case 2, cortical origin of myoclonus was demonstrated. With the present two cases, we confirm and extend the neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04766-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579554PMC
December 2020

An Atypical Presentation of CLIPPERS, a Challenging Diagnosis of Reversible Early-Onset Dementia.

Case Rep Neurol 2020 Sep-Dec;12(3):307-313. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Neurosciences, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a rare inflammatory disorder featured by pontocerebellar dysfunctions and, in some cases, later cognitive disturbances. Here, we describe an atypical presentation of CLIPPERS, characterized by clinical onset with neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms. A 45-year-old man was referred to our Memory Clinic due to difficulties at work for over a month, caused by confusion and asthenia. Furthermore, insomnia and mood changes appeared. These disturbances were unresponsive to antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs. At admission, the patient presented also with severe cognitive impairment, urinary incontinence, ataxic gait, and limitation of lateral conjugate gaze. During the hospitalization, the patient underwent cerebrospinal fluid analysis, serum systemic autoimmune disorders laboratory research, neoplastic markers analysis, and brain MRI scan. The radiological and laboratory findings were compatible with the diagnosis of CLIPPERS. The sudden clinical and radiological improvement of the patient's conditions, after only a week of steroid therapy, further confirmed our clinical suspicion. The present case enhances the necessity to consider CLIPPERS in the differential diagnosis of pre-senile cognitive impairment, even in the absence of early pontocerebellar neurological signs. Before the spreading of the neuroinflammatory and degenerative processes, CLIPPERS represents one among the few possible reversible causes of cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548967PMC
September 2020

Abnormalities of resting-state EEG in patients with prodromal and overt dementia with Lewy bodies: Relation to clinical symptoms.

Clin Neurophysiol 2020 11 23;131(11):2716-2731. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Here we tested if cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms may differ in sub-groups of patients with prodromal and overt dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as a function of relevant clinical symptoms.

Methods: We extracted clinical, demographic and rsEEG datasets in matched DLB patients (N = 60) and control Alzheimer's disease (AD, N = 60) and healthy elderly (Nold, N = 60) seniors from our international database. The eLORETA freeware was used to estimate cortical rsEEG sources.

Results: As compared to the Nold group, the DLB and AD groups generally exhibited greater spatially distributed delta source activities (DLB > AD) and lower alpha source activities posteriorly (AD > DLB). As compared to the DLB "controls", the DLB patients with (1) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorders showed lower central alpha source activities (p < 0.005); (2) greater cognitive deficits exhibited higher parietal and central theta source activities as well as higher central, parietal, and occipital alpha source activities (p < 0.01); (3) visual hallucinations pointed to greater parietal delta source activities (p < 0.005).

Conclusions: Relevant clinical features were associated with abnormalities in spatial and frequency features of rsEEG source activities in DLB patients.

Significance: Those features may be used as neurophysiological surrogate endpoints of clinical symptoms in DLB patients in future cross-validation prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2020.09.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Behavioral and Psychological Effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 Quarantine in Patients With Dementia.

Front Psychiatry 2020 9;11:578015. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Regional Neurogenetic Centre, Department of Primary Care, ASP-CZ, Catanzaro, Italy.

Background: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and several governments planned a national quarantine in order to control the virus spread. Acute psychological effects of quarantine in frail elderly subjects with special needs, such as patients with dementia, have been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess modifications of neuropsychiatric symptoms during quarantine in patients with dementia and their caregivers.

Methods: This is a sub-study of a multicenter nation-wide survey. A structured telephone interview was delivered to family caregivers of patients with diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VD), followed regularly at 87 Italian memory clinics. Variations in behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) were collected after 1 month since quarantine declaration and associations with disease type, severity, gender, and caregiver's stress burden were analyzed.

Results: A total of 4,913 caregivers participated in the survey. Increased BPSD was reported in 59.6% of patients as worsening of preexisting symptoms (51.9%) or as new onset (26%), and requested drug modifications in 27.6% of these cases. Irritability, apathy, agitation, and anxiety were the most frequently reported worsening symptoms and sleep disorder and irritability the most frequent new symptoms. Profile of BPSD varied according to dementia type, disease severity, and patients' gender. Anxiety and depression were associated with a diagnosis of AD (OR 1.35, CI: 1.12-1.62), mild to moderate disease severity and female gender. DLB was significantly associated with a higher risk of worsening hallucinations (OR 5.29, CI 3.66-7.64) and sleep disorder (OR 1.69, CI 1.25-2.29), FTD with wandering (OR 1.62, CI 1.12-2.35), and change of appetite (OR 1.52, CI 1.03-2.25). Stress-related symptoms were experienced by two-thirds of caregivers and were associated with increased patients' neuropsychiatric burden (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: Quarantine induces a rapid increase of BPSD in approximately 60% of patients and stress-related symptoms in two-thirds of caregivers. Health services need to plan a post-pandemic strategy in order to address these emerging needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.578015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509598PMC
September 2020

The reliability of a deep learning model in clinical out-of-distribution MRI data: A multicohort study.

