Publications by authors named "Lan Mu"

103 Publications

Effects of ZnMgO Electron Transport Layer on the Performance of InP-Based Inverted Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 9;11(5). Epub 2021 May 9.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

An environment-friendly inverted indium phosphide red quantum dot light-emitting diode (InP QLED) was fabricated using Mg-doped zinc oxide (ZnMgO) as the electron transport layer (ETL). The effects of ZnMgO ETL on the performance of InP QLED were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that ZnMgO film has an amorphous structure, which is similar to zinc oxide (ZnO) film. Comparison of morphology between ZnO film and ZnMgO film demonstrated that Mg-doped ZnO film remains a high-quality surface (root mean square roughness: 0.86 nm) as smooth as ZnO film. The optical band gap and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) analysis revealed that the conduction band of ZnO shifts to a more matched position with InP quantum dot after Mg-doping, resulting in the decrease in turn-on voltage from 2.51 to 2.32 V. In addition, the ratio of irradiation recombination of QLED increases from 7% to 25% using ZnMgO ETL, which can be attributed to reduction in trap state by introducing Mg ions into ZnO lattices. As a result, ZnMgO is a promising material to enhance the performance of inverted InP QLED. This work suggests that ZnMgO has the potential to improve the performance of QLED, which consists of the ITO/ETL/InP QDs/TCTA/MoO/Al, and Mg-doping strategy is an efficient route to directionally regulate ZnO conduction bands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151885PMC
May 2021

Enhanced biomethanization of waste polylactic acid plastic by mild hydrothermal pretreatment: Taguchi orthogonal optimization and kinetics modeling.

Waste Manag 2021 May 13;126:585-596. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Dalian 116024, PR China.

Polylactic acid (PLA) plastic is becoming a popular alternative to traditional petroleum-based plastics, but the biodegradability in engineered biological system is still a matter of concern. In this study, the biodegradability of PLA plastic at mesophilic and thermophilic AD were investigated, and a hydrothermal pretreatment was proposed to enhance the hydrolysis of PLA plastic and subsequent biomethanization. For raw PLA plastic, the biodegradation results indicated that PLA was hardly biodegraded at mesophilic conditions (only 50.5 ± 0.5 mL/g VS after 146 days). Although it was converted into biogas at thermophilic conditions after long incubation period (442.6 ± 1.1 mL/g VS), the long digestion time (T 95.8 days) was destined to be infeasible for practical application. In contrast, hydrothermal pretreatment significantly enhanced the hydrolysis rates of PLA plastic in AD process from 0.001 day for raw PLA plastic to 0.004-0.111 day. By balancing biogas production efficiency, energy and reagent cost, the conditions of 200 °C, 10 min and no alkali addition were recommended for hydrothermal pretreatment of waste PLA plastic in practice. At the optimized hydrothermal pretreatment conditions, 460.1 ± 25.0 mL/g VS was achieved in less than 30 days, which was comparable for AD of food waste (FW). Furthermore, LC-QEMS analysis proved that cleavages of ester bonds in PLA and its reaction with water molecule was the mechanism of triggering the hydrothermally decomposition of PLA. These results suggested the PLA-plastic waste co-mingled with OFMSW could be efficiently biomethanized into biogas by involving a mild hydrothermal pretreatment in practical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.03.044DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification of 4 immune cells and a 5-lncRNA risk signature with prognosis for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

J Transl Med 2021 03 26;19(1):127. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Key Clinical Specialty, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410000, Hunan, China.

Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer and cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, increasing evidence indicated that there was a significant correlation between tumors and the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as well as tumor immune infiltration, but their role in early lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are still unclear.

Methods: Gene expression data and corresponding clinical data of early-stage LUAD patients were downloaded from GEO and TCGA databases. 24 kinds of tumor-infiltrating immune cells were analyzed by quantity analysis and univariate cox regression analysis, we divided patients into two subgroups using consensus clustering, recognized the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the subgroups, then, established lncRNA risk signature by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression.

Results: A total of 718 patients were enrolled in this study, including 246 from GSE31210 dataset, 127 from GSE50081 dataset and 345 from TCGA-LUAD. We identified that Th2 cells, TFH, NK CD56dim cells and Mast cells were prognosis-related(p < 0.05), then established a 5-lncRNA risk signature (risk score = 0.374600616* LINC00857 + 0.173825706* LINC01116 + (- 0.021398903)* DRAIC + (- 0.113658256)* LINC01140 + (- 0.008403702)* XIST), and draw a nomogram showed that the signature had a well prediction accuracy and discrimination.

Conclusions: We identified 4 immune infiltrating cells related to the prognosis of early-stage LUAD, and established a novel 5 immune-related lncRNA signature for predicting patients' prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02800-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004399PMC
March 2021

Interface Engineering of Cu(In,Ga)Se Solar Cells by Optimizing Cd- and Zn-Chalcogenide Alloys as the Buffer Layer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 24;13(13):15237-15245. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193, China.

