Publications by authors named "Laura B Ramsey"

68 Publications

Influence of CYP2D6 metabolizer status on ondansetron efficacy in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A case series.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is commonly experienced by patients receiving antineoplastic agents prior to hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist metabolized by CYP2D6, is an antiemetic prescribed to treat short-term CINV, but some patients still experience uncontrolled nausea and vomiting while taking ondansetron. Adult CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs) are at higher risk for CINV due to rapid ondansetron clearance, but similar studies have not been performed in pediatric patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of 128 pediatric HSCT recipients who received ondansetron for CINV prevention and had CYP2D6 genotyping for 20 alleles and duplication detection. The number of emetic episodes for each patient was collected from the start of chemotherapy through 7 days after HSCT. The average age of the cohort was 6.6 years (range: 0.2-16.7) and included three UMs, 72 normal metabolizers, 47 intermediate metabolizers, and six poor metabolizers. Because UMs are the population at risk for inefficacy, we describe the course of treatment for these three patients, as well as the factors influencing emesis: chemotherapy emetogenicity, diagnosis, and duration of ondansetron administration. The cases described support guidelines recommending non-CYP2D6 metabolized antiemetics (e.g., granisetron) when a patient is a known CYP2D6 UM, but pediatric studies with a larger sample of CYP2D6 UMs are needed to validate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13171DOI Listing
October 2021

Pediatric Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

Front Pharmacol 2021 1;12:749692. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is uncommon in child and adolescent psychiatry, particularly for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)-the first-line pharmacologic treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders. However, TDM in children and adolescents offers the opportunity to leverage individual variability of antidepressant pharmacokinetics to shed light on non-response and partial response, understand drug-drug interactions, evaluate adherence, and characterize the impact of genetic and developmental variation in pharmacokinetic genes. This perspective aims to educate clinicians about TDM principles and examines evolving uses of TDM in SSRI-treated youths and their early applications in clinical practice, as well as barriers to TDM in pediatric patients. First, the impact of pharmacokinetic genes on SSRI pharmacokinetics in youths could be used to predict tolerability and response for some SSRIs (, escitalopram). Second, plasma concentrations are significantly influenced by adherence, which may relate to decreased efficacy. Third, pharmacometric analyses reveal interactions with proton pump inhibitors, oral contraceptives, cannabinoids, and SSRIs in youths. Rapid developments in TDM and associated modeling have enhanced the understanding of variation in SSRI pharmacokinetics, although the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders with SSRIs in youths often remains a trial-and-error process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.749692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517085PMC
October 2021

Multisite evaluation of institutional processes and implementation determinants for pharmacogenetic testing to guide antidepressant therapy.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

There is growing interest in utilizing pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing to guide antidepressant use, but there is lack of clarity on how to implement testing into clinical practice. We administered two surveys at 17 sites that had implemented or were in the process of implementing PGx testing for antidepressants. Survey 1 collected data on the process and logistics of testing. Survey 2 asked sites to rank the importance of Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) constructs using best-worst scaling choice experiments. Of the 17 sites, 13 had implemented testing and four were in the planning stage. Thirteen offered testing in the outpatient setting, and nine in both outpatient/inpatient settings. PGx tests were mainly ordered by psychiatry (92%) and primary care (69%) providers. CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 were the most commonly tested genes. The justification for antidepressants selected for PGx guidance was based on Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines (94%) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA; 75.6%) guidance. Both institutional (53%) and commercial laboratories (53%) were used for testing. Sites varied on the methods for returning results to providers and patients. Sites were consistent in ranking CFIR constructs and identified patient needs/resources, leadership engagement, intervention knowledge/beliefs, evidence strength and quality, and the identification of champions as most important for implementation. Sites deployed similar implementation strategies and measured similar outcomes. The process of implementing PGx testing to guide antidepressant therapy varied across sites, but key drivers for successful implementation were similar and may help guide other institutions interested in providing PGx-guided pharmacotherapy for antidepressant management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13154DOI Listing
September 2021

SLCO1B1 *15 allele is associated with methotrexate-induced nausea in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Division of Research in Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). SLCO1B1 genetic variation has been associated with delayed MTX clearance and increased toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between SLCO1B1 genetic variation and MTX-induced nausea in children with IBD. We performed a single center retrospective chart analysis of 278 patients who were prescribed MTX for IBD. Two hundred two patients had banked DNA and were genotyped for three SLCO1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs4149056, rs2306283, and rs11045819). Diplotypes were determined by combining the SNPs into *1, *4, *5, *14, *15, and *37 alleles. Incidence of nausea was abstracted from clinician notes. Prescriptions and demographics were extracted from the medical record. The cohort was 69.8% boys, 89.1% White, and 87.6% had a diagnosis of Crohn's disease with a mean age of 16.0 (± 3.8) years. MTX-induced nausea was noted in 34% of the cohort. MTX-induced nausea was associated with the number of reduced-function *15 alleles (p = 0.034) and occurred 2.26 times more often in patients with at least one *15 allele who did not initiate MTX treatment with concomitant ondansetron (p = 0.034). MTX-induced nausea was significantly independently associated with SLCO1B1 diplotype (p = 0.006) after controlling for MTX dose group and concomitant ondansetron. Our data demonstrate that the SLCO1B1 *15 allele is associated with MTX-induced nausea in pediatric patients with IBD. Additionally, *15 allele carriers could benefit from a dose reduction of MTX to reduce exposure and treatment initiation with concomitant ondansetron to reduce nausea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13130DOI Listing
August 2021