Med Image Anal 2020 12 1;66:101714. Epub 2020 May 1.

Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroimaging, Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Deep learning (DL) methods have in recent years yielded impressive results in medical imaging, with the potential to function as clinical aid to radiologists. However, DL models in medical imaging are often trained on public research cohorts with images acquired with a single scanner or with strict protocol harmonization, which is not representative of a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to investigate how well a DL model performs in unseen clinical datasets-collected with different scanners, protocols and disease populations-and whether more heterogeneous training data improves generalization. In total, 3117 MRI scans of brains from multiple dementia research cohorts and memory clinics, that had been visually rated by a neuroradiologist according to Scheltens' scale of medial temporal atrophy (MTA), were included in this study. By training multiple versions of a convolutional neural network on different subsets of this data to predict MTA ratings, we assessed the impact of including images from a wider distribution during training had on performance in external memory clinic data. Our results showed that our model generalized well to datasets acquired with similar protocols as the training data, but substantially worse in clinical cohorts with visibly different tissue contrasts in the images. This implies that future DL studies investigating performance in out-of-distribution (OOD) MRI data need to assess multiple external cohorts for reliable results. Further, by including data from a wider range of scanners and protocols the performance improved in OOD data, which suggests that more heterogeneous training data makes the model generalize better. To conclude, this is the most comprehensive study to date investigating the domain shift in deep learning on MRI data, and we advocate rigorous evaluation of DL models on clinical data prior to being certified for deployment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101714DOI Listing
December 2020

β-Amyloid and tau biomarkers and clinical phenotype in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neurology 2020 12 28;95(24):e3257-e3268. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

From the Division of Clinical Geriatrics (D.F., S.G.-P., E.W.), Center for Alzheimer's Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Departments of Radiology (D.F., Z.N., C.G.S., M.L.S., V.J.L., C.R.J., K.K.), Health Sciences (S.A.P., T.G.L.), Neurology (J.G.-R., D.S.K., R.S., R.C.P., B.F.B.), Information Technology (M.L.S.), and Psychiatry and Psychology (J.A.F.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Center (A.W.L.), VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Clinical Memory Research Unit (E.L.), Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Day Hospital of Geriatrics (F.B.), Memory Resource and Research Centre (CM2R) of Strasbourg; Department of Geriatrics (F.B.), Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg; University of Strasbourg and French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) (F.B.), ICube Laboratory and Federation de Medecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Team Imagerie Multimodale Integrative en Sante (IMIS)/ICONE, Strasbourg, France; Department of Neurology (Z.N., J.H.), Charles University, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology (T.J.F.) and Neurology (N.R.G.-R.), Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL; Paracelsus-Elena-Klinik (B.M.), Kassel; and University Medical Center (B.M.), Department of Neurosurgery and Institute of Neuropathology, Göttingen, Germany; Fundació ACE (C.A.), Alzheimer Research Center and Memory Clinic, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades, Barcelona, Spain; International Clinical Research Center (J.H.), St. Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neuroscience Imaging and Clinical Sciences and CESI (L.B.), University G d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; Centre for Age-Related Medicine (K.O., D.A.), Stavanger University Hospital; Stavanger Medical Imaging Laboratory (SMIL) (K.O.), Department of Radiology, Stavanger University Hospital; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (K.O.), University of Stavanger, Norway; Department of Neurology (M.G.K.), University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (D.A.) and Department of Neuroimaging (E.W.), Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Objective: In a multicenter cohort of probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we tested the hypothesis that β-amyloid and tau biomarker positivity increases with age, which is modified by genotype and sex, and that there are isolated and synergistic associations with the clinical phenotype.

Methods: We included 417 patients with DLB (age 45-93 years, 31% women). Positivity on β-amyloid (A+) and tau (T+) biomarkers was determined by CSF β-amyloid and phosphorylated tau in the European cohort and by Pittsburgh compound B and AV-1451 PET in the Mayo Clinic cohort. Patients were stratified into 4 groups: A-T-, A+T-, A-T+, and A+T+.

