Publications by authors named "Larissa Souza"

57 Publications

Dual phase statistical optimization of biological pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse with Pycnoporus coccineus MScMS1 for polyhydroxyalkanoates production.

J Environ Manage 2022 Jan 19;302(Pt A):113948. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Microbiology, School of Sciences, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), #34, 1st Cross, J.C. Road, Bangalore, 560027, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Biological pre-treatment is the removal of recalcitrant lignin from lignocellulose through the action of lignin degrading organisms and/or their ligninolytic enzymes system. Despite numerous environmental benefits, biological pre-treatment has been side-lined due to its prolonged periods of fermentation, ascribed to the slow growth rate of lignin degrading organisms. Thus, the present work adopted a dual phase statistical optimization approach for the biological pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse, with Pycnoporus coccineus MScMS1, using Taguchi Orthogonal Array, in conjunction with Response Surface Methodology, to address this issue. Amplification of the organism's functioning resulted in an enhancement of sugar productivity and yield accompanied by a significant reduction in fermentation time. Optimized sugar concentration was approx. 18 g/L within 4 days of pre-treatment, with productivity of 4.5 g/(L.day). Substrate compositional analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction of lignin by 70% in the biologically pre-treated substrate, along with significantly (p < 0.05) higher quantities of water soluble components (35 ± 0.95 g) and cellulose content (33 ± 0.18 g), as compared to the untreated substrate. Appreciable levels of xylose, arabinose, glucose and galactose were detected in hydrolysates from biologically pre-treated bagasse. Furthermore, Bacillus megaterium Ti3, a potent polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producer, was grown on these sugar-rich hydrolysates and generated 0.58 g/L PHA in 24 h of fermentation accompanied by 0.88 g/L dry cell weight and 65% PHA accumulation. These results were comparable with those from a glucose medium. Thus, the present study was successful in optimizing the biological pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse and utilizing the resultant sugar-rich hydrolysates, as inexpensive and renewable raw materials, for PHA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113948DOI Listing
January 2022

Acute oral toxicity, antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of kava dried extracts and synthetic kavain.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Sep 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

G. Forst, popularly known as kava, is a traditional medicinal plant widely used for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. The aim of this study was to investigate new therapeutic applications of this plant. Nociceptive response induced by heat (hot-plate) was used as pain model. Susceptibility of different strains to kava ethanolic dried extracts was evaluated by broth microdilution method. Acute oral toxicity was performed according to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline. Administration of kava dried extracts and kavain inhibited the nociceptive response in the hot-plate model and did not affect the time mice spent in the rota-rod apparatus. The samples showed no significant antibacterial activity, however slight antifungal activity was verified. The extracts may be considered of low oral acute toxicity. Kava extracts exhibited promising antinociceptive activity in model of nociceptive pain, which should be deeper explored as a new therapeutic application of kava.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1973459DOI Listing
September 2021

Intersectoral actions in decreasing social inequities faced by children and adolescents.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2021 28;29:e3427. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Objective: to identify the evidence about the repercussion of intersectoral programs / actions / strategies in the reduction of social inequities experienced by children and adolescents in social vulnerability.

Method: integrative review performed in the following databases: National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Web of Science, Scopus, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Primary studies published between 2005 and 2019, written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, were included. The Rayyan tool was used during selection. The sample was composed of 27 studies, and Ursi was used to extract data. The studies' methodological quality was verified with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool, and descriptive statistics were used.

Results: the main results show that intersectoral actions resulted in improved access to health, improved child nutrition indicators, better mental health care, the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, and improved quality of life.

Conclusion: significant advancements found in the development and lives of children and adolescents are assigned to intersectoral actions. The studies report that different strategies were used in different regions worldwide and contributed to improved children's and adolescents' quality of life, supporting new intersectoral policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.4162.3427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253342PMC
July 2021

Wilhelm Heinrich Erb (1840-1921): recognizing his impact on Kraepelin's work after 100 years.

Braz J Psychiatry 2021 Jul-Aug;43(4):451-452

Laboratório de História da Psiquiatria, Neurologia e Saúde Mental, Instituto de Psiquiatria, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2021-1880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352733PMC
March 2021

Cognitive and behavioral factors associated to probable sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults.

Exp Aging Res 2021 Jun 25:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Physiological Sciences and Teacher at Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Department of Health Science, Campus Jardim Das Avenidas, Araranguá, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

: Sarcopenia has a high prevalence in older adults and is associated with chronic aggravations to health, so therefore it is important to identify older adults who are affected by sarcopenia in order to establish preventative strategies or early interventions. To estimate the prevalence of probable sarcopenia and verify its association with cognitive impairment, fear of falling, depressive symptoms and health self-perception in community-dwelling older adults.: A cross-sectional study with simple random sampling including 306 older adults of both genders. The outcome variable was probable sarcopenia evaluated by the Five times sit-to-stand test (5XSST) considering probable sarcopenia when the measured time was > 15 seconds, following the recommendation of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The predictor variables were cognitive impairment, fear of falling, depressive symptoms and self-perception of health. Multivariate Logistic Regression was performed to verify associations between the variables.: The prevalence of probable sarcopenia was 50.00%. The older adults had significantly higher chances of presenting probable sarcopenia when displaying cognitive impairment (OR 2.49; 95%CI 1.46-4.24), fear of falls (OR 4.23; 95%CI 2.51-7.12), depressive symptoms (OR 2.20; 95%CI 1.32-3.67), poor (OR 2.48; 95%CI 1.19-5.16) and fair self-perception of health (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.22-3.63) when compared to those who did not have the same conditions.: The prevalence of probable sarcopenia in this study was 50.00%, and was associated with the presence of depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment, fear of falls and negative self-perception of health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0361073X.2021.1939564DOI Listing
June 2021

Watermelon Reduces the Toxicity of Cisplatin Treatment in C57BL/6 Mice with Induced Melanoma.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Jun 4:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Universidade de Franca, Franca, São Paulo, Brazil.

