Publications by authors named "Lan Li"

1,050 Publications

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Light-dependent activation of HY5 promotes mycorrhizal symbiosis in tomato by systemically regulating strigolactone biosynthesis.

New Phytol 2021 Nov 28. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, P.R. China.

Light quality affects mutualisms between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which modify nutrient acquisition in plants. However, the mechanisms by which light systemically modulates root colonization by AMF and phosphate uptake in roots remain unclear. We used a range of approaches, including grafting techniques, protein immunoblot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and dual-luciferase assays to unveil the molecular basis of light signal transmission from shoot to root that mediates arbuscule development and phosphate uptake in tomato. The results show that shoot phytochrome B (phyB) triggers shoot-derived mobile ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) protein accumulation in roots, and HY5 further positively regulates transcription of strigolactone (SL) synthetic genes, thus forming a shoot phyB-dependent systemic signaling pathway that regulates the synthesis and accumulation of SLs in roots. Further experiments with ccd7 mutants and supplementary red light confirm that SLs are indispensable in the red light-regulated mycorrhizal symbiosis in roots. Our results reveal a phyB-HY5-SLs systemic signaling cascade that facilitates mycorrhizal symbiosis and phosphate utilization in plants. The findings provide new prospects on the potential application of AMF and light manipulation to effectively improve nutrient utilization and minimize the use of chemical fertilizers and associated pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17883DOI Listing
November 2021

Transport across two membrane bilayers in E. coli by efflux pumps of different dimensions.

J Mol Biol 2021 Nov 24:167376. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA. Electronic address:

AcrAB-TolC and CusBAC are two of the most well-studied Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family tripartite efflux pumps in E. coli. AcrAB-TolC is a multidrug efflux system, while CusBAC transports Cu(I), Cu(II) and Ag(I). The RND pump complexes span both the inner membrane (IM) and the outer membrane (OM). The long axis dimension of the fully assembled AcrAB-TolC is ∼3 nm longer than that of CusBAC. To probe if these two efflux systems with different dimensions affect each other when they need to work simultaneously in the same cell, two real-time assays were used to monitor the efflux activities of these two pumps and their impact on each other. The results showed that the presence of AcrAB-TolC substrates accelerated the accumulation of Cu(I) in BW25113 but not in BW25113ΔcusBA or BW25113ΔtolC strains. Similarly, the presence of Ag(I) slowed down the Nile red efflux in the parent strain more significantly than in the CusBA deficient mutant. To further investigate the impact of the OM/IM distance on the function of these tripartite complexes, we experimented with strains lacking the lipoprotein Lpp or containing Lpp mutant of different lengths. Data from efflux/accumulation assays and susceptibility tests revealed that mutation of Lpp resulted in functional deficiency of both AcrAB-TolC and CusBAC. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when AcrAB-TolC and CusBAC functioned simultaneously, it took the cell a few minutes to adjust. Furthermore, the presence of Lpp of proper length is important to support full efflux activity of transporters spanning both membrane layers in E. coli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2021.167376DOI Listing
November 2021

Restoring Cardiac Functions after Myocardial Infarction-Ischemia/Reperfusion via an Exosome Anchoring Conductive Hydrogel.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Both myocardial infarction (MI) and the follow-up reperfusion will lead to an inevitable injury to myocardial tissues, such as cardiac dysfunctions, fibrosis, and reduction of intercellular cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, exosomes (Exo) derived from stem cells have demonstrated a robust capability to promote angiogenesis and tissue repair. However, the short half-life of Exo and rapid clearance lead to insufficient therapeutic doses in the lesion area. Herein, an injectable conductive hydrogel is constructed to bind Exo derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to treat myocardial injuries after myocardial infarction-ischemia/reperfusion (MI-I/R). To this end, a hyperbranched epoxy macromer (EHBPE) grafted by an aniline tetramer (AT) was synthesized to cross-link thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and thiolated Exo anchoring a CP05 peptide via an epoxy/thiol "click" reaction. The resulting [email protected] composite system possesses multiple features, such as controllable gelation kinetics, shear-thinning injectability, conductivity matching the native myocardium, soft and dynamic stability adapting to heartbeats, and excellent cytocompatibility. After being injected into injured hearts of rats, the hydrogel effectively prolongs the retention of Exo in the ischemic myocardium. The cardiac functions have been considerably improved by [email protected] administration, as indicated by the enhancing ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and reducing fibrosis area. Immunofluorescence staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results demonstrate that the expression of cardiac-related proteins (Cx43, Ki67, CD31, and α-SMA) and genes (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, vWF, TGF-β1, MMP-9, and Serca2a) are remarkably upregulated. The conductive [email protected] system can significantly improve cell-to-cell interactions, promote cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and result in a prominent therapeutic effect on MI-I/R, providing a promising therapeutic method for injured myocardial tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c16481DOI Listing
November 2021

An MRI-based radiomics signature and clinical characteristics for survival prediction in early-stage cervical cancer.

Br J Radiol 2021 Nov 29:20210838. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, PR China.

Objectives: To investigate the prognostic role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomics signature and clinical characteristics for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the early-stage cervical cancer.

Methods: A total of 207 cervical cancer patients (training cohort: = 144; validation cohort: = 63) were enrolled. 792 radiomics features were extracted from T2W and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). 19 clinicopathological parameters were collected from the electronic medical record system. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis was used to select significant features to construct prognostic model for OS and DFS. Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and log-rank test were applied to identify the association between the radiomics score (Rad-score) and survival time. Nomogram discrimination and calibration were evaluated as well. Associations between radiomics features and clinical parameters were investigated by heatmaps.

