Publications by authors named "Lang Liu"

116 Publications

Restraining polysulfide shuttling by designing a dual adsorption structure of bismuth encapsulated into carbon nanotube cavity.

Nanoscale 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Utilization of Carbon Based Energy Resources; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region; College of Chemistry; Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, China.

The shuttle effect derived from the dissolution of lithium polysulfides (LIPs) seriously hinders commercialization of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Hence, we skillfully designed 1D cowpea-like CNTs@Bi composites with a double adsorption structure, where the bismuth nanoparticles/nanorods are encapsulated in the cavities of CNTs, avoiding the aggregation of bismuth nanoparticles during cycling and improving the conductivity of the electrode. Meanwhile, the sulfur was evenly distributed on the surface of bismuth nanoparticles/nanorods, ensuring effective catalytic activity and displaying high sulfur loading. Under the synergetic effects of the physical detention of abundant pores and chemical adsorption of bismuth, LIPs can be minimised, effectively curbing the shuttle effect. Benefiting from the above advantages, the CNTs@Bi/S cathodes exhibit a high capacity of 1352 mA h g-1, long cycling lifespan (708 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at 1 C) and excellent coulombic efficiency. As the anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the CNTs@Bi composites also show excellent performance due to the encapsulated structure to accommodate the serious volume change. This work offers an innovative strategy for improving the performances of the Li-S batteries and LIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01456kDOI Listing
May 2021

Design and validation of a recognition instrument-the stroke aid for emergency scale-to predict large vessel occlusion stroke.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 26;13. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

Background And Purpose: Rapidly recognizing patients with large-vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) and transferring them to a center offering recanalization therapy is crucial of maximizing the benefits of early treatment. We therefore aimed to design an easy-to-use recognition instrument for identifying LVOS.

Methods: Prospective data were collected from emergency departments of 12 stroke-center hospitals in China during a 17-month study period. The Stroke Aid for Emergency (SAFE) scale is based on consciousness commands, facial palsy, gaze, and arm motor ability. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to obtain the area under the curve for the SAFE scale and previously established scales to predict LVOS.

Results: The SAFE scale could accurately predict LVOS at an accuracy rate comparable to that of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (c-statistics: 0.823 versus 0.831, p = 0.4798). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the SAFE scale were 0.6875, 0.8577, 0.6937, and 0.8542, respectively, with a cutoff point of 4. The SAFE scale also performed well in a subgroup analysis based on the patients' ages, occluded vessel locations, and the onset-to-door times.

Conclusions: The SAFE scale can accurately recognize LVOS at a rate comparable to those of other, similar scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202910DOI Listing
April 2021

Macrophage-derived exosomes mediate silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by activating fibroblast in an endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent manner.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 8;25(9):4466-4477. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Macrophages play a key role in silicosis, and exosomes are potent mediators of intercellular communication. This suggests that macrophage-derived exosomes have a potential contribution to the pathogenesis of silicosis. To investigate whether macrophage-derived exosomes promote or inhibit lung fibrosis, in vitro, silica-exposed macrophage-derived exosomes (SiO -Exos) were collected and cocultured with fibroblasts. The expression of collagen I and α-SMA was evaluated. Furthermore, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers BIP, XBP1s and P-eIF2α were assessed after treatment with or without the ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA. In vivo, mice were pre-treated with the exosome secretion inhibitor GW4869 prior to silica exposure. After sacrifice, lung tissues were histologically examined, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The results showed that the expression of collagen I and α-SMA was up-regulated after treatment with SiO -Exos, accompanied by increased expression of BIP, XBP1s and P-eIF2α. Pre-treatment with 4-PBA reversed this effect. More importantly, an in vivo study demonstrated that pre-treatment with GW4869 decreased lung fibrosis and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BALF. These results suggested that SiO -Exos are profibrogenic and that the facilitating effect is dependent on ER stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093963PMC
May 2021

The role of chest CT quantitative pulmonary inflammatory index in the evaluation of the course and treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Sci Rep 2021 04 8;11(1):7752. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 1 Youyi Road, Chongqing, 400016, China.