An alternative to reduce the undesirable effects of antineoplastic agents has been the combination of classical treatments with nutritional strategies aimed at reducing systemic toxicity without decreasing the antitumor activity of already used drugs. Within this context, this study evaluated the possible reduction of toxicity when cisplatin treatment is combined with watermelon pulp juice supplementation in C57BL/6 mice with melanoma. Watermelon is a fruit rich in vitamins, minerals, proteins, lycopene, carotene, and xanthophylls, which has shown effectiveness in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, weight loss, urinary infections, gout, hypertension, and mutagenicity. The following parameters were analyzed: animal survival, bone marrow genotoxicity, serum creatinine and urea, histopathological features of the tumor tissue, tumor weight and volume, and weight of non-tumor tissues (kidney, liver, spleen, heart, and lung). The results showed that watermelon had no antitumor effect but reduced the toxicity of cisplatin, as demonstrated by an increase in the number of bone marrow cells and a decrease in serum creatinine and urea levels. The data suggest that watermelon pulp juice can be an alternative for reducing the side effects of antineoplastic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1918731DOI Listing
June 2021

Antimycobacterial activity of (Asteraceae) aqueous extract from Southern Brazil.

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 27:1-5. Epub 2021 May 27.

Laboratory of Oral Microbiology Research (LAPEMICRO), Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

aqueous extract was obtained by macerating wildflowers. The phytochemical profile present in the aqueous extract was elucidated by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Toxicity was evaluated by comet assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and using as a model. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated, and antimycobacterial activity was assessed by the broth microdilution method. The compounds present in the aqueous extract mainly belonged to the flavonoid class (89%). The concentrations that showed protective effects in against oxidative stress and antimycobacterial activity had no toxic effects. The antimycobacterial activity test demonstrated that the concentration of 1,560 µg mL inhibited the growth and eradication of the mycobacterial tested strains. Based on our findings, the aqueous extract presents a viable potential in developing new phytotherapeutic drugs against mycobacteria of clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1931183DOI Listing
May 2021

C-PK11195 plasma metabolization has the same rate in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Dec;16(12):2494-2498

Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine (LIM43), Department of Radiology and Oncology; Department of Neurology, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

C-PK11195 is a positron emitter tracer used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of innate immune cell activation in studies of neuroinflammatory diseases. For the image quantitative analysis, it is necessary to quantify the intact fraction of this tracer in the arterial plasma during imaging acquisition (plasma intact fraction). Due to the complexity and costs involved in this analysis it is important to evaluate the real necessity of individual analysis in each C-PK11195 PET imaging acquisition. The purpose of this study is to compare C-PK11195 plasma metabolization rate between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and evaluate the interference of sex, age, treatment, and disease phenotype in the tracer intact fraction measured in arterial plasma samples. C-PK11195 metabolization rate in arterial plasma was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography in samples from MS patients (n = 50) and healthy controls (n = 23) at 20, 45, and 60 minutes after C-PK11195 injection. Analyses were also stratified by sex, age, treatment type, and MS phenotype. The results showed no significant differences in the metabolization rate of healthy controls and MS patients, or in the stratified samples. In conclusion, C-PK11195 metabolization has the same rate in patients with MS and healthy controls, which is not affected by sex, age, treatment, and disease phenotype. Thus, these findings could contribute to exempting the necessity for tracer metabolization determination in all C-PK11195 PET imaging acquisition, by using a population metabolization rate average. The study procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee for Research Projects Analysis of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School (approval No. 624.065) on April 23, 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.313062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374550PMC
December 2021

Evolutionary Dynamics and Dissemination Pattern of the SARS-CoV-2 Lineage B.1.1.33 During the Early Pandemic Phase in Brazil.

Front Microbiol 2020 17;11:615280. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Respiratory Viruses and Measles, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), SARS-CoV-2 National Reference Laboratory for the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) and Regional Reference Laboratory in Americas for the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

A previous study demonstrates that most of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Brazilian strains fell in three local clades that were introduced from Europe around late February 2020. Here we investigated in more detail the origin of the major and most widely disseminated SARS-CoV-2 Brazilian lineage B.1.1.33. We recovered 190 whole viral genomes collected from 13 Brazilian states from February 29 to April 31, 2020 and combined them with other B.1.1 genomes collected globally. Our genomic survey confirms that lineage B.1.1.33 is responsible for a variable fraction of the community viral transmissions in Brazilian states, ranging from 2% of all SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Pernambuco to 80% of those from Rio de Janeiro. We detected a moderate prevalence (5-18%) of lineage B.1.1.33 in some South American countries and a very low prevalence (<1%) in North America, Europe, and Oceania. Our study reveals that lineage B.1.1.33 evolved from an ancestral clade, here designated B.1.1.33-like, that carries one of the two B.1.1.33 synapomorphic mutations. The B.1.1.33-like lineage may have been introduced from Europe or arose in Brazil in early February 2020 and a few weeks later gave origin to the lineage B.1.1.33. These SARS-CoV-2 lineages probably circulated during February 2020 and reached all Brazilian regions and multiple countries around the world by mid-March, before the implementation of air travel restrictions in Brazil. Our phylodynamic analysis also indicates that public health interventions were partially effective to control the expansion of lineage B.1.1.33 in Rio de Janeiro because its median effective reproductive number ( ) was drastically reduced by about 66% during March 2020, but failed to bring it to below one. Continuous genomic surveillance of lineage B.1.1.33 might provide valuable information about epidemic dynamics and the effectiveness of public health interventions in some Brazilian states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.615280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925893PMC
February 2021