Results: A radiomics signature derived from joint T2W and DWI images showed better prognostic performance than that from either T2W or DWI image alone. Higher Rad-score was associated with worse OS ( < 0.05) and DFS ( < 0.05) in the training and validation set. The joint models outperformed both radiomics model and clinicopathological model alone for 3-year OS and DFS estimation. The calibration curves reached an agreement. Heatmap analysis demonstrated significant associations between radiomics features and clinical characteristics.

Conclusions: The MRI-based radiomics nomogram showed a good performance on survival prediction for the OS and DFS in the early-stage cervical cancer. The prediction of the prognostic models could be improved by combining with clinical characteristics, suggesting its potential for clinical application.

Advances In Knowledge: This is the first study to build the radiomics-derived models based on T2W and DWI images for the prediction of survival outcomes on the early-stage cervical cancer patients, and further construct a combined risk scoring system incorporating the clinical features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20210838DOI Listing
November 2021

, a NAC Domain Transcription Factor, Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Kiwifruit.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 2;22(21). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450009, China.

Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch) is suitable for neutral acid soil. However, soil salinization is increasing in kiwifruit production areas, which has adverse effects on the growth and development of plants, leading to declining yields and quality. Therefore, analyzing the salt tolerance regulation mechanism can provide a theoretical basis for the industrial application and germplasm improvement of kiwifruit. We identified 120 NAC members and divided them into 13 subfamilies according to phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, we conducted a comprehensive and systematic analysis based on the conserved motifs, key amino acid residues in the NAC domain, expression patterns, and protein interaction network predictions and screened the candidate gene . In order to study its function, we adopted the method of heterologous expression in . Compared with the control, the overexpression plants had higher osmotic adjustment ability and improved antioxidant defense mechanism. These results suggest that plays a positive role in the salt tolerance regulation mechanism in kiwifruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585034PMC
November 2021

Grape Small Auxin Upregulated RNA () 041 Is a Candidate Regulator of Berry Size in Grape.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 30;22(21). Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450009, China.

Grape () is an important horticultural crop that can be used to make juice and wine. However, the small size of the berry limits its yield. Cultivating larger berry varieties can be an effective way to solve this problem. As the largest family of auxin early response genes, (small auxin upregulated RNA) plays an important role in the growth and development of plants. Berry size is one of the important factors that determine grape quality. However, the gene family's function in berry size of grape has not been studied systematically. We identified 60 members in the grape genome and divided them into 12 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, we conducted a comprehensive and systematic analysis on the gene family by analyzing distribution of key amino acid residues in the domain, structural features, conserved motifs, and protein interaction network, and combined with the heterologous expression in and tomato. Finally, the member related to grape berry size in gene family were screened. This genome-wide study provides a systematic analysis of grape gene family, further understanding the potential functions of candidate genes, and provides a new idea for grape breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584205PMC
October 2021

Study on the molecular mechanism of Guizhi Jia Shaoyao decoction for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis by utilizing network pharmacology and molecular docking technology.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021 1;49(6):16-30. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Third Affiliated Hospital, Beijing, China;

Background And Objective: Guizhi Jia Shaoyao decoction (GSD) is widely used in the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore functional mechanisms of GSD in treating KOA by utilizing network pharmacology-based approaches.

Methods: Candidate components and targets of GSD were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database. NCBI, Genecards, Drugbank, and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) were used to establish a target database for KOA. Then, an interactive network diagram of "drugs-active components-targets" was plotted with Cytoscape open source bioinformatics software. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed and related protein interaction relationships were analyzed based on the STRING database. Gene ontology analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway-enrichment analysis were conducted based on intersected targets. Molecular docking provided an assessment tool for verifying binding of components and targets. It was performed by AutoDock molecular modeling simulation software.

Results: In all, 103 active components were successfully identified, and corresponding 133 targets were searched for treating KOA. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that GSD exerts its pharmacological effect in treating KOA by regulating multiple pathways, such as PI3K-Akt, tumor necrosis factor, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways. Molecular docking analysis depicted that representative components bound firmly to key targets.

Conclusion: This study revealed the synergistic effects of multiple components, targets, and pathways of GSD for treating KOA. This would enhance the understanding of potential molecular mechanisms of GSD for treating KOA and lay a foundation for further experimental research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15586/aei.v49i6.484DOI Listing
November 2021

Diagnostic Value of Serum Procalcitonin in Appendicitis in Infants and Young Children: Retrospective Cohort Study.

Clin Lab 2021 Nov;67(11)

Background: An increasing number of studies have indicated that uncomplicated acute appendicitis can be cured with antibiotics alone. Reducing the hazards of appendicitis in infants and young children is a priority problem. It is necessary to search for potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of appendicitis in infants and young children.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study, including 366 infants and young children treated in the pediatric surgery department, was conducted. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were measured at admission and 24 hours after operation.

Results: The median of PCT, CRP, and WBC in the acute appendicitis group and other diseases group were 1.20, 0.11 - 4.06; 16.50, 0.81 - 76.21; 13.51, 7.53 - 26.30 and 0.03, 0.01 - 0.13; 3.35, 0.92 - 6.33; 14.34, 8.84 - 17.23 at the admission, respectively. PCT and CRP were found higher in the acute appendicitis group than that in other abdominal pain diseases group (p < 0.05). WBC is not a specific indicator for identifying acute appendicitis and other abdominal pain diseases (p > 0.05). In different acute appendicitis cases, PCT and CRP significantly increased in complicated appendicitis (p < 0.05). Data showed that WBC mildly increased in complicated appendicitis compared to acute simple appendicitis (p < 0.05). ROC curves showed that PCT was a specific indicator for identifying acute appendicitis and other abdominal pain diseases, AUCPCT = 1.000 (95% CI, 0.999 - 1.000). The median of antibiotic treatment is 4.0 d (95% CI 3.0 - 5.0) in acute appendicitis with PCT results versus 7.0 d (95% CI 5.0 - 9.0) in acute appendicitis without PCT result.