The optimization of band alignment at the buffer/absorber interface is realized by tuning compositions of Cd and Zn chalcogenides as the buffer layer toward high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se (CIGS) solar cells. Using the special quasi-random structure (SQS) approach, we construct randomly disordered ZnCdSSe alloys and ZnSO alloys as alternatives to the traditional CdS buffer layer. The compositional dependence of formation energies, lattice parameters, band-gap energies, and band alignments of ZnCdSSe and ZnSO alloys is investigated by first-principles density functional theory calculations. For quaternary ZnCdSSe alloys, we find that the miscibility temperatures and the bandgap bowing coefficients are proportional to the lattice mismatch between the mixing elements. The linear dependence of lattice parameters, trinomial dependence of band-gap energies and band-edge positions on the alloy-composition of ZnCdSSe alloys are established. For ZnSO alloys, we find the lattice parameters also exhibit a linear dependence on its composition. Because of the large lattice mismatch and the chemical disparity between ZnO and ZnS, the bowing coefficient for the bandgap energies of ZnSO alloys is composition dependent, and is larger for dilute ZnSO alloys. With the optimization criteria of moderate spike-like conduction band offset, large valance band offset, sufficiently wide bandgap, and lattice match with respect to the CIGS absorber, we illustrate the optimal composition range of both ZnCdSSe alloys and ZnSO alloys as the buffer layer of the CIGS solar cells. Our work demonstrates that ZnCdSSe alloys and ZnSO alloys are promising buffer layers for high-efficiency CIGS solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00708DOI Listing
April 2021

SHR-1316, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A multicentre, phase 2 study.

Thorac Cancer 2021 05 24;12(9):1373-1381. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: This multicentre, open-label study evaluated the efficacy and safety of antiprogrammed death ligand 1 antibody SHR-1316 plus liposomal irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil as the first-line treatment for patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: Eligible patients received SHR-1316 (10 mg/kg), liposomal irinotecan (60 mg/m for the first cycle, 80 mg/m thereafter), and 5-fluorouracil (2400 mg/m ) every 14 days until disease progression, intolerable toxicity or withdrawal of consent. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and safety.

Results: We enrolled 23 patients between 11 March 2019 and 31 May 2019. The median follow-up duration was 15.2 months (95% CI 14.2-16.2). The median PFS was 8.5 months (95% CI 1.2-15.8), and ORR and DCR were 52.2% (95% CI 30.1-74.3) and 73.9% (95% CI 54.5-93.3), respectively. The median OS was 11.6 months (95% CI 6.7-16.6). The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia (17.4%), nausea (13.0%), and anorexia (13.0%). Treatment-related serious AEs occurred in two patients. No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Conclusions: SHR-1316 plus liposomal irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil has a promising efficacy and manageable safety profile, and could be a new first-line treatment approach for patients with unresectable locally advanced or distant metastatic ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088918PMC
May 2021

Total versus near-total thyroidectomy in Graves' disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

Gland Surg 2021 Feb;10(2):729-738

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Total thyroidectomy (TT), near-total thyroidectomy (NT), and subtotal thyroidectomy (ST) are three surgical procedures for Graves' disease (GD) patients, but most previous studies have only evaluated the complications of TT versus ST or TT/NT versus ST; there is not a meta-analysis of NT versus TT, so whether NT is superior to TT for GD patients still unclear.

Methods: We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library, without restriction to region, publication type, or language, on 10 June, 2020. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of all included studies assessing the two surgical procedures.

Results: In total, 528 cases were identified from two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and three retrospective studies. The incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism after NT was lower than with TT [odds ratio (OR), 0.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.06-0.80; P=0.02], and there was no statistical difference in the recurrence of hyperthyroidism (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.01-8.12; P=0.50) and other postoperative complications (P>0.05).

Conclusions: NT for GD was superior to TT regarding permanent hypoparathyroidism, but there was no significant difference in preventing recurrent hyperthyroidism, as well as the other postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-20-757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944077PMC
February 2021

Altered Dynamic Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Patients With Migraine Without Aura.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 10;15:636472. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Pidu District People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Migraine is a chronic and idiopathic disorder leading to cognitive and affective problems. However, the neural basis of migraine without aura is still unclear. In this study, dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (dALFF) analyses were performed in 21 patients with migraine without aura and 21 gender- and age-matched healthy controls to identify the voxel-level abnormal functional dynamics. Significantly decreased dALFF in the bilateral anterior insula, bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and left middle frontal cortex were found in patients with migraine without aura. The dALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex were negatively correlated with pain intensity, i.e., visual analog scale. Finally, support vector machine was used to classify patients with migraine without aura from healthy controls and achieved an accuracy of 83.33%, sensitivity of 90.48%, and specificity of 76.19%. Our findings provide the evidence that migraine influences the brain functional activity dynamics and reveal the neural basis for migraine, which could facilitate understanding the neuropathology of migraine and future treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.636472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928334PMC
February 2021

Trends in Medical School Application and Matriculation Rates Across the United States From 2001 to 2015: Implications for Health Disparities.

Acad Med 2021 06;96(6):885-893

J.A. Pagan is professor, Department of Public Health Policy and Management, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, New York; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8915-9602.

Purpose: Socioeconomic and geographic determinants of medical school application and matriculation may help explain the unequal distribution of physicians in the United States. This study describes trends in MD-granting medical school application and matriculation rates and explores the relationship between county median family income, proximity to a medical school, and medical school application and matriculation rates.