DNA damage, salivary cortisol levels, and cognitive parameters in a nursing team.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2021 Jan-Feb;861-862:503300. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Departamento de Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

In a cross-sectional study of women in a nursing team at a university hospital in southern Brazil, we studied DNA damage, salivary cortisol levels, and cognition. DNA damage was measured in blood leukocytes with the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Salivary cortisol levels were determined upon waking, 30 min later, and at bedtime. Cognition was evaluated according to the Stroop, Digit span and Word span tests. Cortisol levels on waking up were associated negatively with the number of years the employee worked at the institution and positively with the DNA damage in comet assay. Cognitive scores were lower when the cortisol levels were low at awakening and high at bedtime; and were associated positively with educational level. Cortisol status may influence overall health as well as essential work skills, such as attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2020.503300DOI Listing
March 2021

Prophylactic anticoagulants for people hospitalised with COVID-19.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 10 2;10:CD013739. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary manifestation is respiratory insufficiency that can also be related to diffuse pulmonary microthrombosis in people with COVID-19. This disease also causes thromboembolic events, such as pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, catheter thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Recent studies have indicated a worse prognosis for people with COVID-19 who developed thromboembolism. Anticoagulants are medications used in the prevention and treatment of venous or arterial thromboembolic events. Several drugs are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events, such as heparinoids (heparins or pentasaccharides), vitamin K antagonists and direct anticoagulants. Besides their anticoagulant properties, heparinoids have an additional anti-inflammatory potential, that may affect the clinical evolution of people with COVID-19. Some practical guidelines address the use of anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis in people with COVID-19, however, the benefit of anticoagulants for people with COVID-19 is still under debate.

Objectives: To assess the effects of prophylactic anticoagulants versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention, on mortality and the need for respiratory support in people hospitalised with COVID-19.

Search Methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and IBECS databases, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and medRxiv preprint database from their inception to 20 June 2020. We also checked reference lists of any relevant systematic reviews identified and contacted specialists in the field for additional references to trials.

Selection Criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cluster-RCTs and cohort studies that compared prophylactic anticoagulants (heparin, vitamin K antagonists, direct anticoagulants, and pentasaccharides) versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention for the management of people hospitalised with COVID-19. We excluded studies without a comparator group. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and need for additional respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were mortality related to COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, adverse events, length of hospital stay and quality of life.

Data Collection And Analysis: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We used ROBINS-I to assess risk of bias for non-randomised studies (NRS) and GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. We reported results narratively.

Main Results: We identified no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that met the inclusion criteria. We included seven retrospective NRS (5929 participants), three of which were available as preprints. Studies were conducted in China, Italy, Spain and the USA. All of the studies included people hospitalised with COVID-19, in either intensive care units, hospital wards or emergency departments. The mean age of participants (reported in 6 studies) ranged from 59 to 72 years. Only three included studies reported the follow-up period, which varied from 8 to 35 days. The studies did not report on most of our outcomes of interest: need for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, DVT, pulmonary embolism, adverse events, and quality of life. Anticoagulants (all types) versus no treatment (6 retrospective NRS, 5685 participants) One study reported a reduction in all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26 to 0.66; 2075 participants). One study reported a reduction in mortality only in a subgroup of 395 people who required mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.89). Three studies reported no differences in mortality (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.92; 449 participants; unadjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 0.76 to 3.64; 154 participants and adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.57; 192 participants). One study reported zero events in both intervention groups (42 participants). The overall risk of bias for all-cause mortality was critical and the certainty of the evidence was very low. One NRS reported bleeding events in 3% of the intervention group and 1.9% of the control group (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.71; 2773 participants; low-certainty evidence). Therapeutic-dose anticoagulants versus prophylactic-dose anticoagulants (1 retrospective NRS, 244 participants) The study reported a reduction in all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.46) and a lower absolute rate of death in the therapeutic group (34.2% versus 53%). The overall risk of bias for all-cause mortality was serious and the certainty of the evidence was low. The study also reported bleeding events in 31.7% of the intervention group and 20.5% of the control group (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.96 to 3.37; low-certainty evidence). Ongoing studies We found 22 ongoing studies in hospital settings (20 RCTs, 14,730 participants; 2 NRS, 997 participants) in 10 different countries (Australia (1), Brazil (1), Canada (2), China (3), France (2), Germany (1), Italy (4), Switzerland (1), UK (1) and USA (6)). Twelve ongoing studies plan to report mortality and six plan to report additional respiratory support. Thirteen studies are expected to be completed in December 2020 (6959 participants), eight in July 2021 (8512 participants), and one in December 2021 (256 participants). Four of the studies plan to include 1000 participants or more.

