Publications by authors named "Lana M Olson"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic Susceptibility to Postdiarrheal Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome After Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection: A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention FoodNet Study.

J Infect Dis 2018 03;217(6):1000-1010

Tennessee Department of Health, Nashville.

Background: Postdiarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D+HUS) following Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is a serious condition lacking specific treatment. Host immune dysregulation and genetic susceptibility to complement hyperactivation are implicated in non-STEC-related HUS. However, genetic susceptibility to D+HUS remains largely uncharacterized.

Methods: Patients with culture-confirmed STEC diarrhea, identified through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention FoodNet surveillance system (2007-2012), were serotyped and classified by laboratory and/or clinical criteria as having suspected, probable, or confirmed D+HUS or as controls and underwent genotyping at 200 loci linked to nondiarrheal HUS or similar pathologies. Genetic associations with D+HUS were explored by multivariable regression, with adjustment for known risk factors.

Results: Of 641 enrollees with STEC O157:H7, 80 had suspected D+HUS (41 with probable and 32 with confirmed D+HUS). Twelve genes related to cytokine signaling, complement pathways, platelet function, pathogen recognition, iron transport, and endothelial function were associated with D+HUS in multivariable-adjusted analyses (P ≤ .05). Of 12 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 5 were associated with all levels of D+HUS (intergenic SNP rs10874639, TFRC rs3804141, EDN1 rs5370, GP1BA rs121908064, and B2M rs16966334), and 7 SNPs (6 non-complement related) were associated with confirmed D+HUS (all P < .05).

Conclusions: Polymorphisms in many non-complement-related genes may contribute to D+HUS susceptibility. These results require replication, but they suggest novel therapeutic targets in patients with D+HUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix633DOI Listing
March 2018

Screening for UGT1A1 Genotype in Study A5257 Would Have Markedly Reduced Premature Discontinuation of Atazanavir for Hyperbilirubinemia.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Sep 1;2(3):ofv085. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine , Nashville, Tennessee.

Background.  Some patients are not prescribed atazanavir because of concern about possible jaundice. Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia correlates with UGT1A1 rs887829 genotype. We examined bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir in participants from AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5257. Methods.  Discriminatory properties of UGT1A1 T/T genotype for predicting bilirubin-related atazanavir discontinuation through 96 weeks after antiretroviral initiation were estimated. Results.  Genetic analyses involved 1450 participants, including 481 who initiated randomized atazanavir/ritonavir. Positive predictive values of rs887829 T/T for bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 20% (CI, 9%-36%) in Black, 60% (CI, 32%-84%) in White, and 29% (CI, 8%-58%) in Hispanic participants; negative predictive values were 97% (CI, 93%-99%), 95% (CI, 90%-98%), and 97% (CI, 90%-100%), respectively. Conclusions.  Bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir was rare in participants not homozygous for rs887829 T/T, regardless of race or ethnicity. We hypothesize that the higher rate of discontinuation among White participants homozygous for rs887829 T/T may reflect differences in physical manifestations of jaundice by race and ethnicity. Selective avoidance of atazanavir initiation among individuals with T/T genotypes would markedly reduce the likelihood of bilirubin-related discontinuation of atazanavir while allowing atazanavir to be prescribed to the majority of individuals. This genetic association will also affect atazanavir/cobicistat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofv085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498287PMC
September 2015

Genome-Wide Association Study of Serum Creatinine Levels during Vancomycin Therapy.

PLoS One 2015 1;10(6):e0127791. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Vancomycin, a commonly used antibiotic, can be nephrotoxic. Known risk factors such as age, creatinine clearance, vancomycin dose / dosing interval, and concurrent nephrotoxic medications fail to accurately predict nephrotoxicity. To identify potential genomic risk factors, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum creatinine levels while on vancomycin in 489 European American individuals and validated findings in three independent cohorts totaling 439 European American individuals. In primary analyses, the chromosome 6q22.31 locus was associated with increased serum creatinine levels while on vancomycin therapy (most significant variant rs2789047, risk allele A, β = -0.06, p = 1.1 x 10(-7)). SNPs in this region had consistent directions of effect in the validation cohorts, with a meta-p of 1.1 x 10(-7). Variation in this region on chromosome 6, which includes the genes TBC1D32/C6orf170 and GJA1 (encoding connexin43), may modulate risk of vancomycin-induced kidney injury.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127791PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4452656PMC
March 2016

Rare variants in RTEL1 are associated with familial interstitial pneumonia.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015 Mar;191(6):646-55

1 Division of Medical Genetics and Genomic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.

Rationale: Up to 20% of cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia cluster in families, comprising the syndrome of familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP); however, the genetic basis of FIP remains uncertain in most families.

Objectives: To determine if new disease-causing rare genetic variants could be identified using whole-exome sequencing of affected members from FIP families, providing additional insights into disease pathogenesis.