Method: Data were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges, including the age, gender, and Federal Information Processing Standards code for county of legal residence for each applicant and matriculant to U.S. MD-granting medical schools from 2001 through 2015. The application and matriculation rates in each county were calculated using the number of applicants and matriculants per 100,000 residents. Counties were classified into 4 groups according to the county median family income (high-income, middle-income, middle-low-income, low-income). The authors performed chi-square tests to assess trends across the study period and the association of county median family income with application and matriculation rates.

Results: There were 581,833 applicants and 262,730 (45.2%) matriculants to MD-granting medical schools between 2001 and 2015. The application rates per 100,000 residents during 2001-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015 were 57.2, 62.7, and 69.0, respectively, and the corresponding matriculation rates were 27.5, 28.1, and 29.8. The ratios of the application rate in high-income counties to that in low-income counties during the 3 time periods were 1.9, 2.4, and 2.8, respectively.

Conclusions: The application and matriculation rates to MD-granting medical schools increased steadily from 2001 to 2015. Yet, applicants and matriculants disproportionately came from high-income counties. The differences in the application and matriculation rates between low-income and high-income counties grew during this period. Exploring these differences can lead to better understanding of the factors that drive geographic differences in physician access and the associated health disparities across the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000004033DOI Listing
June 2021

Genetic diversity analysis of Dermacentor nuttalli within Inner Mongolia, China.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Mar 1;14(1):131. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Inner Mongolia Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hohhot, 010000, Inner Mongolia, China.

Background: Ticks (Arthropoda, Ixodida), after mosquitoes, are the second most prevalent vector of infectious diseases. They are responsible for spreading a multitude of pathogens and threatening the health and welfare of animals and human beings. However, given the history of tick-borne pathogen infections in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, surprisingly, neither the genetic diversity nor the spatial distribution of haplotypes within ticks has been studied.

Methods: We characterized the haplotype distribution of Dermacentor nuttalli in four main pastoral areas of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, by sampling 109 individuals (recovered from sheep) in April-August 2019. The 16S rRNA gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) were amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA.

Results: Twenty-six haplotypes were identified using 16S rRNA sequences, 57 haplotypes were identified with COI sequences, and 75 haplotypes were identified with ITS2 sequences. Among the three genes, total haplotype diversity was greater than 0.7, while total nucleotide diversity was greater than 0.06. Neutrality tests revealed a significantly negative Tajima's D result, while Fu's Fs was not significantly positive. Fixation index values (F) indicated that the degree of genetic differentiation among some sampled populations was small, while for others it was moderate. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the variation within populations was greater than that among populations. The mismatch analysis of D. nuttalli exhibited double peaks.

Conclusion: The genetic diversity of D. nuttalli populations in our region can likely adapt to different geographical environments, thereby leading to genetic diversity, and creating genetic differentiation among different populations. However, genetic differentiation is cryptic and does not form a pedigree geographical structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04625-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923491PMC
March 2021

Influence of thermal assistance on the biodegradation of organics during food waste bio-drying: Microbial stimulation and energy assessment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 6;272:129875. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

School of Environmental Science & Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Recently, bio-drying was highlighted in the drying pretreatment of high-moisture organic wastes for their energy recovery. In this study, to investigate the influences of thermal assistance on microbial stimulation and energy utilization in organic degradation, thermally assisted bio-drying (TB) was conducted on food waste (FW) and was compared with conventional bio-drying (CB) and thermal drying (TD). As expected, more water was removed in TB, which exhibited no lag phenomenon and intensified microbial activity. Corresponding with the stimulated enzyme activity, more readily degradable carbohydrates, lipids and lignocellulose were decomposed in TB than those in CB, and lipid degradation generated a significant proportion of the total bio-heat generated (43.13%-45.83%). Furthermore, according to the microbial analysis (qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing), Bacillus was found to be the dominant genus involved in the degradation of organics during TB and CB. In the initial phase, rather than Weissella, as in CB, Ureibacillus was notable in TB for the degradation of readily degradable substrates. In the late phase, Pseudoxanthomonas and Saccharomonospora were enriched for degrading lignocellulose. In addition, heat balance and life-cycle energy assessment demonstrated that a small amount of thermal heat (11.96%) upgraded bio-drying with high energy efficiency. Compared with the CB and TD processes, the TB trial consumed less thermal energy (0.58 MJ/kg HO) and achieved a higher energy output/input ratio (3.64). This research suggests that thermal assistance is a promising approach to enhancing FW bio-drying, which exhibits efficient drying performance and great potential for energy recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129875DOI Listing
June 2021

Enriching the nutritive value of marigold (Tagetes erecta L) crop residues as a ruminant feed by lactic acid bacteria during ensilage.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Feb 12;17(1):74. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science, Kunming, 650212, China.