Conclusions: PCT shows a high diagnostic ability for appendicitis in infants and young children at admission and assists pediatricians in management of pediatric appendicitis. The combination of these biomarkers is highly recommended. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2021.201233DOI Listing
November 2021

Sensitive detection of glutathione through inhibiting quenching of copper nanoclusters fluorescence.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 29;267(Pt 1):120563. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren'ai Road, Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123, China. Electronic address:

A method for a sensitive fluorescence detection of glutathione was established. Glutathione-stabilized copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) were synthesized via a facile process. These CuNCs showed blue fluorescence with a peak around 450 nm. In the presence of p-benzoquinone (PBQ), the electron transfer from the copper nanoclusters to PBQ quenched the fluorescence of the CuNCs. Glutathione (GSH), as a reducing agent, formed a complex with PBQ. This formation inhibited the quenching from PBQ, and a restored fluorescence was obtained. This interaction provided a fluorescence enhancement for the measurement of GSH. Under the optimal condition, linear responses were obtained toward GSH in the ranges of 0.06-6.0 μM, with a limit of detection at 20 nM. This developed assay was easy in operation with high sensitivity and selectivity. The applicability was approved with successful glutathione measurements in real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120563DOI Listing
October 2021

Aptamer-based biosensors and application in tumor theranostics.

Cancer Sci 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

National Center for International Research of Bio-targeting Theranostics, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Bio-targeting Theranostics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Targeting Tumor Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangxi Talent Highland of Bio-targeting Theranostics, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

An aptamer is a short oligonucleotide chain that can specifically recognize targeting analytes. Due to its high specificity, low cost, and good biocompatibility, aptamers as the targeting elements of biosensors have been applied widely in non-invasive tumor imaging and treatment in situ to replace traditional methods. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in using aptamer-based biosensors in tumor diagnosis. After a brief introduction of the advantage of aptamers compared with enzyme sensors and immune sensors, the different sensing designs and mechanisms based on 3 signal transduction modes will be reviewed to cover different kinds of analytical methods, including: electrochemistry analysis, colorimetry analysis, and fluorescence analysis. Finally, the prospective advantages of aptamer-based biosensors in tumor theranostics and post-treatment monitoring are also evaluated in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.15194DOI Listing
November 2021

The Effect of Probiotics in Stroke Treatment.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 28;2021:4877311. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

HuNan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China.

Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the curative effect of probiotics combined with enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with stroke.

Methods: We retrieved randomized controlled trials and case-controlled trials on the use of probiotics for stroke treatment from PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu databases. Retrieval times were from the databases' inception to November 6, 2020. Two researchers conducted a strict evaluation of the literature quality and extracted the data, which were then entered into RevMan 5.3 for meta-analysis.

Results: Twenty-three articles were included, including 1,816 patients. The meta-analysis revealed that probiotics combined with EN did not reduce NIHSS scores of patients with stroke ( > 0.05). However, it did shorten hospital stays and bedrest periods ( < 0.05). Probiotics combined with EN also improved patients' nutritional status and increased hemoglobin, albumin, serum total protein, and physical and chemical properties of prealbumin ( < 0.05). In terms of relieving inflammation, we found that probiotics combined with EN reduced neither high-sensitivity C-reactive protein nor procalcitonin ( > 0.05). However, it did cause a significant reduction in TNF-, IL-6, and IL-10. Probiotics combined with EN significantly reduced esophageal reflux, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, gastric retention, and gastrointestinal bleeding. It relieved intestinal stress and reduced the occurrence of adverse reactions such as esophageal reflux, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, gastric retention, and gastrointestinal bleeding ( < 0.05). In terms of reducing stroke complications, probiotics combined with EN reduced the incidence of lung, gastrointestinal, and urinary tract infections ( < 0.05). It also reduced fatality rates and intestinal flora imbalance rates ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The probiotics combined with EN group's therapeutic effects were superior to those of the EN alone. Thus, probiotics combined with EN is worthy of both clinical application and promotion in stroke treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4877311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8568545PMC
October 2021

Tianma Gouteng Decoction regulates oxidative stress and inflammation in AngII-induced hypertensive mice via transcription factor EB to exert anti-hypertension effect.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Nov 1;145:112383. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Second affiliated hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China. Electronic address:

Hypertension is one of the important causes of cardiovascular diseases, and the imbalance of vascular homeostasis caused by oxidative stress and endothelial inflammation occurs throughout hypertension pathogenesis. Therefore, inhibiting oxidative stress and endothelial inflammation is important for treating hypertension. Tianma Gouteng Decoction (TGD) is a Chinese herbal medicine that is commonly used to treat hypertension in China, and demonstrates clinically effective antihypertensive effects. However, its blood pressure reduction mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we further determined the antihypertensive effects of TGD and revealed its underlying mechanism. We established an AngII-induced hypertension mice model, which was treated with TGD for six weeks. We monitored blood pressure, heart rate, and body weight every week. After six weeks, we detected changes in the structure and function of the heart, the structure of blood vessels, and vasomotor factors. We also detected the expression of oxidative stress and inflammation-related genes. We found that TGD can significantly reduce blood pressure, improve cardiac structure and function, and reverse vascular remodeling, which could be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. We also found that the effect of inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation could be related to the up-regulation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) expression by TGD. Therefore, we used AAV9 to knock down TFEB and observe the role of TFEB in TGD's antihypertensive and cardiovascular protection properties. We found that after TFEB knockdown, the protective effect of TGD on blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in AngII-induced hypertensive mice was inhibited, and that it was unable to inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, our study demonstrated for the first time that TGD could exert anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects through TFEB and reverse the cardiovascular remodeling caused by hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112383DOI Listing
November 2021

miR-151-5p alleviates corneal allograft rejection by activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and balancing Th17/Treg after corneal transplantation via targeting IL-2Rɑ.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Sep;9(18):1410

