Publications by authors named "Laura B Presnell"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of ICU Delirium in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 Jan;22(1):68-78

University of California San Francisco, School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ICU delirium in children less than 18 years old that underwent cardiac surgery within the last 30 days. The secondary aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with ICU delirium in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgical patients.

Design: A 1-day, multicenter point-prevalence study of delirium in pediatric postoperative cardiac surgery patients.

Setting: Twenty-seven pediatric cardiac and general critical care units caring for postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients in North America.

Patients: All children less than 18 years old hospitalized in the cardiac critical care units at 06:00 on a randomly selected, study day.

Interventions: Eligible children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the study team in collaboration with the bedside nurse.

Measurement And Main Results: Overall, 181 patients were enrolled and 40% (n = 73) screened positive for delirium. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographic information, severity of defect or surgical procedure, past medical history, or postoperative day between patients screening positive or negative for delirium. Our bivariate analysis found those patients screening positive had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.8 vs 5.1 d; p = 0.02); required more vasoactive support (55% vs 26%; p = 0.0009); and had a higher number of invasive catheters (4 vs 3 catheters; p = 0.001). Delirium-positive patients received more total opioid exposure (1.80 vs 0.36 mg/kg/d of morphine equivalents; p < 0.001), did not have an ambulation or physical therapy schedule (p = 0.02), had not been out of bed in the previous 24 hours (p < 0.0002), and parents were not at the bedside at time of data collection (p = 0.008). In the mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of modifiable risk factors, the following variables were associated with a positive delirium screen: 1) pain score, per point increase (odds ratio, 1.3; 1.06-1.60); 2) total opioid exposure, per mg/kg/d increase (odds ratio, 1.35; 1.06-1.73); 3) SBS less than 0 (odds ratio, 4.01; 1.21-13.27); 4) pain medication or sedative administered in the previous 4 hours (odds ratio, 3.49; 1.32-9.28); 5) no progressive physical therapy or ambulation schedule in their medical record (odds ratio, 4.40; 1.41-13.68); and 6) parents not at bedside at time of data collection (odds ratio, 2.31; 1.01-5.31).

Conclusions: We found delirium to be a common problem after cardiac surgery with several important modifiable risk factors.
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January 2021

An Overview of Pulmonary Atresia and Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2015 Oct;6(4):630-9

Research in Patient Services and Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/VSD/MAPCAs) is a rare and complex congenital cardiac lesion that has historically carried a poor prognosis. With advancements in surgical management, we have seen an improvement in the outcomes for children affected by this disease. However, this population continues to present challenges due to the complex anatomy and physiology associated with PA/VSD/MAPCA. This summary of material presented during one of the nursing sessions of the 2014 Meeting of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society provides an overview for those in cardiac intensive care units who do not have a large experience with this lesion. We will review the anatomy, physiology, surgical approach, postoperative management strategies, and cardiac catheter intervention options for PA/VSD/MAPCAs. We will also discuss recent innovations that may lead to continued improvement in outcomes for this challenging patient population.
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October 2015

Higher pulmonary dead space may predict prolonged mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2009 May;44(5):457-63

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Children's Hospital, San Francisco, California 94143-0632, USA.

Children undergoing congenital heart surgery are at risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. We investigated the prognostic value of pulmonary dead space fraction as a non-invasive, physiologic marker in this population. In a prospective, cross-sectional study, we measured pulmonary dead space fraction in 52 intubated, pediatric patients within 24 hr postoperative from congenital heart surgery. Measurements were obtained with a bedside, non-invasive cardiac output (NICO) monitor (Respironics Novametrix, Inc., Wallingford, CT). Median pulmonary dead space fraction was 0.46 (25-75% IQR 0.34-0.55). Pulmonary dead space fraction significantly correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay in the entire cohort (r(s) = 0.51, P = 0.0002; r(s) = 0.51, P = 0.0002) and in the subset of patients without residual intracardiac shunting (r(s) = 0.45, P = 0.008; r(s) = 0.49, P = 0.004). In a multivariable logistic regression model, pulmonary dead space fraction remained an independent predictor for prolonged mechanical ventilation in the presence of cardiopulmonary bypass time and ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.14-4.38; P = 0.02). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for this model was 0.91. Elevated pulmonary dead space fraction is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital stay in pediatric patients who undergo surgery for congenital heart disease and has additive predictive value in identifying those at risk for longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary dead space may be a useful prognostic tool for clinicians in patients who undergo congenital heart surgery.
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May 2009