To explore the clinical application value of chest CT quantitative pulmonary inflammation index (PII) in the evaluation of the course and treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia. One hundred and eighteen patients with COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosed by RT-PCR were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between chest CT PII, clinical symptoms and laboratory examinations during the entire hospitalization period was compared. The average age of the patients was 46.0 ± 15 (range: 1-74) years. Of the 118 patients, 62 are male (52.5%) and 56 are female (47.5%). Among them, 116 patients recovered and were discharged, 2 patients died, and the median length of hospital stay was 22 (range: 9-41) days. On admission, 76.3% of the patients presented with fever, and the laboratory studies showed a decrease in lymphocyte (LYM) count and an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Within the studies' chest CTs, the median number of involved lung lobes was 4 (range: 0-5) and the median number of involved lung segments was 9 (range 0-20). The left lower lobe and the right lower lobe were the most likely areas to be involved (89.0% and 83.9%), and 84.7% of the patients had inflammatory changes in both lungs. The main manifestations on chest CT were ground glass opacities (31.4%), ground glass opacities and consolidation (20.3%), ground glass opacities and reticular patterns (32.2%), mixed type (13.6%), and white lungs (1.7%); common accompanying signs included linear opacities (55.9%), air bronchograms (46.6%), thick small vessel shadows (36.4%), and pleural hypertrophy (13.6%). The chest CT at discharge showed complete absorption of lesions in 19 cases (16.1%), but not in the remaining 99 cases. Lesions remained in a median of 3 lung lobes (range: 0-5). Residual lesions remained in a median of 5 lung segments (range: 0-20). The residual lesions mainly presented as ground glass opacities (61.0%), and the main accompanying sign was linear opacities (59.3%). Based on chest CT, the median maximum PII of lungs was 30.0% (range: 0-97.5%), and the median PII after discharge in the patients excluding the two deaths was 12.5% (range: 0-53.0%). PII was significantly negatively correlated with the LYM count and significantly positively correlated with body temperature, LDH, CRP, and ESR. There was no significant correlation between the PII and the white blood cell count, but the grade of PII correlated well with the clinical classification. PII can be used to monitor the severity and the treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia, provide help for clinical classification, assist in treatment plan adjustments and aid assessments for discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87430-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032697PMC
April 2021

The novel prognostic risk factor STC2 can regulate the occurrence and progression of osteosarcoma via the glycolytic pathway.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 25;554:25-32. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Cancer Metastasis and Precision Treatment, Central Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, North 128 Xiangshan Road, Nanchang, 330008, PR China. Electronic address:

Osteosarcoma, a highly aggressive malignant tumor of the bone, usually occurs in children and young adults. However, although the considerable achievement in the clinical treatment of osteosarcoma recent years, the overall survival of osteosarcoma patients has not been obviously improved. Cancer cells preferentially use glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation to meet their increased energetic and biosynthetic demands, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Glycolysis is a driving factor in multiple cancers and is emerging as a new cancer target treatment. In the present study, we established a model to screen for glycolysis-associated genes in osteosarcoma. This risk score of the model were correlated with clinical characteristics osteosarcoma patients. Besides, a functional assay identified that STC2 enhanced the glycolysis of osteosarcoma cells. Modulation of STC2 changes glucose consumption and lactate production as well as GLUT1 expression in osteosarcoma. Furthermore, we identified that change in the expression levels of STC2 affected the proliferation, invasion, and migration of osteosarcoma cells. Our findings showed STC2 as a new tumor-promoting factor of osteosarcoma cells through enhancing glycolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.067DOI Listing
May 2021

Mitigating NO emissions does not help alleviate wintertime particulate pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 11;279:116931. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, China. Electronic address:

Stringent mitigation measures have reduced wintertime fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations by 42.2% from 2013 to 2018 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, but severe PM pollution still frequently engulfs the region. The observed nitrate aerosols have not exhibited a significant decreasing trend and constituted a major fraction (about 20%) of the total PM, although the surface-measured NO concentration has decreased by over 20%. The contributions of nitrogen oxides (NO) emissions mitigation to the nitrate and PM concentrations and how to alleviate nitrate aerosols efficiently under the current situation still remains elusive. The WRF-Chem model simulations of a persistent and heavy PM pollution episode in January 2019 in the BTH reveal that NO emissions mitigation does not help lower wintertime nitrate and PM concentrations under current conditions in the BTH. A 50% reduction in NO emissions only decreases nitrate mass by 10.3% but increases PM concentrations by 3.2%, because the substantial O increase induced by NO mitigation offsets the HNO loss and enhances sulfate and secondary organic aerosols formation. Our results are further consolidated by the occurrence of severe PM pollution in the BTH during the COVID-19 outbreak, with a significant reduction in NO concentration. Mitigation of NH emissions constitutes the priority measure to effectively lower the nitrate and PM concentrations in the BTH under current conditions, with 35.5% and 12.7% decrease, respectively, when NH emissions are reduced by 50%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116931DOI Listing
June 2021

Ionic Transport and Robust Switching Properties of the Confined Self-Assembled Block Copolymer/Homopolymer in Asymmetric Nanochannels.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 18;13(12):14507-14517. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, People's Republic of China.

The self-assembly of block copolymers in a confined space has been proven to be a facile and robust strategy for fabricating assembled structures with various potential applications. Herein, we employed a new pH-responsive polymer self-assembly method to regulate ion transport inside artificial nanochannels. The track-etched asymmetric nanochannels were functionalized with PS--P4VP/hPS blend polymers, and the ionic conductance and rectification properties of the proposed system were investigated. The pH-actuated changes in the surface charge and wettability resulted in the selective pH-gated ionic transport behavior. The designed system showed a good switching property to the pH stimulus and could recover during the repetitive experiments. The gating ability of the polymer-nanochannel system increased with increasing the weight of the homopolymer, and the proposed platform demonstrated robust stability and reusability. Numerical and the dissipative particle dynamics simulations were implemented to emulate the pH-dependent self-assembling behavior of diblock copolymers in a confined space, which were consistent with the experimental observations. As an example of the self-assembly of polymers in nanoconfinements, this work provides a facile and robust strategy for the regulation of ion transport in synthetic nanochannels. Meanwhile, this work can be further extended to design artificial smart nanogates for various applications such as mass delivery and energy harvesting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01682DOI Listing
March 2021

High-efficiency and multiplex adenine base editing in plants using new TadA variants.