Background: Marigold (Tagetes erecta L) accounts for over half of the world's loose flower production, and marigold crop residue (MCR) are abundantly available and should be used as a forage. In this study, MCR from the last commercial flower pickings was ensilaged with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the shift in their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles was monitored. Samples were collected at 6 different times during ensilage (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 30 days) to determine and quantify the VOCs changes using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: After 30 days, the caryophyllene and piperitone, which account for 14.7 and 12.1% of total VOCs, decreased by 32.9 and 9.6% respectively, alcohols increased from 2.8 to 8.1%, and the acetic acid content increased by 560%.

Conclusion: We have confirmed LAB can degrade the content of terpenes and enhance the content of alcohols and acids in MCR, which was for the first time on terpene degradation in fodder by ensilage. These results have shed light on our understanding of how to improve fodder odor and to enhance terpene degradation by lactic acid bacteria fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02762-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881656PMC
February 2021

Potential Function of Gene in Degradation of Extracellular Matrix Complex in Colorectal Carcinoma.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Jan;34(1):66-70

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Gene and Antibody Therapy, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute (TBSI), Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China;Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.009DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhancing capacity building to climate adaptation and water conservation among Chinese young people.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 29;28(22):27614-27628. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

College of Geography and Environment, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences/Key Laboratory of Disaster Monitoring and Mechanism Simulating of Shaanxi Province, Baoji, 721013, Shaanxi, China.

Capacity development has been regarded as one of many measures to empower the abilities of nations to adapt to a changing climate. Promoting public engagement in water conservation, especially among young people since they will be leading decision making in the near future, is one effective strategy for adapting to the changing climate. This research presented a water footprint adaptation (WF) approach which attempted to link climate adaptation and capacity development with saving water strategy. The approach was tested in cooperation with two universities in Shaanxi province aiming to develop a starting point for WF evaluation and develop an improvement response. The results showed that the college students in our samples reduced their direct and indirect water footprints by 27.39% and 6.50%, respectively, in the post-intervention phase. The evaluation of the improvements proved that the WF approach to be efficient, the awareness of the college students on the matter could be increased. Additionally, the findings of the research indicated that the college students became change agent, expressing the desire to act as multipliers and to help the movement and spread of important knowledge about methods for alleviating water stress and about vulnerability to the changing climate. As expected, the awareness of water scarcity and perceptions of climate change had statistically significant effects on the water footprints, which was consistent with our hypothesis. Our approach helped participants develop capacity by revealing the linkage between their local level actions and the various aspects of adaptation to changing climate at the global level. This strategy will provide a comparative basis for water policy makers to adopt appropriate strategies to address matters related to water shortages and finally enhance sustainable adaptation to changing context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12427-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Postmastectomy Lymphedema: A Literature Review.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 01 30;14(1):54-61. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Upper limb lymphedema is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy. Despite various physical therapy and surgical options available, the impaired lymph fluid drainage may be progressive due to lymphatic vascular insufficiency making treatment more difficulty. Stem cell therapy provides a promising alternative in the treatment of various chronic diseases. The wide applicability of cell therapy has been reviewed throughout literature. This review provides an overview of recent progress in the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells for primary and secondary lymphedema after breast surgery in preclinical studies and clinical cases. We start with a brief introduction about the pathophysiological mechanisms of postmastectomy lymphedema. Regarding existing treatments, we systematically summarize the benefits and limitations of recent progress. Because of their multidirectional differentiation potential and growth factor secretion, stem cell therapy shows promising results in the management of light to severe lymphedema. Increasing evidences have demonstrated a noticeable reduction in postmastectomy lymphedema and increased lymph-angiogenesis after specific stem cell therapy. Current data suggests that stem cell therapy in lymphedema treatment provides reversal of pathological reorganization associated with lymphedema progression. Finally, we propose potential strategies for overcoming the challenges in the development of multipotent progenitor cells for the treatment and prevention of lymphedema in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877822PMC
January 2021

Surgical Management of Postmastectomy Lymphedema and Review of the Literature.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 03;86(3S Suppl 2):S173-S176

From the The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Abstract: Upper limb lymphedema is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy. At present, physical methods and surgical methods can be used for treatment. Surgical operations are mainly based on lymphovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node transfer. For these 2 surgical methods, we analyzed and compared the literature review and our own clinical experience. We summarized the differences between the 2 surgical techniques and the selection methods. We hope to help more young plastic surgeons and breast doctors understand how to treat upper limb lymphedema through surgical methods and help patients improve their quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002642DOI Listing
March 2021

Phase II clinical trial using camrelizumab combined with apatinib and chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2020 12 12;40(12):711-720. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, P. R. China.

Background: Effective therapeutic options are limited for patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The incorporation of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a molecular anti-angiogenic agent into the commonly adopted chemotherapy may produce synergistic effects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of camrelizumab plus apatinib combined with chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of advanced ESCC.

Methods: In this single-arm prospective phase II trial, patients with unresectable locally advanced or recurrent/metastatic ESCC received camrelizumab 200 mg, liposomal paclitaxel 150 mg/m , and nedaplatin 50 mg/m on day 1, and apatinib 250 mg on days 1-14. The treatments were repeated every 14 days for up to 9 cycles, followed by maintenance therapy with camrelizumab and apatinib. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1). Secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety.