Results: A-T- was the largest group (39%), followed by A+T- (32%), A+T+ (15%), and A-T+ (13%). The percentage of A-T- decreased with age, and A+ and T+ increased with age in both women and men. A+ increased more in ε4 carriers with age than in noncarriers. A+ was the main predictor of lower cognitive performance when considered together with T+. T+ was associated with a lower frequency of parkinsonism and probable REM sleep behavior disorder. There were no significant interactions between A+ and T+ in relation to the clinical phenotype.

Conclusions: Alzheimer disease pathologic changes are common in DLB and are associated with the clinical phenotype. β-Amyloid is associated with cognitive impairment, and tau pathology is associated with lower frequency of clinical features of DLB. These findings have important implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and disease monitoring, as well as for clinical trials targeting disease-specific proteins in DLB.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with probable DLB, β-amyloid is associated with lower cognitive performance and tau pathology is associated with lower frequency of clinical features of DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836666PMC
December 2020

Interictal Heart Rate Variability Analysis Reveals Lateralization of Cardiac Autonomic Control in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2020 14;11:842. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Neurology, "SS Annunziata" Hospital, Chieti, Italy.

The temporal lobe, a critical hub for cognition, also plays a central role in the regulation of autonomic cardiovascular functions. Lesions in this area are usually associated with abnormalities in the regulation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). The analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) is useful to evaluate the cardiac parasympathetic nervous system activity. This study aims at comparing HRV changes occurring in two groups of patients suffering from Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE). To that aim, we evaluated patients differentiated by the right or left location of the epileptic foci. Fifty-two adult patients with a diagnosis of TLE were enrolled. Each patient underwent a 20-min EEG + EKG recording in resting state. According to the localization of epileptic focus, patients were divided into two subgroups: right TLE (R-TLE) and left TLE (L-TLE). HRV parameters were calculated with a short-lasting analysis of EKG recordings. Time-domain and frequency domain-related, as well as non-linear analysis, parameters, were compared between the two groups. Compared to the R-TLE group, L-TLE subjects showed a significant decrease in low frequency (LF) ( < 0.01) and low frequency/high-frequency ratio (LF/HF) ( < 0.001) as well as increased HF values ( < 0.01), a parameter indicative of the presence of an increased cardiac vagal tone. These results were also confirmed in the subgroup analysis that took into account the seizure types, responses to antiepileptic drugs, seizure frequencies, and etiology. The main finding of the study is that, compared to R-TLE, L-TLE is associated with increased cardiac vagal tone. These results indicate that patients with TLE exhibit a lateralized cardiac autonomic control. L-TLE patients may have a lower risk of developing cardiac dysfunctions and less susceptible to develop Sudden Death for Epilepsy (SUDEP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456848PMC
August 2020

The Role of EEG in the Diagnosis, Prognosis and Clinical Correlations of Dementia with Lewy Bodies-A Systematic Review.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Aug 20;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Biomedical Research Building, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, UK.

Despite improvements in diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), the ability to discriminate DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias remains suboptimal. Electroencephalography (EEG) is currently a supportive biomarker in the diagnosis of DLB. We performed a systematic review to better clarify the diagnostic and prognostic role of EEG in DLB and define the clinical correlates of various EEG features described in DLB. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched using search strategies for relevant articles up to 6 August 2020. We included 43 studies comparing EEG in DLB with other diagnoses, 42 of them included a comparison of DLB with AD, 10 studies compared DLB with Parkinson's disease dementia, and 6 studies compared DLB with other dementias. The studies were visual EEG assessment (6), quantitative EEG (35) and event-related potential studies (2). The most consistent observation was the slowing of the dominant EEG rhythm (<8 Hz) assessed visually or through quantitative EEG, which was observed in ~90% of patients with DLB and only ~10% of patients with AD. Other findings based on qualitative rating, spectral power analyses, connectivity, microstate and machine learning algorithms were largely heterogenous due to differences in study design, EEG acquisition, preprocessing and analysis. EEG protocols should be standardized to allow replication and validation of promising EEG features as potential biomarkers in DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10090616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555753PMC
August 2020

Hyperconnectivity in Dementia Is Early and Focal and Wanes with Progression.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jan;31(1):97-105