Mol Plant 2021 May 22;14(5):722-731. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pests in Guilin, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Guilin 541399, China. Electronic address:

Recently reported adenine base editors (ABEs) exhibit powerful potential for targeted gene correction as well as developing gain-of-function mutants and novel germplasms for both gene function studies and crop breeding. However, editing efficiency varies significantly among different target sites. Here, we investigated the activities of three evolved E. coli adenosine deaminase TadA variants (TadA8e, TadA8.17, and TadA8.20) side-by-side in transgenic rice. We found that TadA8e outperforms TadA8.17 and TadA8.20, and induces efficient A-to-G conversion at all tested sites in the rice genome, including those that were uneditable by ABE7.10 in our previous experiments. Furthermore, V82S/Q154R mutations were incorporated into TadA8e, resulting in a new variant that we named TadA9. Our data show that TadA9 is broadly compatible with CRISPR/SpCas9, CRISPR/SpCas9-NG, and CRISPR/SpRY, as well as CRISPR/ScCas9 nickase systems, achieving comparable or enhanced editing in a larger editing window at diverse PAM sites as compared with TadA8e. Finally, TadA9 was used to simultaneously install novel SNPs in four endogenous herbicide target genes in the commercial rice cultivar Nangeng 46 for potential field application in weed control. Collectively, we successfully generated a series of novel ABEs that can efficiently edit adenosines in the rice genome. Our findings suggest that TadA9 and TadA8e have great potentials in the development of plant base editors and crop molecular breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2021.02.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Long Non-coding RNA FOXD2-AS1 Promotes Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Cholangiocarcinoma Through Regulating miR-760/E2F3 Axis.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of General Surgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu-ro, Harbin, 150086, People's Republic of China.

Background: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been testified to influence the initiation and evolution of sundry carcinomas. Recently, lncRNA FOXD2 adjacent opposite strand RNA 1 (FOXD2-AS1) has been found to display vital regulating functions in various cancers.

Methods: qRT-PCR was used to verify the dysregulation of FOXD2-AS1 expression in CCA cells and tissues, and the correlation of FOXD2-AS1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics was investigated. The viability, migration, and invasion of CCA cells were verified through CCK-8 assay, colony formation experiment, wound healing assay, and transwell assay. The regulatory networks of FOXD2-AS1 were analyzed by Bioinformatic prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assay.

Results: We discovered that FOXD2-AS1 was significantly upregulated in CCA and its up-regulation was closely correlated with terminal TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and poor survival in the current research. In addition, it was revealed that FOXD2-AS1 was an independent prognostic factor. Functional tests uncovered that the cell viability, migration, and invasion could be restrained through downregulating the expression of FOXD2-AS1, while FOXD2-AS1 overexpression could facilitate the cell viability, migration, and invasion. Mechanistically, FOXD2-AS1 was founded to interact directly with miR-760 and the oncogene E2F3 was the downstream target of miR-760 through bioinformatic prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assays. Finally, we testified that FOXD2-AS1 could competitively sponge miR-760 and further upregulated the E2F3 expression to play a vital part in cholangiocarcinoma.

Conclusions: This research revealed that lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 could enhance CCA malignant progression through regulating the miR-760/E2F3 axis and was expected to be a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cholangiocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06876-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Dissipation of tiafenacil in five types of citrus orchard soils using the HPLC-MS coupled with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method.

J Sep Sci 2021 May 8;44(9):1950-1960. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Agricultural Sciences, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, P. R. China.

Tiafenacil is a new contact herbicide and its environmental behavior after field application remains poorly understood. In order to understand the dissipation of tiafenacil in the soil, the tiafenacil dissipation experiment was conducted at citrus orchard sites in five provinces of China (Gansu, Shandong, Sichuan, Jiangxi, and Hainan) in 2019 and 2020 (July-August) and the relevant determination methods were optimized. The results showed that the established method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.01-0.5 mg/kg. The average recoveries of tiafenacil from the five soils were 86.31-101.66%, with coefficients of variation of 0.28-10.79%. The dissipation of tiafenacil at the five experimental sites conformed to the first-order kinetic equation, C = C exp (R  = 0.8130 - 0.9967). The half-life of tiafenacil ranged from 0.26 to 4.19 days. The dissipation rate of tiafenacil was positively correlated with soil organic matter content and negatively correlated with soil pH, while monthly average temperature and total rainfall were less influential than soil properties. Therefore, the established method was simple and effective for tiafenacil residue analysis in citrus orchard soils. Tiafenacil could readily dissipate in soil and might be a safe alternative to glyphosate for weed control in citrus orchards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202001128DOI Listing
May 2021

PCAT1 induced by transcription factor YY1 promotes cholangiocarcinoma proliferation, migration and invasion by sponging miR-216a-3p to up-regulate oncogene BCL3.