Methods: Affected subjects from 25 kindreds were selected from an ongoing FIP registry for whole-exome sequencing from genomic DNA. Candidate rare variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, and cosegregation analysis was performed in families, followed by additional sequencing of affected individuals from another 163 kindreds.

Measurements And Main Results: We identified a potentially damaging rare variant in the gene encoding for regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) that segregated with disease and was associated with very short telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 1 of 25 families in our original whole-exome sequencing cohort. Evaluation of affected individuals in 163 additional kindreds revealed another eight families (4.7%) with heterozygous rare variants in RTEL1 that segregated with clinical FIP. Probands and unaffected carriers of these rare variants had short telomeres (<10% for age) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and increased T-circle formation, suggesting impaired RTEL1 function.

Conclusions: Rare loss-of-function variants in RTEL1 represent a newly defined genetic predisposition for FIP, supporting the importance of telomere-related pathways in pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201408-1510OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4384777PMC
March 2015

Rare and common variants in extracellular matrix gene Fibrillin 2 (FBN2) are associated with macular degeneration.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 Nov 4;23(21):5827-37. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Neurobiology Neurodegeneration and Repair Laboratory,

Neurodegenerative diseases affecting the macula constitute a major cause of incurable vision loss and exhibit considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity, from early-onset monogenic disease to multifactorial late-onset age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As part of our continued efforts to define genetic causes of macular degeneration, we performed whole exome sequencing in four individuals of a two-generation family with autosomal dominant maculopathy and identified a rare variant p.Glu1144Lys in Fibrillin 2 (FBN2), a glycoprotein of the elastin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM). Sanger sequencing validated the segregation of this variant in the complete pedigree, including two additional affected and one unaffected individual. Sequencing of 192 maculopathy patients revealed additional rare variants, predicted to disrupt FBN2 function. We then undertook additional studies to explore the relationship of FBN2 to macular disease. We show that FBN2 localizes to Bruch's membrane and its expression appears to be reduced in aging and AMD eyes, prompting us to examine its relationship with AMD. We detect suggestive association of a common FBN2 non-synonymous variant, rs154001 (p.Val965Ile) with AMD in 10 337 cases and 11 174 controls (OR = 1.10; P-value = 3.79 × 10(-5)). Thus, it appears that rare and common variants in a single gene--FBN2--can contribute to Mendelian and complex forms of macular degeneration. Our studies provide genetic evidence for a key role of elastin microfibers and Bruch's membrane in maintaining blood-retina homeostasis and establish the importance of studying orphan diseases for understanding more common clinical phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4189898PMC
November 2014

Mechanistic phenotypes: an aggregative phenotyping strategy to identify disease mechanisms using GWAS data.

PLoS One 2013 12;8(12):e81503. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

A single mutation can alter cellular and global homeostatic mechanisms and give rise to multiple clinical diseases. We hypothesized that these disease mechanisms could be identified using low minor allele frequency (MAF<0.1) non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) associated with "mechanistic phenotypes", comprised of collections of related diagnoses. We studied two mechanistic phenotypes: (1) thrombosis, evaluated in a population of 1,655 African Americans; and (2) four groupings of cancer diagnoses, evaluated in 3,009 white European Americans. We tested associations between nsSNPs represented on GWAS platforms and mechanistic phenotypes ascertained from electronic medical records (EMRs), and sought enrichment in functional ontologies across the top-ranked associations. We used a two-step analytic approach whereby nsSNPs were first sorted by the strength of their association with a phenotype. We tested associations using two reverse genetic models and standard additive and recessive models. In the second step, we employed a hypothesis-free ontological enrichment analysis using the sorted nsSNPs to identify functional mechanisms underlying the diagnoses comprising the mechanistic phenotypes. The thrombosis phenotype was solely associated with ontologies related to blood coagulation (Fisher's p = 0.0001, FDR p = 0.03), driven by the F5, P2RY12 and F2RL2 genes. For the cancer phenotypes, the reverse genetics models were enriched in DNA repair functions (p = 2×10-5, FDR p = 0.03) (POLG/FANCI, SLX4/FANCP, XRCC1, BRCA1, FANCA, CHD1L) while the additive model showed enrichment related to chromatid segregation (p = 4×10-6, FDR p = 0.005) (KIF25, PINX1). We were able to replicate nsSNP associations for POLG/FANCI, BRCA1, FANCA and CHD1L in independent data sets. Mechanism-oriented phenotyping using collections of EMR-derived diagnoses can elucidate fundamental disease mechanisms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0081503PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3861317PMC
September 2014

Identification of a rare coding variant in complement 3 associated with age-related macular degeneration.

Nat Genet 2013 Nov 15;45(11):1375-9. Epub 2013 Sep 15.

1] Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [2].