CYP2D6*9 and *41: Does the Activity Value Assigned to these Alleles Need to be Reduced to more Accurately Predict Phenotype?

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Innovation, Children's Mercy Kansas City and School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2371DOI Listing
August 2021

Advancing Precision Medicine Through the New Pharmacogenomics Global Research Network.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 09 28;110(3):559-562. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2340DOI Listing
September 2021

Multisite investigation of strategies for the clinical implementation of pre-emptive pharmacogenetic testing.

Genet Med 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics and Precision Medicine, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Purpose: The increased availability of clinical pharmacogenetic (PGx) guidelines and decreasing costs for genetic testing have slowly led to increased utilization of PGx testing in clinical practice. Pre-emptive PGx testing, where testing is performed in advance of drug prescribing, is one means to ensure results are available at the time of prescribing decisions. However, the most efficient and effective methods to clinically implement this strategy remain unclear.

Methods: In this report, we compare and contrast implementation strategies for pre-emptive PGx testing by 15 early-adopter institutions. We surveyed these groups, collecting data on testing approaches, team composition, and workflow dynamics, in addition to estimated third-party reimbursement rates.

Results: We found that while pre-emptive PGx testing models varied across sites, institutions shared several commonalities, including methods to identify patients eligible for testing, involvement of a precision medicine clinical team in program leadership, and the implementation of pharmacogenes with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines available. Finally, while reimbursement rate data were difficult to obtain, the data available suggested that reimbursement rates for pre-emptive PGx testing remain low.

Conclusion: These findings should inform the establishment of future implementation efforts at institutions considering a pre-emptive PGx testing program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01269-9DOI Listing
July 2021

The Impact of Marijuana on Antidepressant Treatment in Adolescents: Clinical and Pharmacologic Considerations.

J Pers Med 2021 Jun 29;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

The neuropharmacology of marijuana, including its effects on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/antidepressant metabolism and the subsequent response and tolerability in youth, has received limited attention. We sought to (1) review clinically relevant pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions between cannabinoids and selected SSRIs, (2) use PK models to examine the impact of cannabinoids on SSRI exposure (area under curve (AUC)) and maximum concentration (C) in adolescents, and (3) examine the frequency of adverse events reported when SSRIs and cannabinoids are used concomitantly. Cannabinoid metabolism, interactions with SSRIs, impact on relevant PK/PD pathways and known drug-drug interactions were reviewed. Then, the impact of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on exposure (AUC) and C for escitalopram and sertraline was modeled using pediatric PK data. Using data from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS), the relationship between CBD and CYP2C19-metabolized SSRIs and side effects was examined. Cannabis and CBD inhibit cytochrome activity, alter serotonergic transmission, and modulate SSRI response. In PK models, CBD and/or THC increases sertraline and es/citalopram concentrations in adolescents, and coadministration of CBD and CYP2C19-metabolized SSRIs increases the risk of cough, diarrhea, dizziness, and fatigue. Given the significant SSRI-cannabinoid interactions, clinicians should discuss THC and CBD use in youth prescribed SSRIs and be aware of the impact of initiating, stopping, or decreasing cannabinoid use as this may significantly affect es/citalopram and sertraline exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11070615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307883PMC
June 2021

Systematic Review of Pharmacogenetic Factors That Influence High-Dose Methotrexate Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Malignancies.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Research in Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Methotrexate (MTX) is a mainstay therapeutic agent administered at high doses for the treatment of pediatric and adult malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, osteosarcoma, and lymphoma. Despite the vast evidence for clinical efficacy, high-dose MTX displays significant inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. Delayed MTX clearance can lead to prolonged, elevated exposure, causing increased risks for nephrotoxicity, mucositis, seizures, and neutropenia. Numerous pharmacogenetic studies have investigated the effects of several genes and polymorphisms on MTX clearance in an attempt to better understand the pharmacokinetic variability and improve patient outcomes. To date, several genes and polymorphisms that affect MTX clearance have been identified. However, evidence for select genes have conflicting results or lack the necessary replication and validation needed to confirm their effects on MTX clearance. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to identify and then summarize the pharmacogenetic factors that influence high-dose MTX pharmacokinetics in pediatric malignancies. Using the PRISMA guidelines, we analyzed 58 articles and 24 different genes that were associated with transporter pharmacology or the folate transport pathway. We conclude that there is only one gene that reliably demonstrates an effect on MTX pharmacokinetics: .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201112PMC
June 2021