Biol Chem 2021 01 23;402(2):207-219. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of General Surgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, No. 148 BaoJian-ro, Harbin150086, Heilongjiang, China.

This study was designed to illustrate the function and role of PCAT1 in CCA. The relative expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and western blot. The biological function of PCAT1 was evaluated by CCK8, EdU, colony formation, wound healing, transwell, and subcutaneous tumor formation assays. Protein levels of EMT markers were measured by western blot. The binding relationship was predicted by JASPAR and starBase. The binding of YY1 to PCAT1 promoter was assessed by ChIP and luciferase reporter. The binding capacity between miR-216a-3p and PCAT1 as well as BCL3 was assessed by luciferase reporter and AGO2-RIP assays. In this study, we found that PCAT1 was up-regulated in CCA tissues and cells, and the PCAT1 overexpression was associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, PCAT1 was assessed as an independent risk factor of prognosis for CCA patients. Amplified PCAT1 was found to promote tumor proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT process, whereas PCAT1 knockdown inhibited these malignant phenotypes. Mechanistically, PCAT1 was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm and competitively bound miR-216a-3p to increase BCL3 expression. In addition, PCAT1 was activated by transcription factor YY1. This study revealed that PCAT1 acted as an oncogene in CCA, and the YY1/PCAT1/miR-216a-3p/BCL3 axis exhibited critical functions in CCA progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2020-0276DOI Listing
January 2021

A Refined Composite Multivariate Multiscale Fluctuation Dispersion Entropy and Its Application to Multivariate Signal of Rotating Machinery.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Jan 19;23(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068, China.

In the fault monitoring of rotating machinery, the vibration signal of the bearing and gear in a complex operating environment has poor stationarity and high noise. How to accurately and efficiently identify various fault categories is a major challenge in rotary fault diagnosis. Most of the existing methods only analyze the single channel vibration signal and do not comprehensively consider the multi-channel vibration signal. Therefore, this paper presents Refined Composite Multivariate Multiscale Fluctuation Dispersion Entropy (RCMMFDE), a method which extracts the recognition information of multi-channel signals with different scale factors, and the refined composite analysis ensures the recognition stability. The simulation results show that this method has the characteristics of low sensitivity to signal length and strong anti-noise ability. At the same time, combined with Joint Mutual Information Maximisation (JMIM) and support vector machine (SVM), RCMMFDE-JMIM-SVM fault diagnosis method has been proposed. This method uses RCMMFDE to extract the state characteristics of the multiple vibration signals of the rotary machine, and then uses the JMIM method to extract the sensitive characteristics. Finally, different states of the rotary machine are classified by SVM. The validity of the method is verified by the composite gear fault data set and bearing fault data set. The diagnostic accuracy of the method is 99.25% and 100.00%. The experimental results show that RCMMFDE-JMIM-SVM can effectively recognize multiple signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e23010128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836007PMC
January 2021

The Determination of Pore Shape and Interfacial Barrier of Entry for Light Gases Transport in Amorphous TEOS-Derived Silica: A Finite Element Method.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 14;13(3):4804-4812. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

The interfacial barrier of entry for light gas transport in a nanopore was a crucial factor to determine the separation efficiency in membrane technologies. To examine this effect, amorphous silica was prepared by sol-gel process, and its characterization results revealed that the commonly used cylindrical pore shape failed to represent the adsorption behavior of gases, but instead the pore shape had to be represented by a slit pore model. A finite element method (FEM) was developed to analyze the interfacial resistance by integrating a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential over the layer area. It was found that the strong repulsion/attraction at the pore interface could be paired with the motion energy of guest molecules to predict the ideal selectivity between gases, thereby providing a solution to preliminarily screen the separation performance among a host of membrane candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c20594DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficient Heterogeneous Formation of Ammonium Nitrate on the Saline Mineral Particle Surface in the Atmosphere of East Asia during Dust Storm Periods.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 12 30;54(24):15622-15630. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Formation and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex, Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai 200233, China.

To understand the chemical evolution of dust in the current East Asian atmosphere, the chemistry of PM and size-resolved aerosols in Shanghai, China, during the 2019 dust storm event was investigated. Our results showed that concentrations of SO in the city during the event highly correlated with Ca and Na due to the direct emissions of CaSO and NaSO from the upwind deserts. In contrast, during the event, NO linearly correlated with NH at a molar ratio close to 1:1, and both almost entirely stayed in coarse particles, suggesting they accumulated on the dust surface as NHNO. Based on the field observations and laboratory smog chamber simulations, we found that NO and O in Shanghai during the dust period reacted to form NO, which subsequently hydrolyzed into HNO on the surface of saline mineral dusts (e.g., CaSO and NaSO) and was further neutralized by NH as NHNO. The relative abundances of NO and NH in Shanghai during the dust event were notably higher than those a decade ago, indicating that this heterogeneous formation of NHNO on dust was enhanced by the abundantly coexisting NO, O, and NH in the current East Asian atmosphere, which should be considered in future modeling studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04544DOI Listing
December 2020