Macular degeneration is a common cause of blindness in the elderly. To identify rare coding variants associated with a large increase in risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sequenced 2,335 cases and 789 controls in 10 candidate loci (57 genes). To increase power, we augmented our control set with ancestry-matched exome-sequenced controls. An analysis of coding variation in 2,268 AMD cases and 2,268 ancestry-matched controls identified 2 large-effect rare variants: previously described p.Arg1210Cys encoded in the CFH gene (case frequency (fcase) = 0.51%; control frequency (fcontrol) = 0.02%; odds ratio (OR) = 23.11) and newly identified p.Lys155Gln encoded in the C3 gene (fcase = 1.06%; fcontrol = 0.39%; OR = 2.68). The variants suggest decreased inhibition of C3 by complement factor H, resulting in increased activation of the alternative complement pathway, as a key component of disease biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812337PMC
November 2013

CDKN2B-AS1 genotype-glaucoma feature correlations in primary open-angle glaucoma patients from the United States.

Am J Ophthalmol 2013 Feb 27;155(2):342-353.e5. Epub 2012 Oct 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

Purpose: To assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene region containing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense noncoding RNA (CDKN2B-AS1) and glaucoma features among primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients.

Design: Retrospective observational case series.

Methods: We studied associations between 10 CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs and glaucoma features among 976 POAG cases from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and 1971 cases from the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium. For each patient, we chose the feature from the eye with the higher value. We created cohort-specific multivariable models for glaucoma features and then meta-analyzed the results.

Results: For 9 of the 10 protective CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs with minor alleles associated with reduced disease risk (eg, the G allele at rs2157719), POAG patients carrying these minor alleles had smaller cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units smaller per G allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.03; P = 6.23E-05) despite having higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (0.70 mm Hg higher per G allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.00; P = 5.45E-06). For the 1 adverse rs3217992 SNP with minor allele A associated with increased disease risk, POAG patients with A alleles had larger cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units larger per A allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07; P = 4.74E-04) despite having lower IOP (-0.57 mm Hg per A allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: -0.84, -0.29; P = 6.55E-05).

Conclusion: Alleles of CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs, which influence risk of developing POAG, also modulate optic nerve degeneration among POAG patients, underscoring the role of CDKN2B-AS1 in POAG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2012.07.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3544983PMC
February 2013

The NEIGHBOR consortium primary open-angle glaucoma genome-wide association study: rationale, study design, and clinical variables.

J Glaucoma 2013 Sep;22(7):517-25

Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA.

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a common disease with complex inheritance. The identification of genes predisposing to POAG is an important step toward the development of novel gene-based methods of diagnosis and treatment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes contributing to complex traits such as POAG however, such studies frequently require very large sample sizes, and thus, collaborations and consortia have been of critical importance for the GWAS approach. In this report we describe the formation of the NEIGHBOR consortium, the harmonized case control definitions used for a POAG GWAS, the clinical features of the cases and controls, and the rationale for the GWAS study design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e31824d4fd8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485429PMC
September 2013

Common variants at 9p21 and 8q22 are associated with increased susceptibility to optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma.

PLoS Genet 2012 26;8(4):e1002654. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Optic nerve degeneration caused by glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Patients affected by the normal-pressure form of glaucoma are more likely to harbor risk alleles for glaucoma-related optic nerve disease. We have performed a meta-analysis of two independent genome-wide association studies for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) followed by a normal-pressure glaucoma (NPG, defined by intraocular pressure (IOP) less than 22 mmHg) subgroup analysis. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms that showed the most significant associations were tested for association with a second form of glaucoma, exfoliation-syndrome glaucoma. The overall meta-analysis of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR dataset results (3,146 cases and 3,487 controls) identified significant associations between two loci and POAG: the CDKN2BAS region on 9p21 (rs2157719 [G], OR = 0.69 [95%CI 0.63-0.75], p = 1.86×10⁻¹⁸), and the SIX1/SIX6 region on chromosome 14q23 (rs10483727 [A], OR = 1.32 [95%CI 1.21-1.43], p = 3.87×10⁻¹¹). In sub-group analysis two loci were significantly associated with NPG: 9p21 containing the CDKN2BAS gene (rs2157719 [G], OR = 0.58 [95% CI 0.50-0.67], p = 1.17×10⁻¹²) and a probable regulatory region on 8q22 (rs284489 [G], OR = 0.62 [95% CI 0.53-0.72], p = 8.88×10⁻¹⁰). Both NPG loci were also nominally associated with a second type of glaucoma, exfoliation syndrome glaucoma (rs2157719 [G], OR = 0.59 [95% CI 0.41-0.87], p = 0.004 and rs284489 [G], OR = 0.76 [95% CI 0.54-1.06], p = 0.021), suggesting that these loci might contribute more generally to optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. Because both loci influence transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling, we performed a genomic pathway analysis that showed an association between the TGF-beta pathway and NPG (permuted p = 0.009). These results suggest that neuro-protective therapies targeting TGF-beta signaling could be effective for multiple forms of glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3343074PMC
September 2012

Pitfalls of merging GWAS data: lessons learned in the eMERGE network and quality control procedures to maintain high data quality.