Toward pharmacogenetic SLCO1B1-guided dosing of methotrexate in arthritis using a murine Slco1b2 knockout model.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Division of Research in Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) is a first-line therapy for the treatment of arthritis. However, there is considerable interindividual variability in MTX exposure following standard dosing. Polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 significantly effect MTX clearance, altering therapeutic response. One decreased function variant, rs4149056 (c.521T>C, Val174Ala), slows MTX clearance and in vitro uptake of MTX. This phenotype was recapitulated in a mouse model using a knockout (KO) of the murine orthologue, Slco1b2. Our objective was to investigate the impact of this phenotype on the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic outcomes of low-dose MTX in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We evaluated response to MTX in mice with CIA using wildtype (WT), heterozygous, and KO Slco1b2 mice on a DBA1/J background. Arthritis was macroscopically evaluated daily to quantify disease progression. Mice received 2 mg/kg or a pharmacogenetically guided MTX dose subcutaneously 3 times a week for 2 weeks. MTX concentrations were collected at the end of the study and exposure (day*µM) was estimated using a two-compartment model. Mice displayed a seven-fold range in MTX exposure and revealed a significant exposure-response relationship (p = 0.0027). KO mice receiving the 2 mg/kg dosing regimen had 2.3-fold greater exposure to MTX (p < 0.0001) and a 66% reduction in overall disease progression (p = 0.011) compared to WT mice. However, exposure and response were equivalent when pharmacogenetically guided dosing was used. These studies demonstrate that an exposure-response relationship exists for MTX and that Slco1b2 genotype affects MTX exposure and therapeutic response. Such evidence supports the use of SLCO1B1-pharmacogenetic dosing of low-dose MTX for patients with arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13086DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis Approaches to Identify Pharmacogenetic Associations With Pharmacodynamics.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 09 28;110(3):589-594. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Pharmacogenetics (PGx) seeks to enable selection of the right dose of the right drug for each patient to optimize therapeutic outcomes. Most PGx focuses on pharmacokinetics (PKs), due to our relatively advanced understanding of the genes involved in PKs and the causative effects of variants in those genes. Genetic variants can also affect pharmacodynamics (PDs), but relatively few PGx-PD associations have been identified. This is partially due to a more limited understanding of the relevant genes and the consequences of genetic variation, but is also due in part to the potential confounding of PK variability in assessments of clinical outcomes that have a contribution from both PKs and PDs. For example, it is challenging to confirm the effect of mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) genetic variation on opioid response due to the contribution of CYP2D6 genotype to bioactivation of some opioid drugs (i.e., codeine and tramadol). The objectives of this mini-review are to describe several recent efforts to discover and validate PGx-PD that disentangle the influence of PK variability and propose potential approaches that could be used in future PGx-PD analyses. We use the effect of OPRM1 genetics on opioid response to illustrate how these analyses could be conducted and conclude by discussing how PGx-PD could be translated into clinical practice to improve therapeutic outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2312DOI Listing
September 2021

The need for a refined understanding of CYP2D6 in second-generation antipsychotic outcomes in children and adolescents.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 06 25;22(8):447-450. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45219, USA.

Tweetable abstract High-quality studies examining the influence of CYP2D6 on the exposure and tolerability of antipsychotics in youth are needed to mitigate the limitations of prior studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs-2021-0049DOI Listing
June 2021

Planning and Conducting a Pharmacogenetics Association Study.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 09 19;110(3):688-701. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology & Research in Patient Services, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Pharmacogenetics (PGx) association studies are used to discover, replicate, and validate the association between an inherited genotype and a treatment outcome. The objective of this tutorial is to provide trainees and novice PGx researchers with an overview of the major decisions that need to be made when designing and conducting a PGx association study. The first critical decision is to determine whether the objective of the study is discovery, replication, or validation. Next, the researcher must identify a patient cohort that has all of the data necessary to conduct the intended analysis. Then, the investigator must select and define the treatment outcome, or phenotype, that will be analyzed. Next, the investigator must determine what genotyping approach and genetic data will be included in the analysis. Finally, the association between the genotype and phenotype is tested using some statistical analysis methodology. This tutorial is divided into five sections; each section describes commonly used approaches and provides suggestions and resources for designing and conducting a PGx association study. Successful PGx association studies are necessary to discover and validate associations between inherited genetic variation and treatment outcomes, which enable clinical translation to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2270DOI Listing
September 2021

Perspectives from the Society for Pediatric Research: pharmacogenetics for pediatricians.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