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

We investigated in a longitudinal multicenter cohort study functional cortical connectivity changes along the course of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the prodromal stage of the diseases. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded in 18 FTD and 18 AD patients at the prodromal stage of dementia, at dementia onset, and 3 years after dementia onset. Twenty healthy controls (HC) underwent EEG recordings at the same time interval as the patients. Mutual information (MI) analysis measured the strength of functional network connectivity. FTD and AD patients showed greater MI at the prodromal stage of dementia (FTD vs. HC P = 2 × 10-8; AD vs. HC P = 4 × 10-3). Local connectivity was higher in left and right frontal areas of FTD (P = 7 × 10-5 and 0.03) and in left and right posterior areas in AD (P = 3 × 10-5 and 5 × 10-5) versus HC. We showed cortical hyperconnectivity at the prodromal stage of dementia in areas involved in the specific pathological process of FTD (frontal regions) and AD (posterior regions). Hyperconnectivity disappeared during follow-up, thus suggesting that it is an early electrophysiological feature of dementia, potentially useful to identify prodromal FTD and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa209DOI Listing
January 2021

High γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content Within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Is a Functional Signature of Somatic Symptoms Disorder in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Mov Disord 2020 12 3;35(12):2184-2192. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Background: The dysfunctional activity of the medial prefrontal cortex has been associated with the appearance of the somatic symptom disorder, a key feature of the Parkinson's disease (PD) psychosis complex.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the basal contents of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid and excitatory glutamate plus glutamine neurotransmitter levels are changed in the medial prefrontal cortex of patients with PD with somatic symptom disorder and whether this alteration represents a marker of susceptibility of PD to somatic symptom disorder, thus representing a signature of psychosis complex of PD.

Methods: Levels of the γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate plus glutamine were investigated, at rest, with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total creatine was used as an internal reference. The study cohort included 23 patients with somatic symptom disorder plus PD, 19 patients with PD without somatic symptom disorder, 19 healthy control subjects, and 14 individuals with somatic symptom disorder who did not show other psychiatric or neurological disorders.

Results: We found that, compared with patients with PD without somatic symptom disorder or healthy control individuals, patients with somatic symptom disorder, with or without PD, show increased γ-aminobutyric acid/total creatine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex. The medial prefrontal cortex contents of glutamate plus glutamine/total creatine levels or γ-aminobutyric acid/glutamate plus glutamine were not different among groups.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight a crucial pathophysiologic role played by high γ-aminobutyric acid within the medial prefrontal cortex in the production of somatic symptom disorder. This phenomenon represents a signature of psychosis complex in patients with PD. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28221DOI Listing
December 2020

The combined effect of amyloid-β and tau biomarkers on brain atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 2;27:102333. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Centre for Age-Related Medicine, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway; Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology is frequently found in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, it is unknown how amyloid-β and tau-related pathologies influence neurodegeneration in DLB. Understanding the mechanisms underlying brain atrophy in DLB can improve our knowledge about disease progression, differential diagnosis, drug development and testing of anti-amyloid and anti-tau therapies in DLB.

Objectives: We aimed at investigating the combined effect of CSF amyloid-β42, phosphorylated tau and total tau on regional brain atrophy in DLB in the European DLB (E-DLB) cohort.

Methods: 86 probable DLB patients from the E-DLB cohort with CSF and MRI data were included. Random forest was used to analyze the association of CSF biomarkers (predictors) with visual rating scales for medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), posterior atrophy (PA) and global cortical atrophy scale-frontal subscale (GCA-F) (outcomes), including age, sex, education and disease duration as extra predictors.

Results: DLB patients with abnormal MTA scores had abnormal CSF Aβ42, shorter disease duration and older age. DLB patients with abnormal PA scores had abnormal levels of CSF Aβ42 and p-tau, older age, lower education and shorter disease duration. Abnormal GCA-F scores were associated with lower education, male sex, and older age, but not with any AD-related CSF biomarker.

Conclusions: This study shows preliminary data on the potential combined effect of amyloid-β and tau-related pathologies on the integrity of posterior brain cortices in DLB patients, whereas only amyloid-β seems to be related to MTA. Future availability of α-synuclein biomarkers will help us to understand the effect of α-synuclein and AD-related pathologies on brain integrity in DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363702PMC
July 2020

GBA-Related Parkinson's Disease: Dissection of Genotype-Phenotype Correlates in a Large Italian Cohort.

Mov Disord 2020 11 13;35(11):2106-2111. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Background: Variants in GBA are the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). The impact of different variants on the PD clinical spectrum is still unclear.

Objectives: We determined the frequency of GBA-related PD in Italy and correlated GBA variants with motor and nonmotor features and their occurrence over time.