Amidoxime-functionalized polyacrylamide-modified chitosan containing imidazoline groups for effective removal of Cu and Ni.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jan 1;252:117160. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Oil & Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610500, China; State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610500, China. Electronic address:

Herein, an amidoxime-functionalized chitosan (CTS) AM/AO/AEBI-CTS containing imidazoline groups was facilely prepared through amidoximation of cyano groups in cross-linked CTS obtained by crosslinking of imidazoline-functionalized polyacrylamide and CTS. AM/AO/AEBI-CTS exhibited porous structure, good water wettability, and higher selectivity for Cu than Ni. The adsorption process correlated well with Sips isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics models. The adsorption capacities for Cu and Ni onto AM/AO/AEBI-CTS were 190.7 and 128.9 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamics demonstrated that the adsorption of Cu and Ni ions onto AM/AO/AEBI-CTS was a spontaneous endothermic process. The FTIR and XPS analyses revealed that nitrogen and oxygen atoms were involved in the chelation with metal ions. The presence of Na, K and Ca had weakly impact on the adsorption efficiency of AM/AO/AEBI-CTS. Furthermore, the adsorption efficiency of AM/AO/AEBI-CTS remained above 90 % after five adsorption-desorption successive cycles. Overall, this CTS material has a good application prospects for wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117160DOI Listing
January 2021

Abnormal Bilirubin Metabolism in Patients With Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide Deficiency.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020 11;71(5):e138-e141

The Center for Pediatric Liver Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Pediatrics, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the significance of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) deficiency and its clinical features in Chinese children presenting with isolated persistent hypercholanemia.

Methods: The exon and adjacent regions of SLC10A1, the gene encoding NTCP, were sequenced in 33 Chinese children presenting with isolated hypercholanemia. Clinical history and medical data were reviewed. Growth milestones were compared with the national standard. The serum direct bilirubin concentration at last follow-up was compared with age- and sex-matched controls.

Results: A variant, c.800C>T, p. S267F of SLC10A1 was detected in all subjects; 30 patients were homozygotes and 3 were compound heterozygotes. Nine patients presented with transient neonatal cholestasis, and 1 with a persistent mild conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The serum direct bilirubin level in NTCP-deficient patients was significantly higher than age- and sex-matched controls even after the neonatal cholestasis stage (2.85 ± 1.50 vs 1.49 ± 0.70 μmol/L, P = 0.00008). No growth delay or other severe long-term clinical consequences were observed.

Conclusions: NTCP deficiency is the exclusive or major cause of isolated hypercholanemia in Han Chinese children, with c.800C>T the major contributing genetic variation. The defect may affect bilirubin metabolism and present as transient neonatal cholestasis and/or persistent mild conjugated hyperbilirubinmia, but with no apparent long-term clinical consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002862DOI Listing
November 2020

Long noncoding RNA HOTAIRM1 in human cancers.

Clin Chim Acta 2020 Dec 13;511:255-259. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of General Surgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, No. 148 BaoJian Road, Harbin 150086, China. Electronic address:

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of RNAs over 200 nucleotides in length involved in diverse processes in tumor cells including proliferation, invasion and apoptosis. Given these facts, it is hardly accidental that variations in the expression of some lncRNAs have been found to be closely related to carcinogenesis and tumor growth and metastasis. HOTAIRM1, first discovered as an important factor for granulocytic differentiation in NB4 promyelocytic leukemia, has been shown to be a salient cancer-related lncRNA abnormally expressed in a variety of tumors. In this review, we summarize current evidence on the critical role of HOTAIRM1 in human malignancy, its potential mechanism of action and future use in the development of effective therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.10.011DOI Listing
December 2020

Yin Yang 1-induced LINC00667 up-regulates pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 to promote proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by sponging miR-200c-3p.

Hum Cell 2021 Jan 10;34(1):187-200. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of General Surgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 148 Baojian Street, Harbin, 150086, Heilongjiang, China.

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being found to play crucial roles in CCA progression. This work aims to investigate the roles of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 667 (LINC00667) in progression of CCA. RT-qPCR and western blot were applied to detect gene expression. Clinical correlation and survival were analyzed by statistical methods. Overexpression and RNA interference approaches were used to investigate the effects of LINC00667 on CCA cells. Tumor xenograft assay was performed to detect the function of LINC00667 in vivo. Transcriptional regulation and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism were predicted via bioinformatics analysis. ChIP, luciferase reporter, and Ago2 RIP assays further confirmed the predicted results. Our data indicated that LINC00667 was highly expressed in CCA tissues and cells, and transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) induced LINC00667 expression in CCA cells. Up-regulated LINC00667 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage, and poor prognosis. Knockdown of LINC00667 suppressed the proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cells, while overexpression of LINC00667 acquired opposite effects. Moreover, knockdown of LINC00667 inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In addition, LINC00667 was demonstrated to function as a ceRNA for miR-200c-3p, and then LINC00667 up-regulated pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) to promote CCA development by inhibiting miR-200c-3p. These findings identified a pivotal role of LINC00667 in tumorigenesis and development of CCA. Targeting the YY1/LINC00667/miR-200c-3p/PDK1 axis may provide a new therapeutic strategy for CCA treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-020-00448-1DOI Listing
January 2021