Results: We enrolled 30 patients between August 7, 2018 and February 23, 2019. The median follow-up was 24.98 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.05-26.16 months). The centrally assessed ORR was 80.0% (95% CI: 61.4%-92.3%), with a median duration of response of 9.77 months (range: 1.54 to 24.82+ months). The DCR reached 96.7% (95% CI: 82.8%-99.9%). The median PFS was 6.85 months (95% CI: 4.46-14.20 months), and the median OS was 19.43 months (95% CI: 9.93 months - not reached). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were leukopenia (83.3%), neutropenia (60.0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase level (26.7%). Treatment-related serious AEs included febrile neutropenia, leukopenia, and anorexia in one patient (3.3%), and single cases of increased blood bilirubin level (3.3%) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (3.3%). No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Conclusions: Camrelizumab plus apatinib combined with liposomal paclitaxel and nedaplatin as first-line treatment demonstrated feasible anti-tumor activity and manageable safety in patients with advanced ESCC. Randomized trials to evaluate this new combination strategy are warranted.

Trial Registration: This trial was registered on July 27, 2018, at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT03603756).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7743020PMC
December 2020

Assessment of Changes in Rural and Urban Primary Care Workforce in the United States From 2009 to 2017.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2022914. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Public Health Policy and Management, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York.

Importance: Access to primary care clinicians, including primary care physicians and nonphysician clinicians (nurse practitioners and physician assistants) is necessary to improving population health. However, rural-urban trends in primary care access in the US are not well studied.

Objective: To assess the rural-urban trends in the primary care workforce from 2009 to 2017 across all counties in the US.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this cross-sectional study of US counties, county rural-urban status was defined according to the national rural-urban classification scheme for counties used by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in the county-level distribution of primary care clinicians from 2009 to 2017 were examined. Data were analyzed from November 12, 2019, to February 10, 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Density of primary care clinicians measured as the number of primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants per 3500 population in each county. The average annual percentage change (APC) of the means of the density of primary care clinicians over time was calculated, and generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for county-level sociodemographic variables obtained from the American Community Survey.

Results: The study included data from 3143 US counties (1167 [37%] urban and 1976 [63%] rural). The number of primary care clinicians per 3500 people increased significantly in rural counties (2009 median density: 2.04; interquartile range [IQR], 1.43-2.76; and 2017 median density: 2.29; IQR, 1.57-3.23; P < .001) and urban counties (2009 median density: 2.26; IQR. 1.52-3.23; and 2017 median density: 2.66; IQR, 1.72-4.02; P < .001). The APC of the mean density of primary care physicians in rural counties was 1.70% (95% CI, 0.84%-2.57%), nurse practitioners was 8.37% (95% CI, 7.11%-9.63%), and physician assistants was 5.14% (95% CI, 3.91%-6.37%); the APC of the mean density of primary care physicians in urban counties was 2.40% (95% CI, 1.19%-3.61%), nurse practitioners was 8.64% (95% CI, 7.72%-9.55%), and physician assistants was 6.42% (95% CI, 5.34%-7.50%). Results from the generalized estimating equations model showed that the density of primary care clinicians in urban counties increased faster than in rural counties (β = 0.04; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05; P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: Although the density of primary care clinicians increased in both rural and urban counties during the 2009-2017 period, the increase was more pronounced in urban than in rural counties. Closing rural-urban gaps in access to primary care clinicians may require increasingly intensive efforts targeting rural areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593812PMC
October 2020

Inhibition of norfloxacin on anaerobic digestion: Focusing on the recoverability and shifted microbial communities.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 18;752:141733. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Dalian 116024, PR China.

Antibacterial properties of norfloxacin (NOR) could cause adverse impact on engineered biological process. In this study, the objective was to investigate the inhibitory effects of NOR on anaerobic digestion focusing on the recoverability and microbial community changes. The effects of different concentrations of NOR on anaerobic digestion were studied with three continuous feed cycles. Results showed that NOR seriously inhibited the methane production with an 50% inhibitory concentration (IC) of 0.41 mM. In addition, with extending of exposure time, inhibitory effect increasingly strengthened and the IC values decreased to 0.16 mM and 0.07 mM in the second and third feeding cycle, respectively. However, when the inhibitor in supernatant was removed, the performance recovered and the relative methane yield increased by 9 times from 25.38 mL/g VS to 257.05 mL/g VS. The transformation of NOR showed that the degradation of NOR in the anaerobic digestion was difficult and the recovery was due to the removal of NOR. The microbial analysis revealed that the inhibition of NOR on bacteria of Candidatus_Cloacimonas, Petrimonas, Ercella, Sphaerochaeta and hydrogenotrophic methanogens of Methanoculleus and Methanobacterium was recoverable when NOR was removed. However, it was irreversible for acetoclastic methanogen of Methanosaeta. These findings provided comprehensive understanding on the characteristics of NOR inhibition and also provided feasible strategy to recover the NOR inhibited anaerobic digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141733DOI Listing
January 2021

Trends in lobectomy/amygdalohippocampectomy over time and the impact of hospital surgical volume on hospitalization outcomes: A population-based study.