Methods: Sanger sequencing of the whole GBA gene was performed. Variants were classified as mild, severe, complex, and risk. β-glucocerebrosidase activity was measured. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed.

Results: Among 874 patients with PD, 36 variants were detected in 14.3%, including 20.4% early onset. Patients with GBA-PD had earlier and more frequent occurrence of several nonmotor symptoms. Patients with severe and complex GBA-PD had the highest burden of symptoms and a higher risk of hallucinations and cognitive impairment. Complex GBA-PD had the lowest β-glucocerebrosidase activity.

Conclusions: GBA-PD is highly prevalent in Italy. Different types of mutations underlie distinct phenotypic profiles. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28195DOI Listing
November 2020

Anterior EEG slowing in dementia with Lewy bodies: a multicenter European cohort study.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 09 29;93:55-60. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Science, and Aging Research Centre, G. d'Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy. Electronic address:

Electroencephalography (EEG) slowing with prealpha dominant frequency (DF) in posterior derivations is a biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) diagnosis, in contrast with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, an intrasubject re-evaluation of the original data, which contributed to the identification of EEG DLB biomarker, showed that DF was slower in anterior than posterior derivations. We suppose this anterior-posterior gradient of DF slowing could arise in DLB from a thalamocortical dysrhythmia, differently involving the anterior and posterior cortical areas, and correlating with cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination). EEG was recorded in 144 DLB, 116 AD, and 65 controls from 7 Centers of the European DLB Consortium. Spectra were divided into delta, theta, prealpha, alpha frequency bands. In DLB, mean DF was prealpha both anteriorly and posteriorly, but lower anteriorly (p < 0.001). In 14% of DLB, DF was prealpha anteriorly, whereas alpha posteriorly. In AD and controls, DF was constantly alpha. EEG slowing in DLB correlated with cognitive impairment. Thalamocortical dysrhythmia gives rise to prealpha rhythm with an anterior-posterior gradient and correlates with impaired cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.04.023DOI Listing
September 2020

Does the Degree of Trunk Bending Predict Patient Disability, Motor Impairment, Falls, and Back Pain in Parkinson's Disease?

Front Neurol 2020 31;11:207. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Neurology Unit, Movement Disorders Division, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Postural abnormalities in Parkinson's disease (PD) form a spectrum of functional trunk misalignment, ranging from a "typical" parkinsonian stooped posture to progressively greater degrees of spine deviation. To analyze the association between degree of postural abnormalities and disability and to determine cut-off values of trunk bending associated with limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs), motor impairment, falls, and back pain. The study population was 283 PD patients with ≥5° of forward trunk bending (FTB), lateral trunk bending (LTB) or forward neck bending (FNB). The degrees were calculated using a wall goniometer (WG) and software-based measurements (SBM). Logistic regression models were used to identify the degree of bending associated with moderate/severe limitation in ADLs (Movement Disorders Society Unified PD Rating Scale [MDS-UPDRS] part II ≥17), moderate/severe motor impairment (MDS-UPDRS part III ≥33), history of falls (≥1), and moderate/severe back pain intensity (numeric rating scale ≥4). The optimal cut-off was identified using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. We found significant associations between modified Hoehn & Yahr stage, disease duration, sex, and limitation in ADLs, motor impairment, back pain intensity, and history of falls. Degree of trunk bending was associated only with motor impairment in LTB (odds ratio [OR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.22). ROC curves showed that patients with LTB of 10.5° (SBM, AUC 0.626) may have moderate/severe motor impairment. The severity of trunk misalignment does not fully explain limitation in ADLs, motor impairment, falls, and back pain. Multiple factors possibly related to an aggressive PD phenotype may account for disability in PD patients with FTB, LTB, and FNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136533PMC
March 2020

Research criteria for the diagnosis of prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neurology 2020 04 2;94(17):743-755. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

From the Newcastle University (I.G.M., A.J.T., P.D., J.P.T.); Mayo Clinic (T.J.F.), Jacksonville; University of Strasbourg (F.B.); Mayo Clinic (B.F.B., K.K.), Rochester; Nagoya University (H.F.), Kawasaki Memorial Hospital; Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta" (C.M., P.T.), Milan; Cambridge University (F.M.S.); McGill University (R.B.P.); King's College London and Stavanger University Hospital (D.A.); University of Exeter (C.B.); University of Chieti-Pescara (L.B.); Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (M.E.); University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (J.E.G.); University of California (D.G., D.P.S.), San Diego; Feinberg School of Medicine (J.G.G.); Massachusetts General Hospital (S.N.G.); Columbia University Irving Medical Center (L.S.H., K.S.M.); Osaka University (M.I.); Lou Ruvo Center of Brain Health (J.B.L.), Cleveland Clinic; University of Sydney (S.J.G.L.); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (M.M.), University of Toronto; VA Puget Sound & University of Washington (D.W.T.); University College London (Z.W.).