Department of Ophthalmology, The Affiliated Calmette Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Background: Worldwide, corneal transplantation (CT) is the most common type of tissue replacement and the increased rate of corneal graft rejection (CGR) after CT is a critical problem. Corneal endothelium cells (CECs) are often targets of the immune response mediated by graft-attacking effector T cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying CGR remains poorly understood.

Methods: The differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA of graft-fail corneas were measured by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure gene expression levels. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were used to measure protein expression levels. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to assess corneal graft survival. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used for histopathological examination. CCK-8 and ELISA staining were used to detect cell viability and inflammatory cytokines levels, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and the population of Treg and Th17. Transwell migration and wound-healing assays were used to measure cell migration.

Results: We identified 453 miRNAs and 4,279 mRNAs aberrant expression in the corneas showing CGR. The differentially expressed miR-151-5p and its potential target gene [interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha ()] were selected from the RNA-Seq microarrays. The levels of miR-151-5p and IL-2Rɑ were respectively downregulated and upregulated in the CGR. The luciferase activity assay suggested that IL-2Rɑ is a target of miR-151-5p in 293 T cells. In addition, the miR-151-5p inhibitor, si-IL-2Rɑ, and oe-IL-2Rɑ transfection tests in CECs further confirmed that miR-151-5p downregulation and IL-2Rɑ overexpression promoted apoptosis of CECs and inhibited CEC migration, tight junction-related protein ZO-1 and Claudin-5 expression, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway activity; however, downregulation of IL-2Rɑ abolished the inhibitor effect of miR-151-5p. Similarly, upregulation of miR-151-5p alleviated CGR via activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and balancing of Th17/Treg, and upregulation of IL-2Rɑ abolished the alleviating effect of miR-151-5p.

Conclusions: Upregulation of miR-151-5p alleviated CGR by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and balancing Th17/Treg via targeting of IL-2Rɑ, which contributes to improving the results of CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506781PMC
September 2021

Loss of miR-673-5p expression in the cornea promotes rat corneal allograft rejection by promoting Th17 cell differentiation mediated by JAK2/STAT3.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Sep;9(18):1409

Department of Ophthalmology, the Affiliated Calmette Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Background: Cluster of differentiation 4 positive (CD4) T cells play an important role in corneal graft rejection, especially the dynamic balance between regulatory T cells and helper T cells. This study aims to explore the upstream and downstream regulatory mechanisms of Th17 cell differentiation-mediated corneal allograft rejection.

Methods: By establishing rat corneal allograft transplantation model, transcriptome analysis was carried out to screen the differentially expressed genes related to T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation, and then cell experiments were used to verify the effect of miR-673-5p/Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) signal on naïve CD4 T cell differentiation and the proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, the role of miR-673-5p/JAK2 signal in corneal allograft rejection was verified by animal model in vivo.

Results: The results showed that JAK2/STAT3 signaling activation-mediated Th17 cell differentiation was significantly up-regulated during corneal allograft rejection, and miR-673-5p expression was down-regulated after corneal allograft rejection. Low expression of miR-673-5p promoted Th17 cell differentiation by up-regulating JAK2, and then promoted placental growth factor (PLGF)mediated corneal neovascularization (CNV).

Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that low expression of miR-673-5p is a promoter of corneal allograft rejection. Overexpression of miR-673-5p can improve the survival rate of corneal allografts by inhibiting the differentiation and maturation of Th17 cells mediated by JAK2/STAT3 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506749PMC
September 2021

A DNA Nanoraft-Based Cytokine Delivery Platform for Alleviation of Acute Kidney Injury.

ACS Nano 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Center for Diabetes and Metabolism Research, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Cytokine immunotherapy represents an attractive strategy to stimulate robust immune responses for renal injury repair in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). However, its clinical application is hindered by its nonspecificity to kidney, short circulation half-life, and severe side effects. An ideal cytokine immunotherapy for AKI requires preferential delivery of cytokines with accurate dosage to the kidney and sustained-release of cytokines to stimulate the immune responses. Herein, we developed a DNA nanoraft cytokine by precisely arranging interleukin-33 (IL-33) nanoarray on rectangle DNA origami, through which IL-33 can be preferentially delivered to the kidney for alleviation of AKI. A nanoraft carrying precisely quantified IL-33 predominantly accumulated in the kidney for up to 48 h. Long-term sustained-release of IL-33 from nanoraft induced rapid expansion of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC 2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) and achieved better treatment efficiency compared to free IL-33 treatment. Thus, our study demonstrates that a nanoraft can serve as a structurally well-defined delivery platform for cytokine immunotherapy in ischemic AKI and other renal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c07270DOI Listing
November 2021

In silico and in vivo studies of the effect of surface curvature on the osteoconduction of porous scaffolds.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