IL36 indicating good prognosis in human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Cancer 2020 27;11(21):6248-6255. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, No.150 Jimo Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death in men before the age of 60 years in China. Interleukin (IL)36 played important roles in antitumor immune responses, but its role in HCC is still unknown. We aimed to explore the correlation between IL36 and prognosis of HCC patients. The expression of IL36 was measured by Immunohistochemistry (IHC), serum Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry (FCM). Chi-square test was performed to analyze the relationship between IL36 expression and clinical parameters of HCC patients. The correlation between IL36 expression and prognosis of HCC patients was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. The IL36 expression in HCC tumor samples was lower than that in paired peri-tumor samples; the analyses suggested that there was no correlation between IL36 expression and age, gender, and tumor size, but tight relationship between IL36 expression and liver cirrhosis, metastasis and some other clinical parameters. The results of Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated positive expression of IL36 could induce high survival rate of patients. The detection of IL36 with ELISA suggested that expression of IL36 in serum was the highest in patients of HCC, other than the chronic hepatitis patients and the healthy. The result of FCM suggested the expression of IL36 was higher in CD4+ T cells than other immune cells. There is a close relationship between the expression of IL36 and the prognosis of HCC, higher expression of IL36 suggested better prognosis and longer survival of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.47106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532515PMC
August 2020

Decontamination of Aflatoxins by Lactic Acid Bacteria.

Curr Microbiol 2020 Dec 26;77(12):3821-3830. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolic products, which exert great hazards to human and animal health. Decontaminating aflatoxins from food ingredients to a threshold level is a prime concern for avoiding risks to the consumers. Biological decontamination processes of aflatoxins have received widespread attention due to their mild and environmental-friendly nature. Many reports have been published on the decontamination of aflatoxins by microorganisms, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), a well-explored probiotic and generally recognized as safe. The present review aims at updating the decontamination of produced aflatoxins using LAB, with an emphasis on the decontamination mechanism and influence factors for decontamination. This comprehensive analysis provides insights into the binding mechanisms between LAB and aflatoxins, facilitating the theoretical and practical application of LAB for decontaminating hazardous substances in food and agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02220-yDOI Listing
December 2020

Rational design of FeTiO/C hybrid nanotubes: promising lithium ion anode with enhanced capacity and cycling performance.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Oct;56(83):12640-12643

Key Laboratory of Energy Materials Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, 830046, Xinjiang, P. R. China.

Ilmenite FeTiO3 has the advantage of high theoretical capacity and abundant sources as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers inferior rate capability caused by the aggregation of particles. To solve this problem, FeTiO3 nanoparticles embedded in porous CNTs were developed by the sol-gel route and subsequent calcination. The unique hybrids have a uniform distribution of FeTiO3 nanoparticles (5-20 nm) in the carbon matrix. Electrochemical tests prove that the porous FeTiO3/C hybrid nanotubes deliver a high capacity of 612.5 mA h g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 after 300 cycles. Moreover, they present remarkable rate capability and exceptional cycling stability, possessing 163.8 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1 for 1000 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the FeTiO3/C hybrid is derived from the shortened Li+ transport length, good structure stability and conductive carbon matrix, which simultaneously solves the major problems of pulverization and agglomeration of FeTiO3 nanoparticles during cycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc05245kDOI Listing
October 2020

Knockdown of lncRNA Suppressed the Proliferation of Cholangiocarcinoma by Sponging .

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2020 Sep 9. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of General Surgery and The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

A large number of studies had found that small nucleolar RNA host gene 20 () was a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that played important regulatory functions in numerous tumors. Nevertheless, the expression and pathophysiological role of in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are currently unclear. The objective of this study is to reveal the clinical significance and pathophysiological function of in CCA. The tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues of CCA were obtained to determine the expression and clinical significance of , and the targets of related genes were predicted through bioinformatics analysis. The function and regulatory mechanism of in CCA were evaluated by transfection, CCK-8 experiment, and luciferase reporter assay. In CCA, was highly expressed. Overexpressed was markedly interrelated with the lymph node invasion and TNM stage. In addition, it could be used as indicator to evaluate the prognosis of patients. sponging could accelerate the proliferation of CCA tumor cells. acted as a tumor suppressor in CCA and could also serve as a prognostic indicator. Abolition of caused an antagonistic effect and diminished the impacts of knockdown. combined with could better predict the prognosis of CCA patients. These data confirmed the knockdown expression in CCA could inhibit the proliferation by means of sponging .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2020.4042DOI Listing
September 2020

Melatonin inhibits oxalate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in HK-2 cells by activating the AMPK pathway.