This review evaluates the pediatric evidence for pharmacogenetic associations for drugs that are commonly prescribed by or encountered by pediatric clinicians across multiple subspecialties, organized from most to least pediatric evidence. We begin with the pharmacogenetic research that led to the warning of increased risk of death in certain pediatric populations ("ultrarapid metabolizers") who are prescribed codeine after tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy. We review the evidence for genetic testing for thiopurine metabolism, which has become routine in multiple pediatric subspecialties. We discuss the pharmacogenetic research in proton pump inhibitors, for which clinical guidelines have recently been made available. With an increase in the prevalence of behavioral health disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we review the pharmacogenetic literature on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and ADHD medications. We will conclude this section on the current pharmacogenetic data on ondansetron. We also provide our perspective on how to integrate the current research on pharmacogenetics into clinical care and what further research is needed. We discuss how institutions are managing pharmacogenetic test results and implementing them clinically, and how the electronic health record can be leveraged to ensure testing results are available and taken into consideration when prescribing medications. IMPACT: While many reviews of pharmacogenetics literature are available, there are few focused on pediatrics. Pediatricians across subspecialties will become more comfortable with pharmacogenetics terminology, know resources they can use to help inform their prescribing habits for drugs with known pharmacogenetic associations, and understand the limitations of testing and where further research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01499-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492778PMC
April 2021

Acute Neurofunctional Effects of Escitalopram in Pediatric Anxiety: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 10 4;60(10):1309-1318. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

University of Cincinnati, Ohio.

Objective: Amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) circuitry is disrupted in pediatric anxiety disorders, yet how selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect this circuitry is unknown. We examined the impact of the SSRI escitalopram on functional connectivity (FC) within this circuit, and whether early FC changes predicted treatment response in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

Method: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired before and after 2 weeks of treatment in 41 adolescents with GAD (12-17 years of age) who received double-blind escitalopram or placebo for 8 weeks. Change in amygdala-based whole-brain FC and anxiety severity were analyzed.

Results: Controlling for age, sex, and pretreatment anxiety, escitalopram increased amygdala-VLPFC connectivity compared to placebo (F = 17.79, p = .002 FWE-corrected). This early FC change predicted 76.7% of the variability in improvement trajectory in patients who received escitalopram (p < .001) but not placebo (p = .169); the predictive power of early amygdala-VLPFC FC change significantly differed between placebo and escitalopram (p = .013). Furthermore, this FC change predicted improvement better than baseline FC or clinical/demographic characteristics. Exploratory analyses of amygdala subfields' FC revealed connectivity of left basolateral amygdala (BLA) -VLPFC (F = 19.64, p < .001 FWE-corrected) and superficial amygdala-posterior cingulate cortex (F = 22.92, p = .001 FWE-corrected) were also increased by escitalopram, but only BLA-VLPFC FC predicted improvement in anxiety over 8 weeks of treatment.

Conclusion: In adolescents with GAD, escitalopram increased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity within the first 2 weeks of treatment, and the magnitude of this change predicted subsequent clinical improvement. Early normalization of amygdala-VLPFC circuitry might represent a useful tool for identifying future treatment responders as well as a promising biomarker for drug development.

Clinical Trial Registration Information: Neurofunctional Predictors of Escitalopram Treatment Response in Adolescents With Anxiety; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02818751.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.11.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8333264PMC
October 2021

Opportunity for Genotype-Guided Prescribing Among Adult Patients in 11 US Health Systems.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 07 16;110(1):179-188. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

The value of utilizing a multigene pharmacogenetic panel to tailor pharmacotherapy is contingent on the prevalence of prescribed medications with an actionable pharmacogenetic association. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) has categorized over 35 gene-drug pairs as "level A," for which there is sufficiently strong evidence to recommend that genetic information be used to guide drug prescribing. The opportunity to use genetic information to tailor pharmacotherapy among adult patients was determined by elucidating the exposure to CPIC level A drugs among 11 Implementing Genomics In Practice Network (IGNITE)-affiliated health systems across the US. Inpatient and/or outpatient electronic-prescribing data were collected between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016 for patients ≥ 18 years of age who had at least one medical encounter that was eligible for drug prescribing in a calendar year. A median of ~ 7.2 million adult patients was available for assessment of drug prescribing per year. From 2011 to 2016, the annual estimated prevalence of exposure to at least one CPIC level A drug prescribed to unique patients ranged between 15,719 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15,658-15,781) in 2011 to 17,335 (CI: 17,283-17,386) in 2016 per 100,000 patients. The estimated annual exposure to at least 2 drugs was above 7,200 per 100,000 patients in most years of the study, reaching an apex of 7,660 (CI: 7,632-7,687) per 100,000 patients in 2014. An estimated 4,748 per 100,000 prescribing events were potentially eligible for a genotype-guided intervention. Results from this study show that a significant portion of adults treated at medical institutions across the United States is exposed to medications for which genetic information, if available, should be used to guide prescribing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217370PMC
July 2021