School of Aerospace Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Recent evidence shows that the curvature of porous scaffold plays a significant role in guiding tissue regeneration. However, the underlying mechanism remains controversial to date. In this study, we developed an in silico model to simulate the effect of surface curvature on the osteoconduction of scaffold implants, which comprises the primary aspects of bone regeneration. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture a titanium scaffold with channels representative of different strut curvatures for in vivo assessment. The titanium scaffold was implanted in the femur condyles of rabbits to validate the mathematical model. Simulation results suggest that the curvature affected the distribution of growth factors and subsequently induced the migration of osteoblast lineage cells and bone deposition to the locations with higher curvature. The predictions of the mathematical model are in good agreement with the in vivo assessment results, in which newly formed bone first appeared adjacent to the vertices of the major axes in elliptical channels. The mechanism of curvature-guided osteoconduction may provide a guide for the design optimization of scaffold implants to achieve enhanced bone ingrowth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27976DOI Listing
November 2021

A Comparison of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation and Evolution on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic and Disordered Graphite Negative Electrodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Small 2021 Oct 30:e2105292. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Micron School of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA.

The presence and stability of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on graphitic electrodes is vital to the performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the formation and evolution of SEI remain the least understood area in LIBs due to its dynamic nature, complexity in chemical composition, heterogeneity in morphology, as well as lack of reliable in situ/operando techniques for accurate characterization. In addition, chemical composition and morphology of SEI are not only affected by the choice of electrolyte, but also by the nature of the electrode surface. While introduction of defects into graphitic electrodes has promoted their electrochemical properties, how such structural defects influence SEI formation and evolution remains an open question. Here, utilizing nondestructive operando electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EChem-AFM) the dynamic SEI formation and evolution on a pair of representative graphitic materials with and without defects, namely, highly oriented pyrolytic and disordered graphite electrodes, are systematically monitored and compared. Complementary to the characterization of SEI topographical and mechanical changes during electrochemical cycling by EChem-AFM, chemical analysis and theoretical calculations are conducted to provide mechanistic insights underlying SEI formation and evolution. The results provide guidance to engineer functional SEIs through design of carbon materials with defects for LIBs and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202105292DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification and characterization of CD5 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Dev Comp Immunol 2022 Feb 21;127:104301. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Institute of Modern Aquaculture Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Environmentally-Friendly Aquaculture, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China. Electronic address:

CD5 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein acting as a pleiotropic functional receptor in the mammalian immune response system, mainly presents on the surface of cells associated with the immune system, and is essential for the classification of B cells. In this study, we identify a CD5 homologue in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The open reading frame of OnCD5 is 507 bp, encoding 168 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a signal peptide region, a transmembrane region and a conserved portion of the cytoplasmic region. Expression analysis indicates that the OnCD5 exhibits constitutive expression in the tested tissues, with the highest expression in thymus. Analysis of the OnCD5 transcription in the classified IgM and IgM lymphocytes from anterior kidney, spleen and peripheral blood, and IgM and IgM lymphocytes from peripheral blood, indicates that the OnCD5 is highly expressed in the IgM  lymphocytes, especially in the IgM B lymphocytes. Furthermore, the OnCD5 expression is up-regulated significantly in anterior kidney and spleen following challenges of Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae in vivo and in vitro, likewise in IgM B lymphocytes sorted from peripheral blood upon stimulation with LPS. Further, the recombinant OnCD5 protein has the bacteria-binding activity. Taken together, these results reveal that OnCD5 participates in host's defense during pathogen infection, and may play an important role in tilapia B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104301DOI Listing
February 2022

Prognostic value of serological markers of hepatitis B virus infection in squamous cell cervical cancer.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(22):6620-6628. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yunnan Cancer Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Yunnan Cancer Center, No. 519, Kunzhou Road, Kunming 650118, People's Republic of China.

The current study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in squamous cell cervical cancer. Squamous cell cervical cancer patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy from January 2013 to December 2015 at Yunnan Cancer Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Of a total of 277 patients, 12 (4.33%), 93 (33.57%), 2 (0.72%), 25 (9.02%), and 36 patients (13.00%) were seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs), hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg), anti-hepatitis B envelope antibodies (anti-HBe), and anti-hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc), respectively. No patients experienced more than mild hepatic adverse events during treatment. The five-year overall survival (OS) rates for patients with anti-HBs positive or negative status were 85.8% and 66.2% ( = 0.039), respectively. No statistically significant difference in the five-year OS rates was observed in HBsAg positive and negative, HBeAg positive and negative, anti-HBe positive and negative, anti-HBc positive and negative patients. The multivariable analysis revealed that anti-HBs positivity was an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS (HR= 0.279; 95%CI: 0.083-0.936; = 0.039) in patients younger than 50 years. The presence of anti-HBs predicts a superior OS for squamous cell cervical cancer patients aged younger than 50 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.61249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518014PMC
September 2021

Comparative analysis of 0.1% cyclosporin A cationic emulsion and 0.05% cyclosporin A emulsion in murine dry eye cases with different severities.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Dec 27;22(6):1363. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chonnam National University Medical School and Hospital, Donggu, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea.