Authors' Conclusions: There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the risks and benefits of prophylactic anticoagulants for people hospitalised with COVID-19. Since there are 22 ongoing studies that plan to evaluate more than 15,000 participants in this setting, we will add more robust evidence to this review in future updates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166900PMC
October 2020

Influence of Asiatic acid on cell proliferation and DNA damage in vitro and in vivo systems.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Apr 23;35(4):e22712. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Laboratório de Mutagênese, Universidade de Franca, Franca, São Paulo, Brazil.

Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpene with promising pharmacological activity. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to understand the effect of AA on cell proliferation and genomic instability. AA was cytotoxic to human tumor cell lines (M059J, HeLa, and MCF-7), with IC values ranging from 13.91 to 111.72 µM. In the case of M059J, AA exhibited selective cytotoxicity after 48 h of treatment (IC  = 24 µM), decreasing the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, increasing the percentage of cells in the S phase, and inducing apoptosis. A significant increase in chromosomal damage was observed in V79 cell cultures treated with AA (40 µM), revealing genotoxic activity. In contrast, low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 µM) of AA significantly reduced the frequencies of micronuclei induced by the mutagens doxorubicin (DXR), methyl methanesulfonate, and hydrogen peroxide. A reduction of DXR-induced intracellular free radicals was found in V79 cells treated with AA (10 µM). The antigenotoxic effect of AA (30 mg/kg) was also observed against DXR-induced chromosomal damage in Swiss mice. Significant reductions in p53 levels were verified in the liver tissue of these animals. Taken together, the data indicate that AA exerted antiproliferative activity in M059J tumor cells, which is probably related to the induction of DNA damage, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, low concentrations of AA exhibited antigenotoxic effects and its antioxidant activity may be responsible, at least in part, for chemoprevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22712DOI Listing
April 2021

Curcumin/d-mannitol as photolarvicide: induced delay in larval development time, changes in sex ratio and reduced longevity of Aedes aegypti.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 21;77(5):2530-2538. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.

Background: Resistant populations of Ae. aegypti have been a major problem in arboviruses epidemic areas, generating a strong demand for novel methods of vector control. In this regard, our group has demonstrated the use of curcumin as an efficient photoactive larvicide to eliminate Ae. aegypti larvae. This work was aimed to evaluate the Ae. aegypti (Rockefeller) development under sublethal conditions, using a curcumin/d-mannitol (DMC) formulation. The photolarvicidal efficacy under semi-field and field conditions (wild populations) was also analyzed, as well as the photobleaching and residual activity of DMC.

Results: A delay in development time when larvae were exposed to sublethal concentrations of DMC was observed, followed by significant changes in sex ratio and reduction in longevity. DMC also presented a low residual activity when compared to usual larvicides, and had a substantial photolarvicidal activity against wild populations in field trials, achieving 71.3% mortality after 48 h.

Conclusions: Overall, these findings are of great biological importance for the process of enabling the implementation of DMC as a new product in the control of Ae. aegypti larvae, and contributes to the improvement of new plant-based larvicides. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6286DOI Listing
May 2021

Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in aqueous systems through the association of zero-valent-copper-mediated reduction and UVC/HO: effect of water matrix and toxicity assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 9;28(19):24057-24066. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

The presence of toxic chlorinated compounds in drinking water, generated during the disinfection step in water treatment plants, is of great concern for public health. In the present study, the performance of the UVC/HO process, preceded by zero-valent-copper reduction, was evaluated for degrading 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP). With this aim, the oxidation performed alone or in combination with the pre-reductive step was evaluated regarding TCP concentration over time, removal rate, mineralization, and toxicity to Vibrio fischeri, as well as oxidant dosage and the effect of water matrix. The UV/HO process achieved fast (k = 1.4 min) and complete TCP degradation, as well as important mineralization (40.4%), with best results obtained for initial HO concentration of 0.056 mmol L. Coupling of reductive and oxidative processes intensified contaminant mineralization, due to the synergistic effect of copper ions leached in the reductive process, particularly Cu(I), providing an additional route of HO activation for generating HO radicals (photo-Fenton-like process). High toxicity removals and increased mineralization could be successfully accomplished by the combined processes even in tap water, which is a clear advantage for practical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11885-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Hypericin, a medicinal compound from St. John's Wort, inhibits genotoxicity induced by mutagenic agents in V79 cells.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Oct 13:1-6. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Universidade de Franca, Franca, Brazil.

This study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and the modulatory effects on DNA damage of hypericin in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells). The hypericin is a natural polycyclic quinone, mainly extracted from St. John's Wort ( L.). Along with hyperforin, the hypericins are responsible for the antidepressant activity of St. John's Wort. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the XTT colorimetric assay and the nuclear division index (NDI). The genotoxic activity was studied by the micronucleus test at concentrations of 30, 60, 120, and 240 μg/mL. Mutagenic agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, 44 μg/mL), doxorubicin (DXR, 0.5 μg/mL), and etoposide (VP16, 1 μg/mL) were used in combination with different concentrations of hypericin in order to evaluate the modulatory effect on DNA damage. Results showed that the hypericin was cytotoxic at concentrations above 156.2 μg/mL and genotoxic above 120 μg/mL. The hypericin significantly reduced DNA damage frequency induced by DXR, at concentrations of 30 and 60 μg/mL, and MMS at a concentration of 30 μg/mL, but was unable to reduce damage when combined with VP-16. These results demonstrate the non-photoactivated hypericin toxicological safety limits, its protective effect on DNA damage and provide a basis for future studies that may characterize better its chemopreventive mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2020.1822389DOI Listing
October 2020

Social iniquities in Primary Healthcare and intersectoral action: a descriptive study.