Characterizing Pharmacogenetic Testing Among Children's Hospitals.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 03 16;14(2):692-701. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Although pharmacogenetic testing is becoming increasingly common across medical subspecialties, a broad range of utilization and implementation exists across pediatric centers. Large pediatric institutions that routinely use pharmacogenetics in their patient care have published their practices and experiences; however, minimal data exist regarding the full spectrum of pharmacogenetic implementation among children's hospitals. The primary objective of this nationwide survey was to characterize the availability, concerns, and barriers to pharmacogenetic testing in children's hospitals in the Children's Hospital Association. Initial responses identifying a contact person were received from 18 institutions. Of those 18 institutions, 14 responses (11 complete and 3 partial) to a more detailed survey regarding pharmacogenetic practices were received. The majority of respondents were from urban institutions (72%) and held a Doctor of Pharmacy degree (67%). Among all respondents, the three primary barriers to implementing pharmacogenetic testing identified were test reimbursement, test cost, and money. Conversely, the three least concerning barriers were potential for genetic discrimination, sharing results with family members, and availability of tests in certified laboratories. Low-use sites rated several barriers significantly higher than the high-use sites, including knowledge of pharmacogenetics (P = 0.03), pharmacogenetic interpretations (P = 0.04), and pharmacogenetic-based changes to therapy (P = 0.03). In spite of decreasing costs of pharmacogenetic testing, financial barriers are one of the main barriers perceived by pediatric institutions attempting clinical implementation. Low-use sites may also benefit from education/outreach in order to reduce perceived barriers to implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993279PMC
March 2021

Prescribing Prevalence of Medications With Potential Genotype-Guided Dosing in Pediatric Patients.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 12 1;3(12):e2029411. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Personalized Medicine Initiative, Nicklaus Children's Health System, Miami, Florida.

Importance: Genotype-guided prescribing in pediatrics could prevent adverse drug reactions and improve therapeutic response. Clinical pharmacogenetic implementation guidelines are available for many medications commonly prescribed to children. Frequencies of medication prescription and actionable genotypes (genotypes where a prescribing change may be indicated) inform the potential value of pharmacogenetic implementation.

Objective: To assess potential opportunities for genotype-guided prescribing in pediatric populations among multiple health systems by examining the prevalence of prescriptions for each drug with the highest level of evidence (Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium level A) and estimating the prevalence of potential actionable prescribing decisions.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This serial cross-sectional study of prescribing prevalences in 16 health systems included electronic health records data from pediatric inpatient and outpatient encounters from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. The health systems included academic medical centers with free-standing children's hospitals and community hospitals that were part of an adult health care system. Participants included approximately 2.9 million patients younger than 21 years observed per year. Data were analyzed from June 5, 2018, to April 14, 2020.

Exposures: Prescription of 38 level A medications based on electronic health records.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Annual prevalence of level A medication prescribing and estimated actionable exposures, calculated by combining estimated site-year prevalences across sites with each site weighted equally.

Results: Data from approximately 2.9 million pediatric patients (median age, 8 [interquartile range, 2-16] years; 50.7% female, 62.3% White) were analyzed for a typical calendar year. The annual prescribing prevalence of at least 1 level A drug ranged from 7987 to 10 629 per 100 000 patients with increasing trends from 2011 to 2014. The most prescribed level A drug was the antiemetic ondansetron (annual prevalence of exposure, 8107 [95% CI, 8077-8137] per 100 000 children). Among commonly prescribed opioids, annual prevalence per 100 000 patients was 295 (95% CI, 273-317) for tramadol, 571 (95% CI, 557-586) for codeine, and 2116 (95% CI, 2097-2135) for oxycodone. The antidepressants citalopram, escitalopram, and amitriptyline were also commonly prescribed (annual prevalence, approximately 250 per 100 000 patients for each). Estimated prevalences of actionable exposures were highest for oxycodone and ondansetron (>300 per 100 000 patients annually). CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 substrates were more frequently prescribed than medications influenced by other genes.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that opportunities for pharmacogenetic implementation among pediatric patients in the US are abundant. As expected, the greatest opportunity exists with implementing CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic guidance for commonly prescribed antiemetics, analgesics, and antidepressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.29411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737091PMC
December 2020

Thoughtful Clinical Use of Pharmacogenetics in Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 06 26;60(6):660-664. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

University of Cincinnati, Ohio. Electronic address:

AACAP's recent policy statement on Clinical Use of Pharmacogenetic Tests in Prescribing Psychotropic Medications for Children and Adolescents recommends that "clinicians avoid using pharmacogenetic testing to select psychotropic medications in children and adolescents." We agree that there are limitations to the nascent evidence base for using pharmacogenetics, especially in combinatorial form (eg, test results that bin medications based on multiple genes). However, all-or-nothing recommendations fail to recognize the nuance and context of this testing and contrast with the AACAP Facts for Families on pharmacogenetic testing. Moreover, pharmacogenetic testing may inform dosing for antidepressants that are commonly used in child and adolescent psychiatry (eg, sertraline, escitalopram, citalopram, fluvoxamine) as well as the tolerability of some psychotropic medications. With this in mind, we wish to remind the AACAP community of the accumulating evidence and to highlight important principles of pharmacogenetic testing in youths. Specifically: 1) pharmacogenetic testing is not always performed by commercial companies and is not always combinatorial; 2) dosing recommendations or assessment of risk for severe hypersensitivity reactions are based on pharmacogenetics in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved product inserts for several medications commonly prescribed to children (eg, citalopram, aripiprazole, atomoxetine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine at www.fda.gov/drugs/science-and-research-drugs/table-pharmacogenomic-biomarkers-drug-labeling); 3) expert consensus guidelines for dosing or identifying hypersensitivity risk for these drugs are available from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC, www.cpicpgx.org/), which provides transparent, regularly updated, and evidence-based evaluations of pharmacogenetic data; and 4) randomized trials are not required for clinical dose adjustments; for example, dose adjustments because of decreased hepatic function or concomitant interacting medications are based on pharmacokinetic data, similar to many pharmacokinetic gene-based recommendations from CPIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141104PMC
June 2021

Escitalopram in Adolescents With Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

J Clin Psychiatry 2020 08 25;81(5). Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used to treat pediatric anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, their efficacy and tolerability are difficult to predict. This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in adolescents with GAD (DSM-IV-TR) and the impact of variants in HTR2A and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) genes and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) phenotypes on response as well as CYP2C19 phenotype on escitalopram pharmacokinetics from February 2015 through November 2018.

Methods: Patients were treated with escitalopram (forced titration to 15 mg/d, then flexible titration to 20 mg/d) (n = 26, mean ± SD age: 14.8 ± 1.7 years) or placebo (n = 25, mean ± SD age: 14.9 ± 1.6 years) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were the change in scores on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scales as well as vital signs and adverse events. Plasma escitalopram and desmethylcitalopram area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0-24) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were determined and compared across CYP2C19 phenotypes.

Results: Escitalopram was superior to placebo for mean ± SD baseline-to-endpoint change in PARS (-8.65 ± 1.3 vs -3.52 ± 1.1, P = .005) and CGI scores, and increasing CYP2C19 metabolism was associated with decreases in escitalopram Cmax (P = .07) and AUC0-24 (P < .05). Vital signs, corrected QT interval, and adverse events were similar in patients who received escitalopram and placebo.

Conclusions: Escitalopram reduces anxiety symptoms, and pharmacogenetics variables influence the trajectory and magnitude of improvement. Variation in CYP2C19 metabolism accounts for significant differences in escitalopram pharmacokinetics, raising the possibility that CYP2C19 phenotype should be considered when prescribing escitalopram.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02818751.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.20m13396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504974PMC
August 2020

CYP2D6 Phenotype Influences Aripiprazole Tolerability in Pediatric Patients with Mood Disorders.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 02 25;31(1):56-62. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Division of Research in Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

To determine the effect of CYP2D6 metabolizer status on aripiprazole tolerability in pediatric patients with mood disorders. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical record data for 277 patients ≤18 years of age (at the time of CYP2D6 testing) with a mood disorder, receiving oral aripiprazole, and CYP2D6 genotyped as part of routine care. The maximum aripiprazole dose and concomitant medications were extracted from the medical record. The reason for aripiprazole discontinuation was determined to be from side effects (e.g., weight gain, akathisia, GI upset), nonresponse, or other reasons (e.g., financial). Associations with CYP2D6 were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models and chi-square tests. Of the 277 patients (mean age: 14.3 ± 2.4), 57% were normal metabolizers (NMs), 37% were intermediate metabolizers (IMs), 5% were poor metabolizers (PMs), and 1.4% were ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs). A total of 72.2% of the cohort were concomitantly taking a CYP2D6 inhibitor, resulting in phenoconversion. Accounting for phenoconversion resulted in 27% phenoconverted NMs (pNMs), 24% phenoconverted IMs (pIMs), 48% phenoconverted PMs (pPMs), and <1% phenoconverted ultrarapid metabolizers. CYP2D6 pPMs discontinued treatment due to side effects more often than any other CYP2D6 group (67% for pPM, 51% pIM, 57% pNM, chi-square  = 0.024). Body mass index percentile change was associated with the CYP2D6 phenotype ( = 0.038), the time on aripiprazole ( = 0.001), and the number of concomitant CYP2D6 substrates ( = 0.044) in multivariable models. Phenoconverted CYP2D6 metabolizer status is associated with aripiprazole discontinuation. In addition, dose adjustments based on CYP2D6 metabolizer status and concomitant medications could improve aripiprazole treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2020.0058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255312PMC
February 2021