Genet Epidemiol 2011 Dec;35(8):887-98

Center for Human Genetics Research, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a useful approach in the study of the genetic components of complex phenotypes. Aside from large cohorts, GWAS have generally been limited to the study of one or a few diseases or traits. The emergence of biobanks linked to electronic medical records (EMRs) allows the efficient reuse of genetic data to yield meaningful genotype-phenotype associations for multiple phenotypes or traits. Phase I of the electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics (eMERGE-I) Network is a National Human Genome Research Institute-supported consortium composed of five sites to perform various genetic association studies using DNA repositories and EMR systems. Each eMERGE site has developed EMR-based algorithms to comprise a core set of 14 phenotypes for extraction of study samples from each site's DNA repository. Each eMERGE site selected samples for a specific phenotype, and these samples were genotyped at either the Broad Institute or at the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the Illumina Infinium BeadChip technology. In all, approximately 17,000 samples from across the five sites were genotyped. A unified quality control (QC) pipeline was developed by the eMERGE Genomics Working Group and used to ensure thorough cleaning of the data. This process includes examination of sample and marker quality and various batch effects. Upon completion of the genotyping and QC analyses for each site's primary study, eMERGE Coordinating Center merged the datasets from all five sites. This larger merged dataset reentered the established eMERGE QC pipeline. Based on lessons learned during the process, additional analyses and QC checkpoints were added to the pipeline to ensure proper merging. Here, we explore the challenges associated with combining datasets from different genotyping centers and describe the expansion to eMERGE QC pipeline for merged datasets. These additional steps will be useful as the eMERGE project expands to include additional sites in eMERGE-II, and also serve as a starting point for investigators merging multiple genotype datasets accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes. Our experience demonstrates that merging multiple datasets after additional QC can be an efficient use of genotype data despite new challenges that appear in the process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.20639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3592376PMC
December 2011

Common variants near CAV1 and CAV2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in Caucasians from the USA.

Hum Mol Genet 2011 Dec 26;20(23):4707-13. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a genetically complex common disease characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration that results in irreversible blindness. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for POAG in an Icelandic population identified significant associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the CAV1 and CAV2 genes on chromosome 7q31. In this study, we confirm that the identified SNPs are associated with POAG in our Caucasian US population and that specific haplotypes located in the CAV1/CAV2 intergenic region are associated with the disease. We also present data suggesting that associations with several CAV1/CAV2 SNPs are significant mostly in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddr382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209825PMC
December 2011

Using genetic variation and environmental risk factor data to identify individuals at high risk for age-related macular degeneration.

PLoS One 2011 Mar 24;6(3):e17784. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

A major goal of personalized medicine is to pre-symptomatically identify individuals at high risk for disease using knowledge of each individual's particular genetic profile and constellation of environmental risk factors. With the identification of several well-replicated risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of legal blindness in older adults, this previously unreachable goal is beginning to seem less elusive. However, recently developed algorithms have either been much less accurate than expected, given the strong effects of the identified risk factors, or have not been applied to independent datasets, leaving unknown how well they would perform in the population at large. We sought to increase accuracy by using novel modeling strategies, including multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and grammatical evolution of neural networks (GENN), in addition to the traditional logistic regression approach. Furthermore, we rigorously designed and tested our models in three distinct datasets: a Vanderbilt-Miami (VM) clinic-based case-control dataset, a VM family dataset, and the population-based Age-related Maculopathy Ancillary (ARMA) Study cohort. Using a consensus approach to combine the results from logistic regression and GENN models, our algorithm was successful in differentiating between high- and low-risk groups (sensitivity 77.0%, specificity 74.1%). In the ARMA cohort, the positive and negative predictive values were 63.3% and 70.7%, respectively. We expect that future efforts to refine this algorithm by increasing the sample size available for model building, including novel susceptibility factors as they are discovered, and by calibrating the model for diverse populations will improve accuracy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017784PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3063776PMC
March 2011

Mapping of the disease locus and identification of ADAMTS10 as a candidate gene in a canine model of primary open angle glaucoma.

PLoS Genet 2011 Feb 17;7(2):e1001306. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure as an important risk factor. Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide SNP arrays to map the disease gene in a colony of Beagle dogs with inherited POAG to within a single 4 Mb locus on canine chromosome 20. The Beagle POAG locus is syntenic to a previously mapped human quantitative trait locus for intraocular pressure on human chromosome 19. Sequence capture and next-generation sequencing of the entire canine POAG locus revealed a total of 2,692 SNPs segregating with disease. Of the disease-segregating SNPs, 54 were within exons, 8 of which result in amino acid substitutions. The strongest candidate variant causes a glycine to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the metalloproteinase ADAMTS10. Western blotting revealed ADAMTS10 protein is preferentially expressed in the trabecular meshwork, supporting an effect of the variant specific to aqueous humor outflow. The Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 found in the POAG Beagles suggests that altered processing of extracellular matrix and/or defects in microfibril structure or function may be involved in raising intraocular pressure, offering specific biochemical targets for future research and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040645PMC
February 2011

