Publications by authors named "Lani Thiart"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Changes in Host Immune-Endocrine Relationships during Tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Cured and Failed Treatment Outcomes.

Front Immunol 2017 15;8:690. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

SA MRC Centre for TB Research, DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

A bidirectional communication between the immune and endocrine systems exists and facilitates optimum responses in the host during infections. This is in part achieved through changes in secretion patterns of hypothalamic hormones induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to elucidate the immune-endocrine alterations during tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with cured and failed TB treatment outcomes. Blood samples were collected from 27 cured and 10 failed patients and hormone as well as cytokine concentrations quantified at baseline, week 4, and month 6 of TB treatment. Hormone profiles of the two treatment outcome groups were different from each other prior to as well as during TB treatment. Treatment response effects were observed for cortisol, estradiol, T3, T4 ghrelin, leptin, amylin, adiponectin, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Trends suggest that T4, amylin, and DHEA concentrations were different between treatment outcomes, although these did not reach statistical significance. Relationships between endocrine and inflammatory markers and the biological pathways involved differed between cured and failed treatment patients. These results highlight the complex interaction between the endocrine and immune system during active TB disease and throughout treatment and suggest that endocrine markers in conjunction with inflammatory markers may be useful in predicting unfavorable treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5475380PMC
June 2017

Persisting positron emission tomography lesion activity and Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA after tuberculosis cure.

Nat Med 2016 10 5;22(10):1094-1100. Epub 2016 Sep 5.

National Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

The absence of a gold standard to determine when antibiotics induce a sterilizing cure has confounded the development of new approaches to treat pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We detected positron emission tomography and computerized tomography (PET-CT) imaging response patterns consistent with active disease, along with the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) mRNA in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples, in a substantial proportion of adult, HIV-negative patients with PTB after a standard 6-month treatment plus 1 year follow-up, including patients with a durable cure and others who later developed recurrent disease. The presence of MTB mRNA in the context of nonresolving and intensifying lesions on PET-CT images might indicate ongoing transcription, suggesting that even apparently curative treatment for PTB may not eradicate all of the MTB bacteria in most patients. This suggests an important complementary role for the immune response in maintaining a disease-free state. Sterilizing drugs or host-directed therapies, and better treatment response markers, are probably needed for the successful development of improved and shortened PTB-treatment strategies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5053881PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.4177DOI Listing
October 2016

Utility of host markers detected in Quantiferon supernatants for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children in a high-burden setting.

PLoS One 2013 15;8(5):e64226. Epub 2013 May 15.

DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.

Background: The diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis (TB) disease remains a challenge especially in young and HIV-infected children. Recent studies have identified potential host markers which, when measured in Quantiferon (QFT-IT) supernatants, show promise in discriminating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection states. In this study, the utility of such markers was investigated in children screened for TB in a setting with high TB incidence.

Methodology And Principal Findings: 76 children (29% HIV-infected) with or without active TB provided blood specimens collected directly into QFT-IT tubes. After overnight incubation, culture supernatants were harvested, aliquoted and frozen for future immunological research purposes. Subsequently, the levels of 12 host markers previously identified as potential TB diagnostic markers were evaluated in these supernatants for their ability to discriminate between M.tb infection and disease states using the Luminex platform. Of the 76 children included, 19 (25%) had culture confirmed TB disease; 26 (46%) of the 57 without TB had positive markers of M.tb infection defined by a positive QFT-IT test. The potentially most useful analytes for diagnosing TB disease included IFN-α2, IL-1Ra, sCD40L and VEGF and the most useful markers for discriminating between QFT-IT positive children as TB or latent infection included IL-1Ra, IP-10 and VEGF. When markers were used in combinations of four, 84% of all children were accurately classified into their respective groups (TB disease or no TB), after leave-one-out cross validation.

Conclusions: Measurement of the levels of IFN-α2, IL-1Ra, sCD40L, IP-10 and VEGF in QFT-IT supernatants may be a useful method for diagnosing TB disease and differentiating between active TB disease and M.tb infection in children. Our observations warrant further investigation in larger well-characterized clinical cohorts.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0064226PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3655018PMC
January 2014