MTXPK.org: A Clinical Decision Support Tool Evaluating High-Dose Methotrexate Pharmacokinetics to Inform Post-Infusion Care and Use of Glucarpidase.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 09 18;108(3):635-643. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Research in Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Methotrexate (MTX), an antifolate, is administered at high doses to treat malignancies in children and adults. However, there is considerable interpatient variability in clearance of high-dose (HD) MTX. Patients with delayed clearance are at an increased risk for severe nephrotoxicity and life-threatening systemic MTX exposure. Glucarpidase is a rescue agent for severe MTX toxicity that reduces plasma MTX levels via hydrolysis of MTX into inactive metabolites, but is only indicated when MTX concentrations are > 2 SDs above the mean excretion curve specific for the given dose together with a significant creatinine increase (> 50%). Appropriate administration of glucarpidase is challenging due to the ambiguity in the labeled indication. A recent consensus guideline was published with an algorithm to provide clarity in when to administer glucarpidase, yet clinical interpretation of laboratory results that do not directly correspond to the algorithm prove to be a limitation of its use. The goal of our study was to develop a clinical decision support tool to optimize the administration of glucarpidase for patients receiving HD MTX. Here, we describe the development of a novel 3-compartment MTX population pharmacokinetic (PK) model using 31,672 MTX plasma concentrations from 772 pediatric patients receiving HD MTX for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its integration into the online clinical decision support tool, MTXPK.org. This web-based tool has the functionality to utilize individualized demographics, serum creatinine, and real-time drug concentrations to predict the elimination profile and facilitate model-informed administration of glucarpidase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484917PMC
September 2020

Clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics and model-informed precision dosing to improve patient care.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Providing maximal therapeutic efficacy without toxicity is a universal goal of rational drug therapy. However, substantial between-patient variability in drug response often impedes such successful treatments and brings the necessity of tailoring drug dose to individual needs for more precise therapy. In many cases plenty of patient characteristics, such as body size, genetic makeup and environmental factors, need to be taken into consideration to find the optimal dose in clinical practice. A pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model-informed approach offers integration of various patient information to provide an expectation of drug response and derive practical dose estimates to support clinicians' dosing decisions. Such an approach was pioneered in the late 1970s, but its broad clinical acceptance and implementation have been hampered by the lack of widespread computer technology, including user-friendly software tools. This has significantly changed in recent years. With the advent of electronic health records (EHRs) and the ubiquity of user-friendly software tools, we now experience a convergence of clinical information, pharmacogenetics, systems pharmacology and pharmacometrics, and technology. Advanced pharmacometrics research is now more appliable and implementable to improve health care. This article presents examples of successful development and implementation of pharmacogenetics-guided and PK/PD model-informed decision support to facilitate precision dosing, including the development of an EHR-embedded decision support tool. Through the integration of clinical decision support tools in EHRs, clinical pharmacometrics support can be brought directly to the clinical team and the bedside.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14426DOI Listing
June 2020

Novel pharmacological treatments for generalized anxiety disorder: Pediatric considerations.

Depress Anxiety 2020 08 17;37(8):747-759. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Pediatric anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are common, impairing, and often undertreated. Moreover, many youth do not respond to standard, evidence-based psychosocial or psychopharmacologic treatment. An increased understanding of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurotransmitter systems has created opportunities for novel intervention development for pediatric GAD.

Methods: This narrative review examines potential candidates for pediatric GAD: eszopiclone, riluzole, eglumegad (LY354740), pimavanserin, agomelatine.

Results: The pharmacology, preclinical data, clinical trial findings and known side effects of eszopiclone, riluzole, eglumegad (LY354740), pimavanserin, agomelatine, are reviewed, particularly with regard to their potential therapeutic relevance to pediatric GAD.

Conclusion: Notwithstanding numerous challenges, some of these agents represent potential candidate drugs for pediatric GAD. Further treatment development studies of agomelatine, eszopiclone, pimavanserin and riluzole for pediatric GAD also have the prospect of informing the understanding of GABAergic and glutamatergic function across development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584375PMC
August 2020

The Influence of Pharmacodynamic Genes on Fluoxetine Response in Pediatric Anxiety and Depressive Disorders.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2020 05 19;30(4):276-277. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Divisions of Research in Patient Services and Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2019.0180DOI Listing
May 2020

Cariprazine in Youth with Bipolar and Psychotic Disorders: A Retrospective Chart Review.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2020 05 11;30(4):267-272. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Divisions of Research in Patient Services and Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