Rev Bras Enferm 2020 10;73(6):e20190196. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Universidade de São Paulo. Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To analyze Primary Healthcare with regards to dealing with social inequities through actions targeted at Social Determinants of Health, from the perspective of Family Health Strategy Professionals.

Methods: Descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data were collected through focus groups and analyzed using Habermas's communicative action theory.

Results: There were few intersectoral and assistance organization actions with clinical emphasis; municipal management for intersectoral actions shows a lack of planning and faces challenges; and there is little communication and articulation between the sectors. Final considerations: There are many challenges to be overcome by Primary Health Care to contemplate intersectoral actions targeted at Social Health Determinants, a demand inherent to the possibilities of advancing in the reduction of social and health-related inequalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2019-0196DOI Listing
June 2021

LOPH: a novel chemotherapeutic protocol for feline high-grade multicentric or mediastinal lymphoma, developed in an area endemic for feline leukemia virus.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 02 20;23(2):86-97. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the safety and efficacy of a novel multidrug lomustine-based chemotherapeutic protocol for cats with high-grade multicentric or mediastinal lymphoma, in an area endemic for feline leukemia virus (FeLV).

Methods: This prospective study included owned cats, diagnosed (cytologically) with multicentric or mediastinal lymphoma and treated with the LOPH (lomustine, vincristine [Oncovin; Antibióticos do Brasil], prednisolone and hydroxydaunorubicin [doxorubicin]) protocol. A complete blood count was performed before every chemotherapy session and any significant abnormalities recorded as possible related toxicities. Median survival time (MST) and disease-free interval were estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: Twenty-one cats were included in this study. Nineteen (90.5%) tested positive for FeLV and were therefore considered to have persistent viremia. Complete response was reported in 81% (n = 17/21), while three had partial remission and one had no response. Seven cats finished the induction protocol within 20-31 weeks (23.1 ± 4.5; median 20) and all seven received a maintenance protocol. The MST (lymphoma-related survival) for the 21 cats was 214 days. The MST was 214 days for cats with mediastinal lymphoma (n = 13), but it was not reached for multicentric lymphoma (n = 8;  = 0.9). The MST of cats with persistent FeLV antigenemia was 171 days. Grade I anorexia and vomiting occurred in 19% of the cats (n = 4/21). Hematologic toxicity was found in 100% of the cats at some point during their treatment, but it was mostly grade I or II. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia occurred in 16/21, 21/21 and 15/21 cats, respectively.

Conclusions And Relevance: The LOPH protocol was well tolerated by cats with lymphoma and persistent FeLV viremia, and resulted in a better MST than similar studies with other protocols. Novel studies and controlled trials are necessary in order to evaluate the efficacy of different protocols according to the lymphoma subtype, anatomic form and FeLV status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X20926893DOI Listing
February 2021

Sex differentials in avoidable mortality and potential life expectancy gains in São Paulo, SP, Brazil: a cross-sectional study of the period 2014-2016.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2020 8;29(3):e2018451. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas, Varginha, MG, Brasil.

Objective: to estimate potential life expectancy gains and differences between males and females, if avoidable deaths from circulatory system diseases, neoplasms and external causes had been eliminated in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in the period 2014- 2016.

Methods: this was a cross-sectional study using data from the Mortality Information System (SIM), and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), using multiple decrement tables.

Results: of the 81,087 deaths from the diseases studied here, 75.1% were classified as avoidable; elimination of avoidable deaths due to circulatory system diseases was found to generate the greatest potential life expectancy gains, followed by neoplasms among females and external causes among males.

Conclusion: magnitude of lost life expectancy due to avoidable deaths differs between males and females; sex differentials in avoidable mortality therefore persist, producing a series of challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742020000300004DOI Listing
September 2021

Curcumin in formulations against Aedes aegypti: Mode of action, photolarvicidal and ovicidal activity.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Sep 30;31:101840. Epub 2020 May 30.

São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Carlos 13560-970, São Paulo, Brazil.

Combating the Aedes aegypti vector is still the key to control the transmission of many arboviruses, such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya. As few products are efficient for Aedes aegypti control, the search for new strategies have become pivotal., t Substances with photodynamic activity, such as curcumin and their formulations, are strongly encouraged, due to their multi-target mechanism of action. In this study, we evaluated the photolarvicidal and ovicidal activity of curcumin in the presence of sucrose (named SC) and d-mannitol (named DMC). To support the understanding of the larvicidal action of these formulations, Raman micro-spectroscopy was employed. We also studied the morphological changes in Danio rerio (Zebrafish) gills, a non-target organism, and demonstrate that this is an environmentally friendly approach. Both SC and DMC presented a high photo-larvicidal potential. DMC showed the highest larval mortality, with LC values between 0.01 and 0.02 mg.L. DMC also significantly decreased egg hatchability, reaching a hatching rate of 10 % at 100 mg.L. The analysis of molecular mechanisms via Raman micro-spectroscopy showed that DMC is highly permeable to the peritrophic membrane of the larva, causing irreversible damage to the simple columnar epithelium of the digestive tube. Histological changes found in the D. rerio gills were of minimal or moderate pathological importance, indicating an adaptive trait rather than detrimental characteristics. These findings indicate that curcumin in sugar formulations is highly efficient, especially DMC, proving it to be a promising and safe alternative to control Aedes mosquitoes. Moreover, Raman micro-spectroscopy demonstrated high potential as an analytical technique to understand the mechanism of action of larvicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101840DOI Listing
September 2020

In silico, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of natural Bignoniaceous naphthoquinones in comparison with atovaquone targeting the selection of potential antimalarial candidates.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 08 26;401:115074. Epub 2020 May 26.

Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 31.270-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

The natural naphthoquinones lapachol, α- and β-lapachone are found in Bignoniaceous Brazilian plant species of the Tabebuia genus (synonym Handroanthus) and are recognized for diverse bioactivities, including as antimalarial. The aim of the present work was to perform in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluating the antimalarial potential of these three naphthoquinones in comparison with atovaquone, a synthetic antimalarial. The ADMET properties of these compounds were predicted in silico by the preADMET program. The in vitro toxicity assays were experimentally determined in immortalized and tumoral cells from different organs. In vivo acute oral toxicity was also evaluated for lapachol. Several favorable pharmacokinetics data were predicted although, as expected, high cytotoxicity was experimentally determined for β-lapachone. Lapachol was not cytotoxic or showed low cytotoxicity to all of the cells assayed (HepG2, A549, Neuro 2A, LLC-PK1, MRC-5), it was nontoxic in the acute oral test and disclosed the best parasite selectivity index in the in vitro assays against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain. On the other hand, α- and β-lapachone were more potent than lapachol in the antiplasmodial assays but with low parasite selectivity due to their cytotoxicity. The diversity of data here reported disclosed lapachol as a promising candidate to antimalarial drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115074DOI Listing
August 2020

Environmental safety and mode of action of a novel curcumin-based photolarvicide.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 20;27(23):29204-29217. Epub 2020 May 20.

Optical Group, São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, Sao Carlos, São Paulo, 13560-970, Brazil.

Aedes aegypti is the vector of important diseases like dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Vector control is pivotal in combating the spread of these mosquito-borne illnesses. Photoactivable larvicide curcumin obtained from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has shown high potential for Ae. aegypti larvae control. However, the toxicity of this photosensitizer (PS) might jeopardize non-target aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of this PS to Daphnia magna and Danio rerio, besides assessing its mode of action through larvae biochemical and histological studies. Three PS formulations were tested: PS in ethanol+DMSO, PS in sucrose, and PS in D-mannitol. The LC of PS in ethanol+DMSO to D. rerio was 5.9 mg L, while in D. magna the solvents were extremely toxic, and LC was not estimated. The PS formulations in sugars were not toxic to neither of the organisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in D. magna exposed to 50 mg L of PS in D-mannitol, and D. rerio did not elicit this kind of response. D. magna feeding rates were not affected by the PS in D-mannitol. Concerning Ae. aegypti larvae, there were changes in reduced glutathione and protein levels, while catalase activity remained stable after exposure to PS in D-mannitol and sunlight. Histological changes were observed in larvae exposed to PS in sucrose and D-mannitol, most of them irreversible and deleterious. Our results show the feasibility of this photolarvicide use in Ae. aegypti larvae control and its safety to non-target organisms. These data are crucial to this original vector control approach implementation in public health policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09210-4DOI Listing
August 2020

Therapeutic follow-up and network intervention as a strategy in psychosocial care.

Rev Bras Enferm 2020 10;73(1):e20180161. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Universidade de São Paulo. Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: to analyze Therapeutic Follow-Up (TF) and Network Intervention (NI) as devices for social network/Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS - Centro de Atenção Psicossocial) user staff construction.

Method: an ethnographic study. Data collection instruments were participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interviews and Sluzki's Minimal Map of Relationships. The research site was at a CAPS II of the city of São Paulo. Participants were CAPS user, their family network, professionals and other users. Data analysis took place through Minayo's thematic content analysis framework and Sluzki's personal maps.

Results: TF and NI led to greater social participation, autonomy and reorganization of family roles and treatment in CAPS.

Conclusion: the TF associated with NI was potent in strengthening the user's personal/social network and in including them in community activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0161DOI Listing
November 2020

The Impact of Lung Carcinoma Histology on the Frequency of Bone Metastases.

Rev Bras Ortop (Sao Paulo) 2019 Sep 19;54(5):524-530. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Instituto de Doenças do Tórax,Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

 Lung cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer, and the bones are one of the most common sites of metastasis from this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lung carcinoma histology on the frequency of bone metastases.  This retrospective study evaluated the medical records of 407 patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 2003 and 2012. The prevalence of bone metastases and their association with histological subtypes were evaluated using chi-squared tests, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method.  The prevalence of bone metastases was 28.2% (  = 115), and the spine was the most frequently affected site (98 metastases; 32.1%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype of lung carcinoma (46.7%), and it was significantly more frequent among patients with bone metastases (58.3% versus 42.1%;  = 0.003; OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.29-2.97). Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly less frequent among patients with bone metastases (13.0% versus 29.8%;  = 0.0004; OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.19-0.64). The median survival time after the first bone metastasis diagnosis was 4 months.  Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype of lung carcinoma, and it was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbo.2018.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855920PMC
September 2019

Global Analysis of Cell Wall Genes Revealed Putative Virulence Factors in the Dermatophyte .