Epilepsia 2020 10 29;61(10):2173-2182. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: Despite national guidelines supporting surgical referral in drug-resistant epilepsy, it is hypothesized that surgery is underutilized. We investigated the volumes of lobectomy/amygdalohippocampectomy surgeries over time and examined differences in outcomes between (1) high-volume (HV), middle-volume (MV), and low-volume (LV) hospitals and (2) Level 4 Centers versus non-Level 4 Centers.

Methods: The 2003-2014 National Inpatient Sample (the largest all-payer hospitalization database, representative of the US population) was utilized. Epilepsy was identified using a previously validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) case definition and surgeries using ICD-9-CM procedure codes. A hospital was considered a Level 4 Center if it performed intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. Tumor surgeries were excluded. Linear regression was used to perform trend tests. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to summarize association of surgery with outcomes.

Results: A total of 4,487 lobectomy/amygdalohippocampectomy surgeries were performed in children and adults with epilepsy. Lobectomy/amygdalohippocampectomy surgeries significantly decreased over time (slope: -0.24, P < .001). This declining surgical trend was greater for all resective/disconnective surgery (slope: -0.45, P < .001), and greatest when compared to all types of epilepsy surgery, for example, resection/disconnection/radiosurgery/laser interstitial thermal therapy/vagus nerve stimulation/deep brain stimulation/responsive neurostimulation/intracranial EEG (slope: -0.95, P < .001). LV compared to HV hospitals had higher odds of transfer to other facilities (13.60% vs 4.24%, odds ratio [OR] = 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-6.82). LV hospitals had higher odds of surgical complications versus MV (12.69% vs 6.80%, OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.01-5.09). HV hospitals incurred the least total charges. There were no differences in discharge status, adverse events, length of stay, or cost between Level 4 Centers versus non-Level 4 Centers.

Significance: Lobectomies/amygdalohippocampectomies are decreasing over time, suggesting ongoing underutilization. LV centers are associated with greater complication and transfer rates. Future studies are required to understand the reason for worse outcomes in LV centers and to determine whether a minimum number of surgeries must be performed to meet necessary standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16664DOI Listing
October 2020

Bifacial passivation towards efficient FAPbBr-based inverted perovskite light-emitting diodes.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul 3;12(27):14724-14732. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

A unique technique to passivate both bottom and top sides of perovskite has been successfully developed to achieve highly efficient inverted perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). For the bottom passivation, an organic/inorganic hybrid electron transporting layer (ETL) replaces the widely adopted inorganic ETL to overcome the disadvantages of the pure inorganic ETL. The ZPM (ZnO-in-polymer matrix) ETL, which consists of ZnO nanoparticles blended into polyvinylpyrrolidone, not only passivates the surface defects of ZnO nanoparticles, but also improves the morphology and stability of FAPbBr film. For the top passivation, smaller grains and a FAPbBr/PEAPbBr 3D/2D hybrid structure are obtained by applying a small amount of PEABr solution. The synergetic interplay of organic/inorganic hybrid ETL and organic halide salt surface modification substantially shrinks the grain size to facilitate radiative recombination, and suppresses non-radiative recombination both at the interface of ETL/perovskite and HTL/perovskite, and in the perovskite layer. As a result, the highly efficient green PeLED sets a new record of device performance for FAPbBr-based inverted PeLEDs, with current efficiency of 39.7 cd A, external quantum efficiency of 9.0%, power efficiency of 46.4 lm W, maximum luminance of 6.03 × 10 cd m, and half-lifetime of 297 minutes at an initial brightness of ∼100 cd m.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr02323jDOI Listing
July 2020

Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of phoenix tree leaf by mild alkali pretreatment: Optimization by Taguchi orthogonal design and semi-continuous operation.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Oct 4;313:123634. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, China.

This study aimed at evaluating the valorization of a typical yard waste, phoenix tree leaf (PTL), through mild alkali pretreatment followed by anaerobic digestion (AD). To this end, L Taguchi orthogonal biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and semi-continuous AD experiments were conducted to examine the optimum pretreatment condition and the long term effect of alkali pretreatment on AD. The community structure evolutions were analyzed by high throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The results indicated that alkali pretreatment was effective on decrystallization and releasing more surface of PTL for enzyme attacking. The methane yield was positively correlated with lignin removal (R=0.8242). In semi-continuous mode, 151.5±7.9 mL/g VS of the methane yield was obtained for alkali pretreated PTL, which was 80% higher than that of untreated one. Microbial community analysis indicated that alkali pretreatment led to a higher abundance of dominated bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Clostridia) and archaea of Methanosaeta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123634DOI Listing
October 2020

[Effects of foliar selenium fertilizer on fruit yield, quality and selenium content of three varieties of Vitis vinifera].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 Mar;31(3):953-958

College of Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000, Gansu, China.