Dissection of chromosome 16p12 linkage peak suggests a possible role for CACNG3 variants in age-related macular degeneration susceptibility.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Mar 28;52(3):1748-54. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder of the retina, characterized by drusen, geographic atrophy, and choroidal neovascularization. Cigarette smoking and the genetic variants CFH Y402H, ARMS2 A69S, CFB R32Q, and C3 R102G have been strongly and consistently associated with AMD. Multiple linkage studies have found evidence suggestive of another AMD locus on chromosome 16p12 but the gene responsible has yet to be identified.

Methods: In the initial phase of the study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across chromosome 16 were examined for linkage and/or association in 575 Caucasian individuals from 148 multiplex and 77 singleton families. Additional variants were tested in an independent dataset of unrelated cases and controls. According to these results, in combination with gene expression data and biological knowledge, five genes were selected for further study: CACNG3, HS3ST4, IL4R, Q7Z6F8, and ITGAM.

Results: After genotyping additional tagging SNPs across each gene, the strongest evidence for linkage and association was found within CACNG3 (rs757200 nonparametric LOD* = 3.3, APL (association in the presence of linkage) P = 0.06, and rs2238498 MQLS (modified quasi-likelihood score) P = 0.006 in the families; rs2283550 P = 1.3 × 10(-6), and rs4787924 P = 0.002 in the case-control dataset). After adjusting for known AMD risk factors, rs2283550 remained strongly associated (P = 2.4 × 10(-4)). Furthermore, the association signal at rs4787924 was replicated in an independent dataset (P = 0.035) and in a joint analysis of all the data (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: These results suggest that CACNG3 is the best candidate for an AMD risk gene within the 16p12 linkage peak. More studies are needed to confirm this association and clarify the role of the gene in AMD pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.09-5112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3101690PMC
March 2011

Feasibility of High-Throughput Genome-Wide Genotyping using DNA from Stored Buccal Cell Samples.

Biomark Insights 2010 May 20;5:49-55. Epub 2010 May 20.

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

It is unclear if buccal cell samples contain sufficient human DNA with adequately sized fragments for high throughput genetic bioassays. Yet buccal cell sample collection is an attractive alternative to gathering blood samples for genetic epidemiologists engaged in large-scale genetic biomarker studies. We assessed the genotyping efficiency (GE) and genotyping concordance (GC) of buccal cell DNA samples compared to corresponding blood DNA samples, from 32 Nurses' Health Study (NHS) participants using the Illumina Infinium 660W-Quad platform. We also assessed how GE and GC accuracy varied as a function of DNA concentration using serial dilutions of buccal DNA samples. Finally we determined the nature and genomic distribution of discordant genotypes in buccal DNA samples. The mean GE of undiluted buccal cell DNA samples was high (99.32%), as was the GC between the paired buccal and blood samples (99.29%). GC between the dilutions versus the undiluted buccal DNA was also very high (>97%), though both GE and GC notably declined at DNA concentrations less than 5 ng/mul. Most (>95%) genotype determinations in buccal cell samples were of the "missing call" variety (as opposed to the "alternative genotype call" variety) across the spectrum of buccal DNA concentrations studied. Finally, for buccal DNA concentration above 1.7 ng/ul, discordant genotyping calls did not cluster in any particular chromosome. Buccal cell-derived DNA represents a viable alternative to blood DNA for genotyping on a high-density platform.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2879226PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/bmi.s5062DOI Listing
May 2010

Localization of age-related macular degeneration-associated ARMS2 in cytosol, not mitochondria.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009 Jul 28;50(7):3084-90. Epub 2009 Feb 28.

Miami Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136, USA.

Purpose: To analyze the relationship between ARMS2 and HTRA1 in the association with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an independent case-control dataset and to investigate the subcellular localization of the ARMS2 protein in an in vitro system.

Methods: Two SNPs in ARMS2 and HTRA1 were genotyped in 685 cases and 269 controls by a genotyping assay. Allelic association was tested by a chi(2) test. A likelihood ratio test (LRT) of full versus reduced models was used to analyze the interaction between ARMS2 and smoking and HTRA1 and smoking, after adjustment for CFH and age. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot were applied to localize ARMS2 in retinal epithelial ARPE-19 cells and COS7 cell transfected by ARMS2 constructs.

Results: Both significantly associated SNP rs10490924 and rs11200638 (P < 0.0001) are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; D' = 0.97, r(2) = 0.93) that generates virtually identical association test and odds ratios. In separate logistic regression models, the interaction effect for both smoking with ARMS2 and with HTRA1 was not statistically significant. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot show that both endogenous and exogenous ARMS2 are mainly distributed in the cytosol, not the mitochondria. Compared with the wild-type, ARMS2 A69S is more likely to be associated with the cytoskeleton in COS7 cells.