Front Microbiol 2019 19;10:2168. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Genetics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

The fungal cell wall is a structure in constant contact with the external environment. It confers shape to the cell and protects it from external threats. During host adaptation, the cell wall structure of fungal pathogens is continuously reshaped by the orchestrated action of numerous genes. These genes respond to environmental stresses and challenging growth conditions, influencing the infective potential of the fungus. Here, we aimed to identify cell wall biosynthesis-related genes that putatively encode virulence factors in . We used RNA-seq to examine the impact of two drugs, namely undecanoic acid, and acriflavine as well as the effects of the carbon source switching from glucose to keratin on cell wall metabolism. By using functional annotation based on Gene Ontology terms, we identified significantly differentially expressed cell wall-related genes in all stress conditions. We also exposed to osmotic and other cell wall stressors and evaluated the susceptibility and gene modulation in response to stress. The changes in the ambient environment caused continuous cell wall remodeling, forcing the fungus to undergo modulatory restructuring. The influence of the external challenges indicated a highly complex response pattern. The genes that were modulated simultaneously in the three stress conditions highlight potential targets for antifungal development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761320PMC
September 2019

Human virome in nasopharynx and tracheal secretion samples.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 3;114:e190198. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Universidade de Brasília, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Pós-Graduação em Biologia Microbiana, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Background: In Brazil the implementation of the Sentinel Surveillance System of Influenza began in 2000. Central public health laboratories use reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for diagnosis of respiratory viruses, but this protocol identifies only specific targets, resulted in inconclusive diagnosis for many samples. Thus, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) would be complementary method in the identification of pathogens in inconclusive samples for RT-qPCR or other specific detection protocols.

Objectives: This study aimed to detect unidentified viruses using HTS approach in negative samples of nasopharynx/tracheal secretions by the standard RT-qPCR collected in the Federal District, Brazil.

Methods: Nucleic acids were extracted from samples collected in winter period of 2016 and subjected to HTS. The results were confirmed by the multiplex PR21 RT-qPCR, which identifies 21 respiratory pathogens.

Findings: The main viruses identified by HTS were of families Herpesviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae and Picornaviridae, with the emphasis on rhinoviruses. The presence of respiratory viruses in the samples was confirmed by the PR21 multiplex RT-qPCR. Coronavirus, enterovirus, bocavirus and rhinovirus were found by multiplex RT-qPCR as well as by HTS analyses.

Main Conclusions: Wide virus diversity was found by different methodologies and high frequency of rhinovirus occurrence was confirmed in population in winter, showing its relevance for public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760190198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779266PMC
October 2019

Sickle cell disease nephropathy: an update on risk factors and potential biomarkers in pediatric patients.

Biomark Med 2019 08 8;13(11):967-987. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Investigação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av Prof. Alfredo Balena, 190, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30130-100, Brazil.

One of the major chronic complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) is sickle cell nephropathy. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, natural history, clinical manifestations, risk factors, biomarkers and therapeutic approaches for sickle cell nephropathy, focusing on studies with pediatric patients. The earliest manifestation of renal disease is an increase in the glomerular filtration rate. A finding that may also be observed in early childhood is microalbuminuria. Nephrin, KIM-1, VGFs, chemokines and renin-angiotensin system molecules have emerged as potential early markers of renal dysfunction in SCD. In regards to a therapeutic approach, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers seem to be effective for the control of albuminuria in adults with SCD, although new studies in children are needed. The precise moment to begin renoprotection in SCD patients who should be treated remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2019-0105DOI Listing
August 2019

Impact of water restriction periods on carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs in the Brazilian semi-arid region.

Meat Sci 2019 Oct 31;156:196-204. Epub 2019 May 31.

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), CEP 56302-970 Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Water restriction periods were evaluated in crossbred lambs (n = 32) distributed in one of four treatments: without water restriction, water restriction for 24, 48 and 72 h. The water restriction for 72 h reduced the water and dry matter intakes, body weight at slaughter and hot and cold carcass yields. Water restriction did not affect the weight of the carcass cuts and the chemical composition of the meat. The fatty acid EPA increased and DHA reduced with increasing water restriction period. There was an increasing linear effect for meat shear force, with less force (30.5 N/cm) for sheep meat without water restriction and higher force (45.8 N/cm) for those with water restriction for 72 h. The period of 24 h of water restriction was the one that promoted the highest similarities in the characteristics assessed to those in animals receiving water ad libitum. Therefore, water restriction periods should not exceed 24 h for feedlot animals in situations of severe water shortage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.05.033DOI Listing
October 2019

FGF, BMP, and RA signaling are sufficient for the induction of complete limb regeneration from non-regenerating wounds on Ambystoma mexicanum limbs.