To examine the potential effectiveness and tolerability of cariprazine in pediatric bipolar and psychotic disorders. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic health records of patients <21 years of age prescribed cariprazine to treat bipolar and psychotic disorders. Adverse effects, tolerability, therapeutic response (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement [CGI-I]), and severity of illness (Clinical Global Impression-Severity [CGI-S]) were determined through manual chart review. We identified 16 patients aged 6-20 years who were treated with cariprazine (initial dose: 1.5 mg/day, interquartile range [IQR], 1.5-1.5; endpoint dose: 3 mg/day, IQR, 1.5-4.5). No serious adverse events were reported, but the most commonly reported side effect was weight gain ( = 3, 19%). Of the 14 patients for whom baseline and endpoint body mass index (BMI) data were available, neither changes in BMI ( = 0.391; 0.54 kg/m, IQR, -0.33 to 1.38) nor BMI percentile ( = 0.71; 0.36%, IQR, -0.49 to 3.97) significantly differed between baseline and endpoint. However, patients receiving ≥4.5 mg/day had a significantly greater BMI increases during the course of treatment compared with those receiving ≤3 mg/day ( = 0.034; -1.14 kg/m, IQR, -3.65 to 0.53 vs. 1.01 kg/m, IQR, 0.17-4.88). CGI-S scores ( = 0.016; 4.5, IQR, 4-5 vs. 4, IQR, 3-4) significantly differed from baseline to endpoint. The response rate was 44% ( = 7/16), with responders being prescribed higher doses ( = 0.005; 6 mg/day, IQR, 4.875-6 vs. 3 mg/day, IQR, 3-4.125). Cariprazine may be well tolerated and effective for pediatric bipolar and psychotic disorders; however, compared with higher doses, total daily doses ≤3 mg/day appear to be more tolerable. Prospective controlled studies to further evaluate cariprazine in youth are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2019.0106DOI Listing
May 2020

Association of *14 Allele with Poor Response to Methotrexate in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patients.

ACR Open Rheumatol 2019 Mar 15;1(1):58-62. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pediatrics University of Cincinnati Cincinnati Ohio.

Objective: Variants in the gene, encoding a hepatic methotrexate (MTX) transporter, affect clearance of high-dose MTX. We tested whether in the *14 and *15 alleles of influenced the response to low-dose MTX in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients.

Methods: The study included 310 JIA patients genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in (rs4149056, rs2306283, and rs11045819). A patient's diplotype was determined by combining the SNPs into the , , , , , and alleles. Number of active joints at follow-up (visit closest to 6 months of treatment and prior to starting a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor) was used as the dependent variable in a negative binomial regression model that included active joint count at baseline as a covariate.

Results: The * allele was associated with less response to MTX = 0.024) and the allele was not associated with response to MTX = 0.392).

Conclusion: alleles may be associated with poor response to MTX in JIA patients. The allele has been associated with fast clearance (low exposure) after high-dose MTX in patients with leukemia. Thus, the gene may be informative for precision dosing of MTX in JIA patients. Patients carrying the allele may require a higher dose than noncarriers to achieve a similar response to MTX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr2.1008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858017PMC
March 2019

Asparaginase formulation impacts hypertriglyceridemia during therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 01 14;67(1):e28040. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Glucocorticoids and asparaginase, used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), can cause hypertriglyceridemia. We compared triglyceride levels, risk factors, and associated toxicities in two ALL trials at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital with identical glucocorticoid regimens, but different asparaginase formulations. In Total XV (TXV), native Escherichia coli l-asparaginase was front-line therapy versus the pegylated formulation (PEG-asparaginase) in Total XVI (TXVI).

Procedure: Patients enrolled on TXV (n = 498) and TXVI (n = 598) were assigned to low-risk (LR) or standard/high-risk (SHR) treatment arms (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00137111 and NCT00549848). Triglycerides were measured four times and were evaluable in 925 patients (TXV: n = 362; TXVI: n = 563). The genetic contribution was assessed using a triglyceride polygenic risk score (triglyceride-PRS). Osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and pancreatitis were prospectively graded.

Results: The largest increase in triglycerides occurred in TXVI SHR patients treated with dexamethasone and PEG-asparaginase (4.5-fold increase; P <1 × 10 ). SHR patients treated with PEG-asparaginase (TXVI) had more severe hypertriglyceridemia (>1000 mg/dL) compared to native l-asparaginase (TXV): 10.5% versus 5.5%, respectively (P = .007). At week 7, triglycerides did not increase with dexamethasone treatment alone (LR patients) but did increase with dexamethasone plus asparaginase (SHR patients). The variability in triglycerides explained by the triglyceride-PRS was highest at baseline and declined with therapy. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with osteonecrosis (P = .0006) and thrombosis (P = .005), but not pancreatitis (P = .4).

Conclusion: Triglycerides were affected more by PEG-asparaginase than native l-asparaginase, by asparaginase more than dexamethasone, and by drug effects more than genetics. It is not clear whether triglycerides contribute to thrombosis and osteonecrosis or are biomarkers of the toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868303PMC
January 2020
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