Conclusions: The significant associations in ARMS2 and HTRA1 are with polymorphisms in strong LD that confer virtually identical risks, preventing differentiation at the statistical level. ARMS2 was mainly distributed in the cytosol, not in the mitochondrial outer membrane as previously reported, suggesting that ARMS2 may not confer risk to AMD through the mitochondrial pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-3240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001322PMC
July 2009

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism A4917G is independently associated with age-related macular degeneration.

PLoS One 2008 May 7;3(5):e2091. Epub 2008 May 7.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

The objective of this study was to determine if MTND2*LHON4917G (4917G), a specific non-synonymous polymorphism in the mitochondrial genome previously associated with neurodegenerative phenotypes, is associated with increased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A preliminary study of 393 individuals (293 cases and 100 controls) ascertained at Vanderbilt revealed an increased occurrence of 4917G in cases compared to controls (15.4% vs.9.0%, p = 0.11). Since there was a significant age difference between cases and controls in this initial analysis, we extended the study by selecting Caucasian pairs matched at the exact age at examination. From the 1547 individuals in the Vanderbilt/Duke AMD population association study (including 157 in the preliminary study), we were able to match 560 (280 cases and 280 unaffected) on exact age at examination. This study population was genotyped for 4917G plus specific AMD-associated nuclear genome polymorphisms in CFH, LOC387715 and ApoE. Following adjustment for the listed nuclear genome polymorphisms, 4917G independently predicts the presence of AMD (OR = 2.16, 95%CI 1.20-3.91, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a specific mitochondrial polymorphism previously implicated in other neurodegenerative phenotypes (4917G) appears to convey risk for AMD independent of recently discovered nuclear DNA polymorphisms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0002091PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2330085PMC
May 2008

C3 R102G polymorphism increases risk of age-related macular degeneration.

Hum Mol Genet 2008 Jun 6;17(12):1821-4. Epub 2008 Mar 6.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Inflammation has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Association of variants in the complement factor H (CFH) and complement factor B (CFB) genes has targeted the search for additional loci to the alternative complement cascade, of which C3 is a major component. Two non-synonymous coding polymorphisms within C3, R102G and L314P, have previously been strongly associated with increased risk. These variants are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), making the contribution of this locus to AMD even more difficult to ascertain. We sought to determine whether the C3 association resulted primarily from only one of these two variants or from a combined effect of both in 223 families and an independent dataset of 701 cases and 286 unrelated controls. The C3 polymorphisms were in strong LD (r(2) = 0.85), and both were associated in the family-based and case-control datasets (R102G genoPDT P = 0.02, case-control genotypic P = 0.004; L314P genoPDT P = 0.001, case-control genotypic P = 0.04). In conditional analyses in the case-control dataset, R102G remained associated with disease in the L314P risk allele carriers (P = 0.01), but there was no effect of L314P in the R102G risk allele carriers (P = 0.2). After adjusting for age, smoking, CFH Y402H, LOC387715 A69S, and CFB R32Q, the effect of R102G remained strong [P = 0.015, odds ratio = 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.21, adjusted PAR(population attributable risk) = 0.17]. Therefore, while the strong LD between R102G and L314P makes it difficult to disentangle their individual effects on disease risk, the R102G polymorphism acting alone provides the best model for disease in our data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddn075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2900893PMC
June 2008

Deletion of CFHR3 and CFHR1 genes in age-related macular degeneration.

Hum Mol Genet 2008 Apr 15;17(7):971-7. Epub 2007 Dec 15.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) impairs vision for approximately 7.5 million Americans. Both susceptibility variants and protective haplotypes in the complement factor H (CFH) gene modulate risk for AMD. Recently, deletion of the 'CFH-related' genes CFHR1 and CFHR3 was found to be segregating with a particular CFH haplotype, which reduced the risk of AMD. We tested the deletion for association in a Caucasian population of 780 cases and 265 controls and examined its effect in the context of known AMD risk factors. The deletion did not segregate perfectly with any one SNP, as previously suggested. CFH haplotype P2 was the most frequent haplotype in deletion homozygotes (47%), and the majority (14/16) of these individuals were homozygous for the non-risk allele of Y402H. Overall, deletion homozygosity was significantly more frequent in controls than cases (2.6% controls, 0.8% cases, P = 0.025, OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.10-0.86). After controlling for age, Y402H, smoking and LOC387715 A69S, the protective effect of the deletion was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.27). However, using a CFH haplotype that all deletion homozygotes share as a surrogate for the deletion, this marker remained modestly associated with AMD after adjustment for known risk factors (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.39-1.04, P = 0.07). Therefore, deletion of CFHR1 and CFHR3 may account for a small portion of the protection from AMD associated with particular haplotypes in CFH. The presence of protective haplotypes in CFH that do not carry the deletion, suggests that other protective variants in this region have yet to be discovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm369DOI Listing
April 2008

Haplotypes spanning the complement factor H gene are protective against age-related macular degeneration.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007 Sep;48(9):4277-83

Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a devastating disorder that adversely affects the quality of life of nearly 2 million Americans who have advanced forms of the disease. Besides the well-known risk imparted by carrying the Y402H variant in the complement factor H (CFH) gene on chromosome 1, recent evidence of the existence of protective haplotypes spanning CFH has been reported.