Dev Biol 2019 07 23;451(2):146-157. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Some organisms, such as the Mexican axolotl, have the capacity to regenerate complicated biological structures throughout their lives. Which molecular pathways are sufficient to induce a complete endogenous regenerative response in injured tissue is an important question that remains unanswered. Using a gain-of-function regeneration assay, known as the Accessory Limb Model (ALM), we and others have begun to identify the molecular underpinnings of the three essential requirements for limb regeneration; wounding, neurotrophic signaling, and the induction of pattern from cells that retain positional memory. We have previously shown that treatment of Mexican axolotls with exogenous retinoic acid (RA) is sufficient to induce the formation of complete limb structures from blastemas that were generated by deviating a nerve bundle into an anterior-located wound site on the limb. Here we show that these ectopic structures are capable of regenerating and inducing new pattern to form when grafted into new anterior-located wounds. We additionally found that the expression of Alx4 decreases, and Shh expression increases in these anterior located blastemas, but not in the mature anterior tissues, supporting the hypothesis that RA treatment posteriorizes blastema tissue. Based on these and previous observations, we used the ALM assay to test the hypothesis that a complete regenerative response can be generated by treating anterior-located superficial limb wounds with a specific combination of growth factors at defined developmental stages. Our data shows that limb wounds that are first treated with a combination of FGF-2, FGF-8, and BMP-2, followed by RA treatment of the resultant mid-bud stage blastema, will result in the generation of limbs with complete proximal/distal and anterior/posterior limb axes. Thus, the minimal signaling requirements from the nerve and a positional disparity are achieved with the application of this specific combination of signaling molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589380PMC
July 2019

Analytical methods to access the chemical composition of an Euphorbia tirucalli anticancer latex from traditional Brazilian medicine.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Jun 27;237:255-265. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Chromatography, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Espírito Santo, 29075-910, Vitória, ES, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Euphorbia tirucalli L. is widely used by Brazilian folk medicine, mainly for its anticancer activity. However, its commercialization was banned by The Brazilian National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) due to the presence of some compounds considered toxic, such as the diterpene esters.

Aim Of The Study: Chemical and biological analyses were performed with the Brazilian Euphorbia tirucalli latex to support its wide traditional use in Brazil.

Material And Methods: Latex was collected by using two procedures, in a solution of dichloromethane: methanol (3:1, 100 mL) and in 100 mL of distilled water. The first procedure was concentrated as a crude extract and the second one was partitioned with hexane and dichloromethane. The partitions and crude extract were subjected to phytochemical analyses using three different methods: Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization sources in negative mode (ESI(-)) as well as in tandem mass spectrometry ESI(-) MS/MS and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization in positive mode (APCI(+)), Gas Chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (H-NMR and C-NMR). The cytotoxic potential was evaluated using the crude extract in macrophages RAW 264.7 and Gastric Adenocarcinoma (AGS) cancer cells. The evaluation of immunomodulatory activity was made through the detection of Nitric Oxide (NO) and cytokines as Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6).

Results: GC-MS showed the presence of some esters of fatty acids, for instance myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid and, mainly, triterpenes such as euphol and tirucallol. With NMR, most of the signals were related to triterpenoids euphol and tirucallol. However, when the latex was analyzed with ESI(-) FT-ICR MS, a wide variety of molecules from different classes of natural products (fatty acids, diterpenes, triterpenes, steroids) were found. On the other hand, when APCI(+)FT-ICR MS was used, the ion M At ratio mass-charge (m/z) 426.38567, related to triterpenes euphol and tirucallol masses, presented the most intense peak, with a mass error of -0.11, indicating high accuracy. Diterpene esters from 4-deoxyphorbol and ingenol were identified only by ESI(-)FT-ICR MS and ESI(-)FT-ICR MS/MS. When evaluated biologically, the crude latex showed immunomodulatory activity, as it reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and NO, and the effect on NO reduction was more significant, obtaining in a similar result to the N(ω)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) standards, as well as significant cytotoxic activity with half inhibitory concentration (IC) values of 69.43 ± 1.29 μg/mL against AGS without damaging healthy ones.

Conclusion: It was verified that the Brazilian Euphorbia tirucalli latex consists mainly of the triterpenes euphol and tirucallol, which may be the main cause of the anticancer activity attributed to the plant, but many other minor compounds could have been determined by the FT-ICR MS method, such as the diterpene esters. It has antitumor potential because it acts selectively against cancer cells and it also prevents the progression of tumors, because it carries an important immunomodulatory effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.03.041DOI Listing
June 2019

Use of chemically activated termite feces a low-cost adsorbent for the adsorption of norfloxacin from aqueous solution.

Water Sci Technol 2019 Jan;79(2):291-301

Núcleo de Investigações Químico-Farmacêuticas (NIQFAR), Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Itajaí 88302-202, Santa Catarina, Brazil E-mail:

Antibiotics, as emerging contaminants, are of global concern due to the development of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Current wastewater treatment technology cannot efficiently remove sewage antibiotics and therefore new low-cost technologies are needed. Adsorption is a widely used process for removal of substances, and the search for efficient, low-cost adsorbents is ongoing. In this work, termite feces treated with HSO (FT/HSO) were used as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of norfloxacin (NOR) present in aqueous medium. Termite feces were treated with HSO at a ratio of 1:1 for 24 h, at 100 °C. The parameters contact time, initial NOR concentration, medium pH and temperature were evaluated. The optimum adsorption pH was 8.0. The pseudo-second-order model was found to best represent the kinetics of NOR adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity, calculated from the Sips isotherm model, was 104.4 mg/g at 55 °C. The positive values of ΔH (change in enthalpy) confirm the endothermic nature of the adsorption. The results show that FT/HSO is an efficient adsorbent for removal of NOR present in aqueous medium. The adsorption capacity is higher than those reported in the literature for other low-cost adsorbents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2019.052DOI Listing
January 2019
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