Dry eye (DE), especially severe DE (SDE), can cause ocular surface defects and reduce the patient's quality of life. Several clinical studies have shown that 0.1% cyclosporin A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) could decrease corneal damage. However, no experimental study has reported the effect of 0.1% CsA CE on SDE. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of 0.1% CsA CE with that of 0.05% CsA emulsion for ocular surface damage and inflammation in the cases of murine DE with different severities. Following exposure to desiccating stress and subcutaneous injection of scopolamine for 5 days, C57BL/6 female mice were divided into SDE and non-SDE (NSDE) groups based on corneal fluorescein staining scores (CFSs). Mice from both groups were topically treated with 0.05% CsA emulsion or 0.1% CsA CE for 10 days. The results demonstrated that 0.1% CsA CE-treated mice in the SDE and NSDE groups exhibited significant improvements in all the clinical and experimental parameters. Furthermore, the CFS of 0.1% CsA CE-treated mice in the SDE group was lower compared with that of the 0.05% CsA-treated mice. In addition, in the SDE group, 0.1% CsA CE-treated mice had significantly lower levels of nuclear factor-κB activation, inflammatory infiltrations and apoptosis on the ocular surface, and they also exhibited higher conjunctival goblet cell density compared with the 0.05% CsA-treated mice. In summary, these findings indicated that 0.1% CsA CE was more effective than topical 0.05% CsA emulsion at improving corneal epithelial injury and decreasing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and T cells in mice with SDE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515563PMC
December 2021

Polyethylene microplastics cooperate with Helicobacter pylori to promote gastric injury and inflammation in mice.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 14:132579. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, 264003, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics provide stable habitats for the colonization and survival of pathogenic microorganisms, and cooperate with microorganisms to pose a potential threat to human health. In this study, polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) in artificial gastric juice time-dependently decomposed and broke into small-diameter PE-MP fragments that were more stable than those in an aqueous solution. Helicobacter pylori adhered to the surfaces of the PE-MPs to form a biofilm. The gastric tissues of mice treated with PE-MPs first and mixture of PE-MPs and H. pylori were positive for H. pylori infection in the 10th and 14th weeks after treatment, whereas those infected with H. pylori first and H. pylori alone were positive only in the 14th week after treatment. PE-MPs were visible in the gastric, intestinal, and liver tissues of mice treated with PE-MPs. The average diameter of the PE-MP fragments in the liver was greater than those of fragments that entered the gastric or intestinal tissues, and the average diameter of PE-MPs in the PE-MPs only-treated mice was significantly smaller than those of PE-MPs entering the intestinal tissues of the other groups. The infiltration of inflammatory cells was most serious in the mice treated with the mixture of PE-MPs and H. pylori, or with PE-MPs first and then H. pylori. Of all the groups, the gastric organ index and MPO, IL6, and TNF-α levels were highest in the mice treated with the mixture of PE-MPs and H. pylori. These results indicate that the interaction between PE-MPs and H. pylori contributed to the rapid bacterial colonization of gastric mucosal epithelial cells, improved the efficiency of PE-MP entry into tissues, and promoted gastric injury and inflammation in mice. These findings suggest that microplastics may provide a stable habitat for H. pylori, and act synergistically with H. pylori to pose a potential threat to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132579DOI Listing
October 2021

High-Performance Waveguide-Integrated BiOSe Photodetector for Si Photonic Integrated Circuits.

ACS Nano 2021 Oct 15;15(10):15982-15991. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Due to the excellent electrical and optical properties and their integration capability without lattice matching requirements, low-dimensional materials have received increasing attention in silicon photonic circuits. BiOSe with high carrier mobility, narrow bandgap, and good air stability is very promising for high-performance near-infrared photodetectors. Here, the chemical vapor deposition method is applied to grow BiOSe onto mica, and our developed polycarbonate/polydimethylsiloxane-assisted transfer method enables the clean and intact transfer of BiOSe on top of a silicon waveguide. We demonstrated the BiOSe/Si waveguide integrated photodetector with a small dark current of 72.9 nA, high responsivity of 3.5 A·W, fast rise/decay times of 22/78 ns, and low noise-equivalent power of 15.1 pW·Hz at an applied voltage of 2 V in the O-band for transverse electric modes. Additionally, a microring resonator is designed for enhancing light-matter interaction, resulting in a wavelength-sensitive photodetector with reduced dark current (15.3 nA at 2 V) and more than a 3-fold enhancement in responsivity at the resonance wavelength, which is suitable for spectrally resolved applications. These results promote the integration of BiOSe with a silicon photonic platform and are expected to accelerate the future use of integrated photodetectors in spectroscopy, sensing, and communication applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04359DOI Listing
October 2021

The Response of Governments and Public Health Agencies to COVID-19 Pandemics on Social Media: A Multi-Country Analysis of Twitter Discourse.

Front Public Health 2021 28;9:716333. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Centre for Digital Public Health in Emergencies (dPHE), Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, information is being rapidly shared by public health experts and researchers through social media platforms. Whilst government policies were disseminated and discussed, fake news and misinformation simultaneously created a corresponding wave of "infodemics." This study analyzed the discourse on Twitter in several languages, investigating the reactions to government and public health agency social media accounts that share policy decisions and official messages. The study collected messages from 21 official Twitter accounts of governments and public health authorities in the UK, US, Mexico, Canada, Brazil, Spain, and Nigeria, from 15 March to 29 May 2020. Over 2 million tweets in various languages were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach to understand the messages both quantitatively and qualitatively. Using automatic, text-based clustering, five topics were identified for each account and then categorized into 10 emerging themes. Identified themes include political, socio-economic, and population-protection issues, encompassing global, national, and individual levels. A comparison was performed amongst the seven countries analyzed and the United Kingdom (Scotland, Northern Ireland, and England) to find similarities and differences between countries and government agencies. Despite the difference in language, country of origin, epidemiological contexts within the countries, significant similarities emerged. Our results suggest that other than general announcement and reportage messages, the most-discussed topic is evidence-based leadership and policymaking, followed by how to manage socio-economic consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.716333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505807PMC
October 2021

Threshold Effect of Foreign Direct Investment and Carbon Emissions Performance From the Perspective of Marketization Level: Implications for the Green Economy.