The prodromal phase of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) includes (1) mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) delirium-onset, and (3) psychiatric-onset presentations. The purpose of our review is to determine whether there is sufficient information yet available to justify development of diagnostic criteria for each of these. Our goal is to achieve evidence-based recommendations for the recognition of DLB at a predementia, symptomatic stage. We propose operationalized diagnostic criteria for probable and possible mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies, which are intended for use in research settings pending validation for use in clinical practice. They are compatible with current criteria for other prodromal neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. Although there is still insufficient evidence to propose formal criteria for delirium-onset and psychiatric-onset presentations of DLB, we feel that it is important to characterize them, raising the index of diagnostic suspicion and prioritizing them for further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274845PMC
April 2020

Abnormal cortical neural synchronization mechanisms in quiet wakefulness are related to motor deficits, cognitive symptoms, and visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease patients: an electroencephalographic study.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 07 12;91:88-111. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Biophysics, International School of Medicine, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) shows peculiar clinical manifestations related to vigilance (i.e., executive cognitive deficits and visual hallucinations) that may be reflected in resting-state electroencephalographic rhythms. To test this hypothesis, clinical and resting-state electroencephalographic rhythms in age-, sex-, and education-matched PD patients (N = 136) and Alzheimer's disease patients (AD, N = 85), and healthy older participants (Nold, N = 65), were available from an international archive. Electroencephalographic sources were estimated by eLORETA software. The results are as follows: (1) compared to the Nold participants, the AD and PD patients showed higher widespread delta source activities (PD > AD) and lower posterior alpha source activities (AD > PD); (2) the PD patients with the most pronounced motor deficits exhibited very low alpha source activities in widespread cortical regions; (3) the PD patients with the strongest cognitive deficits showed higher alpha source activities in widespread cortical regions; and (4) compared to the PD patients without visual hallucinations, those with visual hallucinations were characterized by higher posterior alpha sources activities. These results suggest that in PD patients resting in quiet wakefulness, abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization at alpha frequencies are differently related to cognitive, motor, and visual hallucinations. Interestingly, parallel PD neuropathological processes may have opposite effects on cortical neural synchronization mechanisms generating cortical alpha rhythms in quiet wakefulness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.02.029DOI Listing
July 2020

Anti-Cholinergic Derangement of Cortical Metabolism on 18F-FDG PET in a Patient with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Dementia: A Case of the TREDEM Registry.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;74(4):1107-1117

Department of Neuroscience Imaging and Clinical Sciences and CESI, University G D'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

We present the case of a patient with an atypical course of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) complicated by the use of an anticholinergic drug. A 70-year-old patient, followed by psychiatrists for depression and behavioral disorders, received a diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at another Center due to auditory hallucinations, gait impairment, and tendency to fall. He was then admitted to our Memory Clinic Unit for behavioral disturbances, such as delusional thinking, auditory hallucinations, and memory complaints. At that time, the patient's therapy included Lorazepam, Quetiapine, Promazine, and Biperiden. The latter was immediately suspended for the absence of extrapyramidal signs and to avoid the anticholinergic cognitive side effects. A 18F-FDG PET showed a derangement of cortical metabolism with diffusely reduced activity, and limited areas of hyperactivity involving lateral frontal and lateral temporal inferior regions bilaterally. The patient underwent a series of exams, including neuropsychological tests, 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, cerebrospinal fluid examination, and genetic analysis. A second 18F-FDG PET showed an extensive remodulation of metabolic activity: relative higher concentration of the tracer in the prefrontal and inferior temporal cortex was no more detectable. Similarly, the diffuse reduced metabolic activity could not be traced anymore. Nonetheless, the metabolic activity still appeared reduced in the frontal lobe, in the anterior cingulate bilaterally, and in the anterior part of the hemispheric fissure. Taken together, clinical and neuroimaging features would point to a FTLD-like form. Furthermore, the diagnostic work-up was likely confounded by the anticholinergic drug on 18F-FDG PET, highlighting the importance of carefully checking the patient's pharmacology during the diagnostic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-191290DOI Listing
May 2021