Publications by authors named "Laura Bille"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Low evolutionary rate of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Italy is associated with reduced virulence in trout.

Virus Evol 2018 Jul 18;4(2):vey019. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro, Padova, Italy.

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a naked double-stranded RNA virus with a bi-segmented genome that is classified within the family , genus . IPNV was first detected in Italian trout farms in the late 1970s and ultimately became endemic. To characterize the evolution of IPNV circulating in Italy, particularly whether there is a link between evolutionary rate and virulence, we obtained and analyzed the VP1 (polymerase) and the pVP2 (major capsid protein precursor) sequences from 75 IPNV strains sampled between 1978 and 2017. These data revealed that the Italian IPNV exhibit relatively little genetic variation over the sampling period, falling into four genetic clusters within a single genogroup (group 2 for VP1 and genogroup V for pVP2) and contained one example of inter-segment reassortment. The mean evolutionary rates for VP1 and pVP2 were estimated to be 1.70 and 1.45 × 10 nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively, and hence significantly lower than those seen in other . Similarly, the relatively low ratios of non-synonymous () to synonymous () nucleotide substitutions per site in both genes indicated that IPNV was subject to strong selective constraints, again in contrast to other RNA viruses infecting salmonids that co-circulate in the same area during the same time period. Notably, all the Italian IPNV harbored a proline at position 217 (P) and a threonine at position 221 (T) in pVP2, both of which are associated with a low virulence phenotype. We therefore suggest the lower virulence of IPNV may have resulted in reduced rates of virus replication and hence lower rates of evolutionary change. The data generated here will be of importance in understanding the factors that shape the evolution of in nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/vey019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054257PMC
July 2018

First report of a fish kill episode caused by pyrethroids in Italian freshwater.

Forensic Sci Int 2017 Dec 6;281:176-182. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro (PD), 35020, Italy.

Introduction: Fish kills are events of strong emotional impact on the population because of the frequent suspicion that they can be the result of serious pollution accidents. As a matter of fact, they are often due to natural occurrences, such as low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water, but in many cases the causes remain unknown. Fish are particularly sensitive to pesticides and pyrethroids are reported to be the most ecotoxicologically active in the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, the reported cases of massive wild fish mortalities due to these toxicants are very few. This paper describes a fish kill episode occurred in the Padua Province (Veneto Region - North Eastern Italy) which involved several fish species and for which it was possible to identify the cause in the presence of pyrethroids in the water.

Case Presentation: When a whitish liquid coming from the rainwater drain of an industrial area was seen to be spilling into a drainage channel, a fish massive mortality was noticed and investigated. The collected water samples showed the presence of relevant concentrations of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin. Analyses on the fish tissues revealed the presence of cypermethrin and permethrin at a concentration range of 476-2834μg/kg and 346-2826μg/kg on a lipid basis, respectively.

Discussion: According to the results of the performed analyses, we can reasonably state that the described episode had been caused by the exposure of biota to high concentrations of pyrethroids. The present case report significantly contributes to the limited literature available on pesticides-related fish kills. Moreover, it highlights the importance of sharing protocols for fish kill management at a national level, as this would help to better define the roles of the different institutions involved and to improve the investigation and the reporting of these events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.10.040DOI Listing
December 2017

Epidemiology of animal poisoning: An overview on the features and spatio-temporal distribution of the phenomenon in the north-eastern Italian regions.

Forensic Sci Int 2016 Sep 11;266:440-448. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro (PD) 35020, Italy.

In the present paper we analyze and discuss about the records referring to animal poisonings and poisoned baits cases covering the period between 2007 and 2013 and submitted for diagnostic investigations to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), which is the public veterinary health institute competent for the north eastern Italian regions. All data were gathered by a passive surveillance system based on voluntary reporting, which became mandatory in 2009 after a decree of the Italian Ministry of Health had come into force. This prohibited the use and detention of poisoned baits and ordered to selected institutions and professionals to carry out standardized surveys to assess suspect and/or confirmed reported cases; all the necessary anatomopathological and toxicological investigations to confirm the reported cases were then performed for free by public veterinary health institutes whenever a veterinarian diagnosis or clinical suspicion were provided. Totally, 1831 suspected animals poisoning and 698 cases of supposed poisoned baits recovery episodes were registered. 642/1831 (35.1%) animal poisoning cases were confirmed and the presence of toxic agents was verified in 292/698 baits (41.8%). The most severely affected territories were the ones with the highest level of urbanization and those most densely populated in the study area. Dogs and cats seemed to be greatly affected by poisoning cases and a characteristic seasonal trend was noticed, with an increase of episodes in late Winter/early Spring and in Autumn. Carbamate insecticides resulted to be the main cause for animal poisoning, while anticoagulants rodenticides played a primary role among toxicants found in poisoned baits. The presented results emphasize that malicious animal poisoning is a widespread problem in north-eastern Italy. The still relevant number of reported poisoning events caused by some banned pesticides poses the problem of identifying where these substances come from and brings to light the popular knowledge about the high toxicity of these compounds. Moreover, the noticeable increase of the number of episodes registered in 2009 pointed out how the above mentioned decree may have contributed to reveal a number of hidden cases which had not been investigated before, probably due to economic reasons related to the costs of toxicological analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.07.002DOI Listing
September 2016

Possible influence of natural events on heavy metals exposure from shellfish consumption: a case study in the north-East of Italy.

Front Public Health 2015 4;3:21. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Food Safety, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie , Legnaro , Italy.

The objective of this study was the estimation of the exposure over time to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, and lead) due to shellfish consumption in the Veneto Region, Italy. Shellfish consumption was investigated by a food frequency consumption survey. Altogether, 1949 households, stratified into the five most populated areas of the Veneto Region, were involved in the study. Exposure estimation to heavy metals was carried out taking into account the level of metal measured in samples of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus), collected in the frame of the monitoring activities of mollusk production areas of Veneto Region, between January 2007 and December 2012. A general high contribution of the considered shellfish to the Tolerable Weekly Intake was noticed in the case of cadmium, especially in 2011, when a considerable increase in cadmium intake was estimated. This was probably due to a heavy rainfall event that triggered catastrophic flooding with high impact on shellfish capture areas in November 2010. The results strongly emphasize the importance of dealing with food safety in a holistic way, taking into account the potential impact of extraordinary natural events on food chain contamination, in order to identify food hazards at an early stage, before developing into a real risk for consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4316607PMC
February 2015