With three grape varieties, Red Barbara, Summer Black and Hutai No. 8 as test mate-rials, we investigated the effects of foliar spraying of organic selenium fertilizer on greenhouse grape quality and selenium content. The results showed that spraying 12 mg·L amino acid chelated selenium-enriched foliar fertilizer on grape leaves significantly increased selenium content and the quantity and quality of grape yield, including the contents of soluble sugar, organic acid, soluble protein, soluble solids, vitamin C and proanthocyanidins. However, there was no increase in resveratrol. Among the three varieties, selenium content of Summer Black in 2017 and 2018 was increased by 36.7% and 37.1%, respectively, being higher than that of Red Barbara and Hutai No. 8. Red Barbara sprayed with selenium fertilizer had better quality due to high sugar and low acid contents, as well as high health-care components. Moreover, the selenium content of Hutai No. 8 in 2018 was 53.26 μg·kg, higher than the others, indicating a stronger ability of selenium enrichment. We concluded that the increase range of Se content was larger in Summer Black, Red Barbara showed the better nutrition value and quality, and Hutai No. 8 was a suitable variety for selenium-rich grape production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202003.007DOI Listing
March 2020

Defect Dynamic Model of the Synergistic Effect in Neutron- and γ-Ray-Irradiated Silicon NPN Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 16;12(26):29993-29998. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193, China.

A defect dynamic model is proposed for the positive synergistic effect of neutron- and γ-ray-irradiated silicon NPN transistors. The model considers a γ-ray-induced transformation and annihilation of the neutron-induced divacancy defects in the p-type base region of the transistor. The derived model of the base current predicts a growth function of the γ-ray dose that approaches exponentially an asymptotic value, which depends linearly on the neutron-induced initial displacement damage (DD) and a linear decay function of the dose whose slope depends quadratically on the initial DD. Variable fluence and dose neutron-γ-ray irradiation experiments are carried out, and we find all of the novel dose and fluence dependence predicted by the proposed model are confirmed by the measured data. Our work, hence, identifies that the defect evolution under γ-ray irradiation, rather than the widely believed interface Coulomb interaction, is the dominating mechanism of the synergistic effect. Our work also paves the way for the modification of displacement defects in silicon by γ-ray irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c07436DOI Listing
July 2020

Evaluating the impacts of water resources technology progress on development and economic growth over the Northwest, China.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(3):e0229571. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Northwest Institute of Historical Environment and Socio-Economic Development, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Water technologies have become new solutions to water scarcity and could play an increasingly crucial role in the future. However, theoretic and empirical studies on the economic effect of water technologies which incorporate water resources into a sustainable economic growth model remain scarce in northwest China. This article attempts to build a water technology endogenous model based on "learning by doing" theory to identify the mechanisms of water technologies affect economic growth due to changing water consumption. Considering the case of Northwest China in this empirical research, we apply the stochastic production frontier model by using panel data from 1996 to 2017. The results shows that progress in water technologies has indeed increased GDP growth and the current level of water technologies is not a key factor in eliminating the constraints of water resources. In addition, water scarcity still constrains economic growth in Northwest China and progress in water science and technology is the main power of all water technologies. Finally, the speed of water science and technology slows as the amount of water consumption increase and the impact of water technical efficiency on economic growth depends on water institutions of different areas. This study may enhance the policy relevance of water technological governance and economic growth transformation, which were beneficial for informing policies towards sustainable water resource utilization in northwest China.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229571PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067393PMC
June 2020

A Clinical Case of Breast Reconstruction with Greater Omentum Flap for Treatment of Upper Extremity Lymphedema.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2019 Sep 30;7(9):e2402. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Academician, Sechenov University, Moscow.

Patients presenting with complications regarding breast cancer surgery require individualized surgical protocol for correction and reconstruction. This clinical case summarizes our clinical experience in the application of the free greater omentum flap for treatment of upper extremity lymphedema and breast reconstruction. This method combines aesthetic reconstruction of the breast with functional correction. The presented clinical vignette features a patient with post-biquadrantectomy upper extremity lymphedema. A free greater omentum flap was chosen for the purpose of breast reconstruction and vascularized lymph node transfer to treat upper extremity lymphedema. Upper extremity circumferences were monitored before and after surgical correction. The revascularized flap survived well after the operation and the reconstructed breast had a natural appearance. Six months after the operation, the patient's upper extremity circumferences decreased significantly, and the pain and swelling were also alleviated. The patient was satisfied with the results. The use of the free greater omentum flap for breast reconstruction and treatment of upper extremity lymphedema provides both aesthetic and functional patient rehabilitation. The application of this technique requires proper patient selection and thorough surgical planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6908388PMC
September 2019

How does the water-energy-food nexus work in developing countries? An empirical study of China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 18;716:134791. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Northwest Institute of Historical Environment and Socio-Economic Development, Shaanxi Normal University, 620 West Chang'an Street, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710119, China.

As three resources that are necessary for human survival and production, water, energy and food are increasingly closely linked. In recent years, the water-energy-food nexus has attracted special attention from international organizations and academic circles. However, due to the lack of research on its internal mechanisms, there is still controversy on whether the water-energy-food nexus can be used as a new policy basis. The internal mechanisms of the water-energy-food nexus were analysed from the perspective of industrial linkages in this paper and empirically verified by constructing an SVAR (structuralvectorautoregression) model using China's data. The results showed that there were two forms of conduction in China's water-energy-food nexus: the water-energy-food nexus with nuclear power participation and that with natural gas participation. The characteristics of China's water-energy-food nexus were derived. For the interactions of the water-energy segment in China's water-energy-food nexus, the conduction from energy to water was consistent for different types of energy, while that from water to energy varied depending on the type of energy. Food production always had a negative impact on energy production, while the conduction from energy to food varied for different types of energy. The conduction between food and the water supply was not as significant as was generally considered. Especially, the impact of the water supply on food production was weak. The order of strength intensity and the duration were also available for reference. Accordingly, a new policy basis was presented under the framework of China's water-energy-food nexus. Both our research design and research findings are significant in contributing to understanding the internal mechanisms of the water-energy-food nexus, and the policy implications are also helpful for achieving better policy effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134791DOI Listing
May 2020

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge, food waste and yard waste: Synergistic enhancement on process stability and biogas production.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 23;704:135429. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Dalian 116024, PR China.