Front Psychol 2021 27;12:708749. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

China Center for Economic Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Exploring the path and mechanism of marketization level in the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on carbon emission performance will help to maximize the stimulation effect of foreign investment on green and low-carbon development. This study used the panel data of 11 provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2008 to 2016. A panel threshold model is constructed to explore the non-linear relationship between FDI and carbon emissions performance from the perspective of marketization level. The main conclusions are as follows: First, from the perspective of marketization level, a significant double threshold effect exists between foreign participation and carbon emission intensity, with threshold values of 4.4701 and 9.2516 respectively. Second, as the marketization level increases, the technology spillover effect of FDI increases, and the stimulation effect of foreign participation on carbon intensity decreases significantly, but it does not inhibit carbon intensity, indicating that the overall benefits brought by FDI technology spillovers are still insufficient to offset pollution caused by foreign investment. Third, the eastern region of the Yangtze River Economic Belt has crossed the second threshold. In the central and western regions, the marketization process is relatively slow except for Chongqing, and the regions are still firmly stuck between the first and second thresholds. In response to the conclusions of the empirical research, relevant policy suggestions are put forward from three dimensions, namely, the strategy of introducing foreign investment, construction of the marketization system, and environmental regulation, to achieve low-carbon and green development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.708749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8502843PMC
September 2021

p53-Induced Autophagy Regulates Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy Resistance in Multidrug Resistance Cancer Cells.

Dose Response 2021 Oct-Dec;19(4):15593258211048046. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

School of Public Health and Management, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: Multidrug resistance (MDR), a major problem in oncology therapy, limits the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. Although p53 functions as a tumor suppressor, the associations between p53 status, autophagy, and MDR are complicated and conditional.

Method:  In this report, p53-null human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and its MDR phenotype SKVCR and human leukemia cell line CEM and its MDR phenotype CEM-VLB) (p53 mutant cell line) were used.

Results:  Compared to parental SKOV3, the mRNA and protein levels of MAPLC3-II and Beclin1 were higher in SKVCR cells. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA significantly sensitized SKVCR to VCR. Conversely, in drug-resistant leukemic cells CEM-VLB, the expressions of Beclin1 and MAPLC3-II were lower than CEM. CEM and CEM-VLB cells were treated with VLB .01 or 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, and the expression of p53 and autophagy up-regulated after VLB (.01 μg/mL) treatment in CEM cells. The percentage of S-phase and G2/M phase cells up-regulated significantly by .01 μg/mL VLB in CEM, which may relate to the status of p53 of CEM cells. A combination of radiation with 3-MA significantly increased apoptosis in CEM-VLB cells.

Conclusion:  Our discovery found that p53 is an important regulator controlling the balance between autophagy and MDR, as a potential drug target for ovarian cancer and leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15593258211048046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504250PMC
October 2021

Intestinal ulcers in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Oct 11;21(1):372. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Trisomy 8 positivity myelodysplastic syndrome with Behçet's disease is rare. Isolated trisomy 8 is a frequent cytogenetic abnormality in the MDS, but the characteristic of trisomy 8 and the association between trisomy 8 positivity myelodysplastic syndrome and Behçet's disease is unclear.

Case Presentation: Here, we reported a 63-year-old man, who presented with fever, abdominal pain and hematochezia. Imaging studies revealed bowel wall thickening and mural hyperenhancement of terminal ileum and cecum. Colonoscopy found multiple round ulcers in terminal ileum, ileocecal valve and multiple yellow dotted pseudomembranous attachments throughout the colon. Capsule endoscopy also revealed multiple irregular ulcers in lower ileum. Serum C-reactive protein levels and fecal calprotectin were abnormally high. The clostridium difficile toxin A and B was positive. However, the patient's intestinal ulcers did not resolve after two weeks course of vancomycin. Considered that the patient was diagnosed as MDS-RAEB2 with a karyotype of 47 XX, + 8. And detailed inquiry of medical history revealed epifolliculitis and frequently recurrent oral ulcers 2 months before admission. A diagnosis of trisomy 8 positivity MDS with BD was made. Then he received glucocorticoid along with the 5th course of azacytidine. The follow-up endoscopy showed significantly improved intestinal ulcer 2 months after treatment. we report a rare disease and provide the diagnose and treatment ideas.

Conclusions: We highlight the challenges and the process of thinking about of the diagnosis. This may provide a new idea for the diagnosis of intestinal ulcers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01932-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507313PMC
October 2021

Tong‑fu‑li‑fei decoction attenuates immunosuppression to protect the intestinal‑mucosal barrier in sepsis by inhibiting the PD‑1/PD‑L1 signaling pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 12 11;24(6). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, First Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Tong‑fu‑li‑fei (TFL) decoction on sepsis‑induced injury to the intestinal mucosal barrier and the underlying mechanism. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to establish a sepsis model in rats. The post‑surgery death of the rats was recorded to calculate the survival rate. A 4‑kD fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)‑dextran assay was used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of the rats. The pathological state of the intestine tissues was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the ultrastructural changes in the endometrium were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the concentrations of interleukin (IL)‑6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α in the intestinal tissues and cells. The expression levels of SHP‑2 and PI3K were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting. Sorting by flow cytometry was used to obtain pure dendritic cells (DC), CD8 T cells and natural killer cells. Western blotting was used to evaluate the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑AKT and AKT. The results demonstrated that the significantly decreased survival rate caused by CLP surgery was elevated by glutamine (Gln) and TFL treatment. Intestinal permeability was increased by CLP, and greatly suppressed by Gln or TFL treatment. Histopathological changes in the intestinal tissues, such as thinner barrier and atrophied mucosa, and ultrastructure changes such as sharply decreased microvilli and mitochondria dropsy, were observed on sepsis animals; these effects were ameliorated by the introduction of Gln or TFL. The upregulation of SHP‑2, PI3K and p‑AKT induced by CLP was reversed by TFL. The release of IL‑6 and TNF‑α was elevated and the expression of SHP‑2, PI3K and p‑AKT was suppressed in the co‑cultural system of DC cells and CD8 T cells by TFL. Overall, TFL decoction may attenuate immunosuppression to protect intestinal mucosal barrier in sepsis via inhibiting the programmed death1/programmed cell death ligand 1 signal pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8524432PMC
December 2021