Cell Cycle 2020 10 23;19(20):2600-2610. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Deposition of various crystal and organic substances in the kidney can lead to kidney stone formation. Melatonin is an effective endogenous antioxidant that can prevent crystalluria and kidney damage due to crystal formation and aggregation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which melatonin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. We treated HK-2 cells with oxalate to establish an kidney stone model, and treated these cells with different concentrations of melatonin (0, 5, 10, 20 μmol/L) and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor Compound C. We measured levels of stress response markers including reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and factors in the stress response pathway, such as ATF6, GRP78, DDIT3, PERK, p-PERK, IRE1, p-IRE1, XBP1s, AMPK, and p-AMPK, using real time-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyzes. We measured mitochondrial membrane potential and caspases-3 activity using the CCK8, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, and flow cytometry assays to assess HK-2 cell viability and apoptosis. Melatonin improved the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the HK-2 cells, as evidenced by the dose-dependent reduction in apoptosis, ROS levels, and protein expression of ATF6, GRP78, DDIT3, p-PERK, p-IRE1, XBP1s, caspase-12, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Addition of the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, partially reversed the protective effect of melatonin. Our study revealed that the protective effects of melatonin on oxalate-induced ER stress and apoptosis is partly dependent on AMPK activation in HK-2 cells. These findings provide insight into the prevention and treatment of kidney stones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2020.1810401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644152PMC
October 2020

Giant aneurysmal of the left sinus of Valsalva in adults.

J Card Surg 2020 Nov 21;35(11):3145-3147. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, PR China.

Objective: To investigate the aneurysmal of the left sinus of Valsalva, and to improve the understanding of the disease and the level of diagnosis and treatment.

Method: This article mainly reports a case of a huge aneurysmal of the left sinus of Valsalva patients treated with surgical treatment.

Result: After surgery, the prognosis of the case was good.

Conclusion: Aneurysmal of the left sinus of Valsalva has a low incidence, which is rare in clinical with no clinical specific symptoms leading to difficulty in early detection. The appropriate surgical method should be considered to the patient's condition, to prevent the tumor rupture and the death of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.14959DOI Listing
November 2020

Wintertime nitrate formation pathways in the north China plain: Importance of NO heterogeneous hydrolysis.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 9;266(Pt 2):115287. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710061, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Xi'an, 710061, China. Electronic address:

Strict emission control measures have been implemented in the North China Plain (NCP) to improve air quality since 2013. However, heavy particulate matter (PM) pollution still frequently occurs in the region especially during wintertime, and the nitrate contribution to fine PM (PM) has substantially increased in recent several years. Nitrate aerosols, which are formed via nitric acid (HNO) to balance inorganic cations in the particle phase, have become a major fraction of PM during wintertime haze events in the NCP. HNO is mainly produced through homogeneous (NO+OH, NO+VOCs) and heterogeneous pathways (NO heterogeneous hydrolysis) in the atmosphere, but the contribution of the two pathways to the nitrate formation remains elusive. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) was applied to simulate a heavy haze episode from 16 to December 31, 2016 in the North China Plain, and the source-oriented method (SOM) and brute force method (BFM) were both used to evaluate contributions of the heterogeneous pathway to the nitrate formation. The results demonstrated that the near-surface nitrate contributions of the heterogeneous pathway were about 30.8% based on the BFM, and 51.6% based on the SOM, indicating that the BFM might be subject to underestimating importance of the heterogeneous pathway to the nitrate formation. The SOM simulations further showed that the heterogeneous pathway dominated the nighttime HNO production in the planetary boundary layer, with an average contribution of 83.0%. Although NO was photolytically liable during daytime, the heterogeneous NO hydrolysis still contributed 10.1% of HNO, which was caused by substantial attenuation of incident solar radiation by clouds and high PM mass loading. Our study highlighted the significantly important role of NO heterogeneous hydrolysis in the nitrate formation during wintertime haze days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115287DOI Listing
November 2020

Involvement of chemosensory proteins in host plant searching in the bird cherry-oat aphid.

Insect Sci 2020 Aug 12. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Crop Pest Integrated Pest Management on the Loess Plateau of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, China.

Chemosensory systems are considered to play an important role in host plant selection in herbivorous insects. However, few studies have focused on chemosensory proteins (CSPs) for aphid host-location mechanisms. The roles of CSPs in searching for different Poaceae species (wheat, barley, triticale, maize and sorghum) were tested in Rhopalosiphum padi, an important cereal pest. The olfactometer assays showed that R. padi responds to plant odors. Seven R. padi CSP genes were identified. Influence of aphid morph, tissue and starvation state on expression patterns of CSPs was evaluated. Expression levels of CSP1, CSP4, CSP5 and CSP6 in winged aphids were significantly higher than those in wingless ones. Transcription levels of four genes (CSP1, CSP4, CSP5 and CSP6) were relatively higher in the head with antennae, and the four genes tended to be upregulated following starvation. Silencing of three CSPs (CSP4, CSP5 and CSP6) altered aphid host-location behavior in response to the five different host plants tested. Three volatile compounds of host plants (octanal, [E]-2-hexenol and linalool) have significant attraction to winged R. padi according to the four-arm olfactometer tests. Molecular docking predicted hydrogen bonding sites which played key roles in the binding of CSP4, CSP5 and CSP6 with volatile compounds. Knockdown of CSP4 or CSP5 significantly decreased the staying time of R. padi in the arms with octanal. However, knockdown of CSP6 could not affect the response of R. padi to octanal. These results bring evidence for the involvement of three CSPs in R. padi host-location behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12865DOI Listing
August 2020

A high-performance rechargeable Mg/Li hybrid battery using CNT@TiO nanocables as the cathode.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jan 27;581(Pt A):307-313. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Devices Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China.