Methods: The haplo.stats program was used to test for association of the protective haplotypes after adjusting for age in the dataset of 584 sporadic cases and 248 control samples. Logistic regression modeling and likelihood ratio tests were used to investigate an interaction between a particular haplotype and smoking status. The HBAT option of FBAT was used to confirm the associations in an independent dataset of 201 families.

Results: Two protective (P) haplotypes in a family-based dataset (P1 = CAATTTAG, P = 0.021; and P2 = CGGCTTAG, P = 0.018) were identified for the first time. Age-adjusted score statistics provided support for these protective haplotypes in the case-control dataset (P1 frequency in cases approximately 13%, in controls approximately 20%, P = 0.001; P2 frequency in cases approximately 5%, in controls approximately 8%, P = 0.077). There was also tentative evidence of an interaction between one of the protective haplotypes and cigarette smoking (P = 0.04 likelihood ratio test for P2-smoking interaction).

Conclusions: Replication of the association between the protective haplotypes and decreased AMD susceptibility provides increased evidence that these associations have biological meaning. The suggestion of a haplotype-smoking interaction adds to the growing body of evidence that smoking is an important environmental covariate in AMD that should be considered in genetic studies. Identification of the protective variant(s) carried within these haplotypes is critical for understanding the etiology of AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-1427DOI Listing
September 2007

Protective effect of complement factor B and complement component 2 variants in age-related macular degeneration.

Hum Mol Genet 2007 Aug 18;16(16):1986-92. Epub 2007 Jun 18.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a devastating disorder of the central retina, causing significant visual impairment for 7.5 million elderly Americans. Abnormal regulation of the complement system likely caused by the Y402H polymorphism in the complement factor H gene is a recognized risk factor for AMD, as is the A69S variant in the poorly characterized LOC387715 gene. Recently, polymorphisms in the factor B (CFB) and complement component 2 (CC2) genes were associated with decreased susceptibility to AMD. To validate this association in independent family-based and case-control Caucasian data sets, we genotyped two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CC2 and four SNPs in CFB. The R32Q variant of CFB was significantly associated with protection from AMD in the family-based data set (P = 0.025). Three SNPs in CC2 and CFB were strongly associated with decreased risk of AMD in the case-control data set (CC2 E318D: P = 0.02; CC2 rs547154: P = 9 x 10(-6); and CFB R32Q P = 2 x 10(-5)). The minor alleles at CC2 rs547154 and CFB R32Q are present in 4% of cases versus 10% of controls, and as these SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.92), these results likely represent the same protective signal. After controlling for age, Y402H, A69S and smoking, the effect of CFB R32Q remained quite strong (OR 0.21, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.39; P < 10(-4)). Likelihood ratio testing and conditional analyses in the case-control data set suggest that a weaker, independent protective effect exists for CC2 E318D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddm146DOI Listing
August 2007

Complement factor H variant increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

Science 2005 Apr 10;308(5720):419-21. Epub 2005 Mar 10.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in the elderly whose etiology remains largely unknown. Previous studies identified chromosome 1q32 as harboring a susceptibility locus for AMD. We used single-nucleotide polymorphisms to interrogate this region and identified a strongly associated haplotype in two independent data sets. DNA resequencing of the complement factor H gene within this haplotype revealed a common coding variant, Y402H, that significantly increases the risk for AMD with odds ratios between 2.45 and 5.57. This common variant likely explains approximately 43% of AMD in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1110359DOI Listing
April 2005

Genome-wide and Ordered-Subset linkage analyses provide support for autism loci on 17q and 19p with evidence of phenotypic and interlocus genetic correlates.

BMC Med Genet 2005 Jan 12;6. Epub 2005 Jan 12.

Center for Human Genetics Research, Department of Molecular Physiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Autism is a neurobehavioral spectrum of phenotypes characterized by deficits in the development of language and social relationships and patterns of repetitive, rigid and compulsive behaviors. Twin and family studies point to a significant genetic etiology, and several groups have performed genomic linkage screens to identify susceptibility loci.

Methods: We performed a genome-wide linkage screen in 158 combined Tufts, Vanderbilt and AGRE (Autism Genetics Research Exchange) multiplex autism families using parametric and nonparametric methods with a categorical autism diagnosis to identify loci of main effect. Hypothesizing interdependence of genetic risk factors prompted us to perform exploratory studies applying the Ordered-Subset Analysis (OSA) approach using LOD scores as the trait covariate for ranking families. We employed OSA to test for interlocus correlations between loci with LOD scores > or =1.5, and empirically determined significance of linkage in optimal OSA subsets using permutation testing. Exploring phenotypic correlates as the basis for linkage increases involved comparison of mean scores for quantitative trait-based subsets of autism between optimal subsets and the remaining families.