Fast thermo-optical modulators with doped-silicon heaters operating at 2 μm.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(15):23508-23516

The 2-μm-waveband has been recognized as a potential telecommunication window for next-generation low-loss, low-latency optical communication. Thermo-optic (TO) modulators and switches, which are essential building blocks in a large-scale integrated photonic circuit, and their performances directly affect the energy consumption and reconfiguration time of an on-chip photonic system. Previous TO modulation based on metallic heaters at 2-μm-waveband suffer from slow response time and high power consumption. In this paper, high-performance thermo-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator modulators operating at 2-μm-waveband were demonstrated. By embedding a doped silicon (p-p-p) junction into the waveguide, our devices reached a record modulation efficiency of 0.17 nm/mW for Mach-Zehnder interferometer based modulator and its rise/fall time was 3.49 μs/3.46 μs which has been the fastest response time reported in a 2-μm-waveband TO devices so far. And a lowest Pπ power of 3.33 mW among reported 2-μm TO devices was achieved for a ring resonator-based modulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.430756DOI Listing
July 2021

Orthotopic Versus Allotopic Implantation: Comparison of Radiological and Pathological Characteristics.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: In experimental animal models, implantation location might influence the heterogeneity and overall development of the tumor, leading to an interpretation bias.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of implantation location in experimental tumor model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological findings.

Study Type: Prospective.

Subjects: Forty-five breast cancer-bearing mice underwent orthotopic (N = 15) and heterotopic (intrahepatic [N = 15] and subcutaneous [N = 15]) implantation.

Field Strength/sequence: Sequences including: T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequence, T2-weighted blade sequence, diffusion-weighted imaging, pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping, multi-echo T2 mapping at 3.0 T.

Assessment: MRI was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after implantation. Native T1, post-contrast T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumors, the tumor volume and necrosis volume within tumor were obtained. Lymphocyte cells from H&E staining, Ki67-positive, and CD31-positive cells from immunohistochemistry were determined.

Statistical Tests: One-way analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation were performed. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The tumor volume (intrahepatic vs. orthotopic vs. subcutaneous: 587.50 ± 77.62 mm vs. 814.00 ± 43.85 mm vs. 956.13 ± 119.22 mm ), necrosis volume within tumor (89.10 ± 26.60 mm vs. 292.41 ± 57.92 mm vs. 179.91 ± 31.73 mm , respectively), ADC at day 21 (543.41 ± 42.28 vs. 542.92 ± 99.67 vs. 369.83 ± 42.90, respectively), and post-contrast T1 at all timepoints (day 7: 442.00 ± 11.52 vs. 435.00 ± 22.90 vs. 394.33 ± 29.95; day 14: 459.00 ± 26.11 vs. 436.83 ± 26.01 vs. 377.00 ± 27.83; day 21: 463.50 ± 23.49 vs. 458.00 ± 34.28 vs. 375.00 ± 30.55) were significantly different between three groups. Necrosis volumes of subcutaneous and intrahepatic tumors were significantly lower than those of orthotopic tumors. The CD31-positive rate in the intrahepatic implantation was significantly higher than in orthotopic and subcutaneous groups. Necrosis volume (r = -0.71), ADC (r = -0.85), and post-contrast T1 (r = -0.75) were strongly correlated with vascular invasion index.

Data Conclusion: Orthotopic and heterotopic tumors have their unique growth kinetics, necrosis volume, and vascular invasion. Non-invasive MR quantitative parameters, including ADC and post-contrast T1, may reflect vascular invasion in mice.

Level Of Evidence: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27940DOI Listing
October 2021

A risk score for early predicting bloodstream infections in febrile obstetric patients: a pilot study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Oct 3. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Department of Medicine, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Purpose: Early prediction of bloodstream infections (BSI) among obstetric patients remains to be a challenge for clinicians. The objective of this study was to develop a risk score and assess its discriminative ability in febrile obstetric patients in a maternal intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: Between May 2015 and August 2020, a total of 497 febrile obstetric patients were categorized into BSI group (n = 276) and Non-BSI group (n = 221) based on the result of blood cultures. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), time of interval from amniorrhea to fever (IFAF) and maximum body temperature (T) were compared between the two groups. All patients were divided into training set (n = 298) and validation set (n = 199). The risk score was established using univariate and multivariate logistic regression from patients in the training set, and its discriminative ability was tested among patients in the validation set.

Results: The levels of neutrophil, CRP, PCT, IFAF and T were significantly higher in BSI group than those in Non-BSI group. PROM, T, neutrophil and CRP acted as independent predictive factors for BSI in the training set. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of risk score for early prediction of BSI in the training, validation set and the whole population was 0.829 (95% CI 0.783-0.876), 0.848 (95% CI 0.792-0.903) and 0.838 (95% CI 0.803-0.873), respectively.

Conclusion: The risk score has a feasible discriminatory ability in early prediction of BSI in febrile obstetric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06269-3DOI Listing
October 2021
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