Porous CNT@TiO nanocables are prepared via an impregnation method combined with calcination, which not only display the illusive capacity of 233.5 mAh g but also possess outstanding rate performance (144.9 mAh g at 500 mA g). Compared with TiO nanoparticles and nanotubes, CNT@TiO exhibits the excellent electrochemical performance on account of the unique coaxial nanocable feature (short ion diffusion path, large contact surface area, supernal conductivity, and favorable structure stability), which simultaneously overcomes the aggregation of TiO particles and the collapse of TiO nanotubes. Importantly, there are no significant changes in the morphology and phase after long cycling, meaning that CNT@TiO has a highly structural stability and reversibility. Therefore, CNT@TiO can be applied as a promising cathode material for Mg/Li hybrid batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.07.104DOI Listing
January 2021

Increasing wintertime ozone levels and secondary aerosol formation in the Guanzhong basin, central China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 20;745:140961. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

The observed near-surface ozone (O) concentration has been remarkably increasing during recent years in winter in the Guanzhong basin, central China, showing a continuous enhancement of the atmospheric oxidizing capacity (AOC). The impact of such a change in the AOC on secondary aerosol formation, however, has not yet been assessed. In this study, we simulate the formation of O and airborne particles in the atmosphere using the WRF-Chem model, in which the AOC is calculated quantitatively, to understand the responses of secondary aerosols to the AOC increase. Meteorological observations, air pollutants including O, NO, SO, CO, and PM concentrations at ambient monitoring sites, and the main compositions of submicron particulates measured using ACSM are used to constrain the model simulation. The model result shows that the population hourly and postmeridian O (=O + NO) concentrations are good indicators for the wintertime AOC in the basin, suggested by the significantly positive correlations between them. Sensitivity experiments present that the AOC changes may exert important influences on fine particle (PM) concentration with an average rate of 1.94 (μg m)/(10 cm s) for Δ(PM)/Δ(AOC), which is mostly caused by the mass changes in secondary organic aerosol (43%) and nitrate aerosol (40%) and less attributed to the ammonium (11%) and sulfate (6%) components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140961DOI Listing
November 2020

An uncommon manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia on CT scan with small cavities in the lungs: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(28):e21240

New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY.

Rationale: Chest computed tomography (CT) scans play a key role in diagnosing and managing of COVID-19 pneumonia. The typical manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia on a chest CT scan are ground glass opacities, consolidation, nodules, and linear opacities. It can be accompanied by a "crazy-paving" pattern, air bronchograms, pleural hypertrophy, and pleural effusion. However, no literature has reported a case with cavities in the lungs.

Patient Concerns: A 34-year-old male patient complained of fever, cough, fatigue, myalgia, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness for 2 weeks. This patient is living in Xiaogan, a city around Wuhan, and he had contact with a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia from Wuhan <14 days before he had fever.

Diagnosis: A nucleic acid test by rRT-PCR returned positive on a pharyngeal swab, confirming the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Interventions: Isolation antiviral treatment.

Outcomes: After 19 days of isolation and antiviral treatment, his temperature returned to normal and the symptoms were relieved. The laboratory results also were returning to normal levels. The chest CT scan showed that the acute inflammation had subsided significantly. With 2 consecutive novel coronavirus nucleic acid tests had returned negative, the patient was discharged from the hospital and sent to a government designated hotel for quarantine observation. The unique chest CT manifestation in this case was the small cavities in both lungs during the absorption phase of this disease. These small cavities developed into consolidated nodules with clear edges and gradually shrank or disappeared.

Lessons: Although 2 consecutive nucleic acid tests returned negative in this patient, the small cavity changes in the lungs were observed, so the patient was quarantined for 14 days. However, follow-up CT after the first 14 days' quarantine showed new small cavity changes on the lungs, a further 14 days of quarantine was recommended. Therefore, in some COVID-19 cases, even if the nucleic acid tests turns negative, the disappearance of lung lesions may take a long time. The repeated chest CT scan plays an important role in the diagnosis and evaluation of the recovery of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360306PMC
July 2020

Unexpected air pollution with marked emission reductions during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.

Science 2020 08 17;369(6504):702-706. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Divisions of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

The absence of motor vehicle traffic and suspended manufacturing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China enabled assessment of the efficiency of air pollution mitigation. Up to 90% reduction of certain emissions during the city-lockdown period can be identified from satellite and ground-based observations. Unexpectedly, extreme particulate matter levels simultaneously occurred in northern China. Our synergistic observation analyses and model simulations show that anomalously high humidity promoted aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, along with stagnant airflow and uninterrupted emissions from power plants and petrochemical facilities, contributing to severe haze formation. Also, because of nonlinear production chemistry and titration of ozone in winter, reduced nitrogen oxides resulted in ozone enhancement in urban areas, further increasing the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and facilitating secondary aerosol formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb7431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402623PMC
August 2020