Results: A genome-wide screen for autism loci identified the best evidence for linkage to 17q11.2 and 19p13, with maximum multipoint heterogeneity LOD scores of 2.9 and 2.6, respectively. Suggestive linkage (LOD scores > or =1.5) at other loci included 3p, 6q, 7q, 12p, and 16p. OSA revealed positive correlations of linkage between the 19p locus and 17q, between 19p and 6q, and between 7q and 5p. While potential phenotypic correlates for these findings were not identified for the chromosome 7/5 combination, differences indicating more rapid achievement of "developmental milestones" was apparent in the chromosome 19 OSA-defined subsets for 17q and 6q. OSA was used to test the hypothesis that 19p linkage involved more rapid achievement of these milestones and it revealed significantly increased LOD* scores at 19p13.

Conclusions: Our results further support 19p13 as harboring an autism susceptibility locus, confirm other linkage findings at 17q11.2, and demonstrate the need to analyze more discreet trait-based subsets of complex phenotypes to improve ability to detect genetic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-6-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC546213PMC
January 2005

A linkage disequilibrium map of the 1-Mb 15q12 GABA(A) receptor subunit cluster and association to autism.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2004 Nov;131B(1):51-9

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Human Genetics Research, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Autism is a complex genetic neuropsychiatric condition characterized by deficits in social interaction and language and patterns of repetitive or stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Chromosome 15q11.2-q13 is a candidate region for autism susceptibility based on observations of chromosomal duplications in a small percentage of affected individuals and findings of linkage and association. We performed linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping across a 1-Mb interval containing a cluster of GABA(A) receptor subunit genes (GABRB3, GABRA5, and GABRG3) which are good positional and functional candidates. Intermarker LD was measured for 59 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers spanning this region, corresponding to an average marker spacing of 17.7 kb(-1). We identified haplotype blocks, and characterized these blocks for common (>5%) haplotypes present in the study population. At this marker resolution, haplotype blocks comprise <50% of the DNA in this region, consistent with a high local recombination rate. Identification of haplotype tag SNPs reduces the overall number of markers necessary to detect all common alleles by only 12%. Individual SNPs and multi-SNP haplotypes were examined for evidence of allelic association to autism, using a dataset of 123 multiplex autism families. Six markers individually, across GABRB3 and GABRA5, and several haplotypes inclusive of those markers, demonstrated nominally significant association. These results are positively correlated with the position of observed linkage. These studies support the existence of one or more autism risk alleles in the GABA(A) receptor subunit cluster on 15q12 and have implications for analysis of LD and association in regions with high local recombination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30038DOI Listing
November 2004

Examination of NRCAM, LRRN3, KIAA0716, and LAMB1 as autism candidate genes.

BMC Med Genet 2004 May 5;5:12. Epub 2004 May 5.

Center for Human Genetics Research and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37027, USA.

Background: A substantial body of research supports a genetic involvement in autism. Furthermore, results from various genomic screens implicate a region on chromosome 7q31 as harboring an autism susceptibility variant. We previously narrowed this 34 cM region to a 3 cM critical region (located between D7S496 and D7S2418) using the Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism (CLSA) chromosome 7 linked families. This interval encompasses about 4.5 Mb of genomic DNA and encodes over fifty known and predicted genes. Four candidate genes (NRCAM, LRRN3, KIAA0716, and LAMB1) in this region were chosen for examination based on their proximity to the marker most consistently cosegregating with autism in these families (D7S1817), their tissue expression patterns, and likely biological relevance to autism.

Methods: Thirty-six intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one microsatellite marker within and around these four candidate genes were genotyped in 30 chromosome 7q31 linked families. Multiple SNPs were used to provide as complete coverage as possible since linkage disequilibrium can vary dramatically across even very short distances within a gene. Analyses of these data used the Pedigree Disequilibrium Test for single markers and a multilocus likelihood ratio test.

Results: As expected, linkage disequilibrium occurred within each of these genes but we did not observe significant LD across genes. None of the polymorphisms in NRCAM, LRRN3, or KIAA0716 gave p < 0.05 suggesting that none of these genes is associated with autism susceptibility in this subset of chromosome 7-linked families. However, with LAMB1, the allelic association analysis revealed suggestive evidence for a positive association, including one individual SNP (p = 0.02) and three separate two-SNP haplotypes across the gene (p = 0.007, 0.012, and 0.012).

Conclusions: NRCAM, LRRN3, KIAA0716 are unlikely to be involved in autism. There is some evidence that variation in or near the LAMB1 gene may be involved in autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2350-5-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC420465PMC
May 2004