Anaerobic co-digestion (co-AD) could be a more sustainable waste management solution by sharing the existed anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities and generating more biogas energy. In this study, a series of co-AD of different urban derived organic wastes (sewage sludge-SS, food waste-FW, yard waste-YW) were conducted in a semi-continuous mode, and the corresponding dynamic evolutions of microbial community structure were followed by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). As for co-AD of two feedstocks, introduction of SS (25%, VS basis) in FW significantly improved the process stability and archaea/total microbe ratio (from 0.4% to 17.1%), which might be due to the regulating effect of abundant trace metals in SS; co-AD of SS (25%, VS basis) with YW improved the methane yield by 2.04 times than AD of YW only together with higher methane contents (57.4 ± 1.3% vs. 50.9 ± 2.2%); in co-AD of FW and YW, synergistic effects in terms of increased methane production (3.4-19.1%) were observed, which was correlated with more robust growth of both bacteria and archaea. As for co-AD of three feedstocks, high methane yields of 314.9 ± 17.1 mL/g VS were achieved with a reliable stability. These findings could provide some fundamental and technical information for the co-treatment of urban derived organic wastes in centralized AD facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135429DOI Listing
February 2020

[Application progress of indocyanine green angiography in lymphedema].

Authors:
Yujie Chen Lan Mu

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019 Dec;33(12):1589-1592

Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery Department, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, 100044,

Objective: To summarize the application progress of indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in diagnosis and treatment of lymphedema.

Methods: The literature related to dynamic imaging tracing of lymphedema at home and abroad was reviewed extensively. And the research status and progress of ICG angiography in diagnosis and treatment of lymphedema were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: ICG angiography can be used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of lymphedema at present and the classification of lymphedema severity, selection of surgical incisions and methods, and intraoperative operation. It can also be used to observe lymphatic drainage and regeneration within 1.5 cm of subcutaneous and determine the prognosis.

Conclusion: Compared with traditional methods, ICG angiography has more obvious advantages and value in diagnosis and treatment of lymphedema. However, it also has problems such as slow development speed and difficulty in developing deep lymphatic vessels (nodes).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.201904104DOI Listing
December 2019

Antagonistic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticle and surfactant on anaerobic digestion: Focusing on the microbial community changes and interactive mechanism.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Feb 9;297:122382. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Dalian 116024, PR China.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic effect of emerging pollutants of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on anaerobic digestion and explore their potential mechanism. The results indicated that at a low inhibitory concentration of ZnO NPs (1.0 mM), the practical co-inhibition was decreased by 24% and 18% in co-existence of 50 mg/L SDS and 300 mg/L SDS, respectively. More importantly, the co-existence of 300 mg/L SDS greatly enhanced methanogenesis of organics in seriously inhibited case (2.0 mM of ZnO NPs). The microbial community analysis showed that co-existed SDS enhanced the growth of Methanothrix, Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium. The antagonistic enhancement could be attributed to the net charge reversal, partially agglomeration of ZnO NPs and/or reduction of Zn release in the presence of SDS. These findings could provide useful information for evaluating the co-inhibition of SDS and ZnO NPs on biological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122382DOI Listing
February 2020

Human papillomavirus infection increases the risk of breast carcinoma: a large-scale systemic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

Gland Surg 2019 Oct;8(5):486-500

Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410000, China.

Background: Breast carcinoma (BC) is a cancer with a high morbidity rate, but the mechanisms by which it develops are never clear. There has been speculation regarding the potential relationships between breast cancer and local HPV infections for some time, and although much clinical research supports this hypothesis, some research results disprove the association. Therefore, the association is still inconclusive.

Methods: We performed the data collection by searching the database PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of science. In addition, 22 sites were added manually. After carefully selection, the pooled odds rate of 37 included case control studies was calculated. Subgroup analysis, publication bias and trim & fill analysis were conducted to make the result more reliable.

Results: The analysis of 37 case control studies containing 3,607 BC cases and 1,728 controls showed obviously increase of BC risk with human papillomavirus (HPV) positive [summary odds ratio (SOR) =6.22, 95% confidence interval 4.25 to 9.12; P=0.0002]. Subgroup analysis proved three high risk HPV types (HPV16, 18 and 33) were positively correlated to BC.

Conclusions: This systemic review and meta-analysis provide the evidence for HPV infection as a potential risk factor in BC, while the mechanism of this hypothesis still needs further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs.2019.09.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842760PMC
October 2019